0715 Preliminary Evaluation of SRI in Fiji for Enhancing Rice Production
2 nd Symposium on SRI Directorate of Rice Research Rajendranagar, Hyderabad – 500 030 Dr. S.V. Subbaiah Principal Scientist (Agronomy) & Head, Crop Production 3 – 5 October, 2007 Preliminary evaluation of SRI in Fiji for enhancing rice production Agartala
RICE IN FIJI <ul><li>In Fiji, now rice is a common food for all ethnic groups and the per capita consumption rose from 64 to 75 kg. Based on last 6 years of import data (2000- 2005), Fiji is importing about 33,720 tons of rice for consuimption on average, costing $F19.55m. </li></ul><ul><li>Between 2005 and 2007, the government aimed to increase the rice production by 7,500 tonnes valued at $F3million by spending $F2.3 million through the Rice Revitalization Program. </li></ul><ul><li>Paradoxically, the contribution of the agriculture sector to Fiji’s GDP has declined for the last several years, from 25% to 12% and the share of Rice to the GDP is very low. Also, the self-sufficiency ratio of rice declined from 65 to 20%. This situation shows that government should take immediate measures to strengthen the rice revitalization to make the country self- sufficient in rice. </li></ul>
Rice Scenario in Fiji Detail Unit 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 Area ha 4,896 7,628 5,140 6,202 5,664 6,076 Production Tonnes 12,239 19,071 12,851 15,504 14,161 15,189 Output value $,000 5,700 6,500 4,400 5,300 5,600 7,595 Farmers No. 7,140 7,140 7,140 5,098 5,098 6,707 Ave. farmgate price $/kg 0.47 0.34 0.34 0.34 0.40 0.50 Import quantity Tonnes 38,619 28,522 27,495 33,955 36,107 37,500 Local product converted to rice equiv. Tonnes 7,343.40 11,442.60 7,710.60 9,302.40 8,496.60 9,113.40 Total imports and local production Tonnes 45,962.40 39,964.60 35,205.60 43,257.40 44,603.60 46,613.40 Import value $,000 16,174 19,231 18,669 18,986 22,338 21,943 Self-sufficiency % 15.98 28.63 21.90 21.50 19.05 19.55
Weather Data (Average of 2001-05), Koronivia Research Station Months Mean Maximum (°c) Mean Minimum (°c) Mean Temperature (°c) Rainfall (mm) No. of Rainy days Humidity (%) January 31.1 22.0 26.6 312.9 21.6 78.6 February 31.1 23.6 27.4 237.5 21.6 79.2 March 30.9 23.6 27.3 355.9 21.6 80.8 April 30.1 23.6 26.9 396.5 23.2 80.8 May 29.2 22.0 25.6 151.2 18.0 81.2 June 27.5 20.9 24.2 190.5 18.2 80.8 July 26.8 20.1 23.5 147.2 17.8 80.6 August 26.4 19.5 22.9 192.3 15.8 79.0 September 27.2 20.0 23.8 205.6 15.2 77.4 October 28.0 21.0 24.6 210.5 15.8 74.0 November 28.6 22.0 25.3 203.6 18.0 76.0 December 30.0 23.4 26.6 294.0 21.2 76.8
Comparison of SRI with ICM and Local Recommended Practice (LRP) Practice SRI ICM LRP Seed quality Certified Certified Certified Seed rate (kg/ha) 5 kg 5-10 40 Nursery Field nursery Modified mat nursery Conventional Seedling age (d) 10 (2-leaf stage) 15 (4-leaf stage) 25 Seedlings/hill 1 1-2 3-4 Plant spacing 25 cmX25 cm 20 cm X 20 cm Random Plant geometry Square Square Random Gap filling Within 7 DAT Within 7 DAT Within 7 DAT Mechanical weeding As recommended --2-3x (10,20 & 30DAT) 2-3x (15, 25 and 35 DAT) Hand weeding twice Irrigation Intermittent irrigation Intermittent irrigation Continuous submergence Nutrient application Organic + inorganic (50:70:70) Organic + inorganic (50:70:70) Inorganic alone (50:70:70)
Performance of Rice (Uttam) under SRI during Main Rice Growing Season at KRS S. No Parameter Farmers method ICM SRI C.D (0.05%) 1 Plant height (cm) 99 100 101 NS 2 No. of productive tillers/hill 189 264 272 59 3 Length of panicle (cm) 23.8 25.4 24.2 NS 4 No. of grains/panicle 163 154 156 NS 5 Grain yield (t/ha) 5.2 7.2 7.1 0.11 6 Straw weight (g) 4.9 5.8 6.2 0.80 7 Harvest index (HI) 51.4 55.3 53.3
National Food Security Mission Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana Area T.P. Area T.P. Target 05-06 06-07 2012 Rice 43.66 91.79 43.7 91.05 102 Wheat 26.48 69.35 28.17 73.70 83 Pulse 22.39 13.39 23.76 14.11 16 Path-Breaking New Programmes to Transform Indian Agriculture
<ul><li>Actual yields are almost at par to achievable yields in high productivity in irrigated ecology </li></ul><ul><li>Technology for breaking yield ceiling has to be generated </li></ul><ul><li>Among the natural resources, water is becoming increasingly critical </li></ul><ul><li>Water-saving technologies to be developed and tested on priority basis </li></ul><ul><li>Cost of cultivation has become prohibitive </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative cost-efficient technologies need to be tested </li></ul><ul><li>Rainfed ecologies, particularly uplands and favourable shallow lowlands, are yet to witness a real yield breakthrough </li></ul><ul><li>Varietal improvement needs greater thrust </li></ul><ul><li>Hybrid rice technology a field reality but </li></ul><ul><li>Hybrids with higher magnitude of heterosis for irrigated areas and hybrids under long-duration group for rainfed ecologies are need of the hour </li></ul><ul><li>Genetic base of the HYVs/hybrids is quite narrow </li></ul><ul><li>Proper assessment and corrective measures urgently needed </li></ul>Brain Storming Session on AICRIP : A Re-look,10 April 06 ( Facts & Tasks )
AICRIP TRIALS ON SRI AT GLANCE (2004 – 06) Year No. of locations Sig. NS SRI ICM SC % increase yield 2004 22 18 4 16 14 4 12 2005 26 22 4 11 8 3 6.5 2006 27 21 6 13 7 4 15
AICRIP RESULTS (04-05) Multi-location trials conducted during 2004 and 2005 on System of Rice Intensification (SRI) method, evaluated in comparison with normal transplanting (NT) and Integrated Crop Management (ICM) methods. Grain yield recorded under SRI was significantly higher under SRI compared to NT at 53% of the locations, while it was similar to ICM at 33% of locations. Higher grain yield under SRI was recorded in diverse soil types, with wide range of soil pH (6-8) under different regions which could be associated with increased number of panicles per unit area, biomass and panicle weight. However, the cultivars used had significant inter-action with method of cultivation at 28% of the locations. Rice hybrids responded better than varieties. Normal transplanting with wider spacing nor SRI method with older seedlings did not enhance grain yield significantly. It is also observed that SRI could be adopted successfully even under late transplanting conditions. Conclusion SRI appears to be more promising in terms of grain yield although gains observed were genotype- and location-specific . Further studies are required to confirm these results.
<ul><li>AICRIP RESULTS (05-06) </li></ul><ul><li>Results of 27 multi location trials show significant variations among SRI, ICM & CRC </li></ul><ul><li>In Southern Zone, SRI & ICM performed better (1-23%) over CRC at CBC, ADT, RNR & MND </li></ul><ul><li>In Western Zone, SRI & ICM recorded (4-7%) higher yield over CRC. </li></ul><ul><li>In Northern Zone, CRC was found better than SRI & ICM methods. </li></ul><ul><li>In Eastern Zone (PTNA, TBR, KNP, RAN), SRI & ICM were superior to CRC. </li></ul><ul><li>In Hill Zone, only at Khudwani, Umiam and Arudhatinagar SRI was found superior. </li></ul>Conclusion It is confirmed that SRI methodology is location- and genotype-specific under same date of sowing and planting.
Target = 3000 FLDs in 14 states Achievement = 2883 (96.1%) Frontline Demonstrations 2005 <ul><li>Technologies demonstrated: </li></ul><ul><li>Varieties (Gitesh – 58% more yield) </li></ul><ul><li>Hybrids (K332 – 65% more yield) </li></ul><ul><li>SRI method of cultivation: </li></ul><ul><li>28% yield advantage, 70% less seed, 30% less water </li></ul><ul><li>Management of saline soils -- important </li></ul><ul><li>Drum seeder – promising innovation </li></ul><ul><li>IPM in rice </li></ul>
<ul><li>Japanese rice cultivation </li></ul><ul><li>V-shaped rice cultivation </li></ul><ul><li>Taiwan rice cultivation </li></ul><ul><li>SRI cultivation </li></ul><ul><li>Integrated Crop Management </li></ul>Emphasis on water management Types of Rice Cultivation
Work Plan/ Strategies <ul><li>Genetic enhancement of food crops </li></ul><ul><li>Improvement for tolerance </li></ul><ul><li>Improve levels of nutrition (Vitamin A, Zn and Fe) </li></ul><ul><li>Fertilizer strategies for farmers & organic farming </li></ul><ul><li>Digital extension service to farmers (ADT) </li></ul><ul><li>Studies on global warming and evaluation of crops under open air (elevated CO 2 levels) </li></ul><ul><li>Modern POPs and GAP for quality & safety </li></ul><ul><li>At all levels, invoke dormant propensity to serve farmers and poverty-stricken people with new technologies </li></ul>
<ul><li>“ Agriculture technology and innovations by scientists outstripped the Malthusian population growth theory in India.” Convincing finding -- that holds good for Fiji too. </li></ul><ul><li>Delineate or identify areas & genotypes that are good for SRI in India. </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage SRI in small holdings with priority for medium/long duration varieties/hybrids. </li></ul>Conclusions