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0701 Experiences with SRI in Cambodia 2000-2007


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Presenter: Koma, Yang Saing

Institution: Cambodian Center for Study and Development in Agriculture (CEDAC), Oxfam America

Subject Country: Cambodia

Published in: Technology, Travel
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0701 Experiences with SRI in Cambodia 2000-2007

  1. 1. Experiences with SRI in Cambodia 2000-2007 <ul><li>By Yang Saing Koma </li></ul><ul><li>CEDAC </li></ul><ul><li>April 2007 </li></ul>
  2. 2. Traditional Practice Technical Practice (SRI)
  3. 3. Background of SRI introduction <ul><li>Cambodia: 14 mill population or around 2.5 families </li></ul><ul><li>Around 85 % in the rural areas, depending mostly on agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>35 % of the population is under poverty line, most of them are farmers </li></ul><ul><li>Around 1.8 million farm-households are rice dependent-households </li></ul><ul><li>Most of household with around 1 ha rice field </li></ul><ul><li>Rice farming mostly under rainfed condition, yield is generally lower than 2 tons per ha </li></ul><ul><li>Intensification of rice production and agricultural diversification are key to improve the livelihood of rice-dependent households </li></ul>
  4. 4. Background of SRI introduction <ul><li>Conventional approaches in rice intensification rely on the developing new or improve varieties, appropriate fertilizer recommendations, safe use of pesticides and irrigation </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers are considered to be recipient of technology transferred by research through extension services, </li></ul><ul><li>This approach lead to increasing dependency of farmers on external support and input, losing the appreciation of the local resources, decreasing self-confidence and self-reliance </li></ul><ul><li>It has become generally-accepted belief that we can get higher rice yield only applying more (modern) inputs </li></ul>
  5. 5. Background of SRI introduction <ul><li>CEDAC was set up in August 1997 </li></ul><ul><li>SRI was developed in Madagascar in the early 80s by a French Priest, Henri de Lalaunié as innovative methods to increase rice production by using existing resources (water, rice plant, soil/nutrient, organic matter) </li></ul><ul><li>CEDAC introduced SRI as strategy of rice intensification in Cambodia after learning from LEISA magazine in 1999 </li></ul><ul><li>First field experimentation farmers and CEDAC director in his own farm in May 2000 </li></ul><ul><li>At the beginning there were a lot of resistance and skeptics </li></ul><ul><li>28 farmers volunteered to test SRI in 2000 </li></ul>
  6. 6. Mr. Mey Som, the first SRI farmer with CEDAC director in 2000
  7. 7. SRI as alternative/innovative system of rice intensification <ul><li>Recognizing that rice plant has great natural growth potential (more than 50 tillers and panicle per rice plant, larger and deeper root systems) </li></ul><ul><li>Focusing on developing methods or management practices that create a conducive environment for rice to unleash its natural potential (to have more roots and more tillers) </li></ul><ul><li>Recognizing farmer’s role in experimentation, adaptation and dissemination of innovative methods and management practices </li></ul>
  8. 8. Tillering potential of rice plant
  9. 9. Root growth and tillering of rice with traditional and SRI methods
  10. 10. Tiller development and root growth of rice with traditional and SRI methods
  11. 12. Difference between traditional and SRI practices <ul><li>Traditional </li></ul><ul><li>Rice field is continuously flooded with high level of water during the vegetative stage </li></ul><ul><li>Seedling is raised with too much water, and the seedling density is high </li></ul><ul><li>Transplanting too many seedlings per clump, mixture of weak and thick seedling </li></ul><ul><li>SRI </li></ul><ul><li>Only minimal water, preferably keeping the soil only moist and dry/wet condition </li></ul><ul><li>Seedling is raised in bed like vegetable bed with lower send density </li></ul><ul><li>Only a few seedlings, but preferably one seedling per clump, only vigorous seedling </li></ul>
  12. 13. Tradition method vs SRI method in nursery and seedling management
  13. 14. Difference between traditional and SRI <ul><li>Traditional </li></ul><ul><li>Old seedling, generally more than one month </li></ul><ul><li>Seedling is uprooted with damage to root and stem, and is kept for one to two days before transplanting </li></ul><ul><li>Seedlings are transplanted with close spacing, and spacing is generally not equal </li></ul><ul><li>SRI </li></ul><ul><li>Younger seedling, preferably less than 15 days </li></ul><ul><li>Young seedling is uprooted and transplanted with care, transplanted immediately after uprooting </li></ul><ul><li>Wide spacing and square pattern or at least line transplanting </li></ul>
  14. 15. Transplanting young seedling with care
  15. 16. Traditional vs SRI method in number of seedling to be transplanted
  16. 17. Difference between traditional and SRI practices <ul><li>Traditional </li></ul><ul><li>Weeding is not early enough, not frequent and regularly (weeding is done when there are weeds) </li></ul><ul><li>Use of poorly decomposed farmyard manure, and dependent on the use of chemical fertilizers </li></ul><ul><li>SRI </li></ul><ul><li>Early weeding and frequent weeding to improve soil aeration (weeding before the weed comes out) </li></ul><ul><li>Application of compost </li></ul>
  17. 18. Early and frequent weeding
  18. 21. How CEDAC introduced and promoted SRI <ul><li>Identify and select interested farmers to be pioneer in testing SRI on a voluntary basis and very small-scale </li></ul><ul><li>In every village, we focus on working with a small group of genuine interested farmers to experiment SRI in a proper way to get concrete results </li></ul><ul><li>Inviting new farmers to see the fields of the experimenting farmers </li></ul><ul><li>Inviting experienced SRI farmers to share with other farmers in the villages and other villages </li></ul><ul><li>Train best SRI experimenting farmers to be farmer promoter, and support them to train and advise other farmers </li></ul><ul><li>Inviting representatives from government and other development agencies to visit and meet SRI farmers </li></ul><ul><li>Provide capacity building support to other to disseminate SRI </li></ul><ul><li>Support the establishment of national SRI secretariat (with Oxfam and GTZ support) </li></ul>
  19. 22. Progress of number of SRI farmers in Cambodia
  20. 23. Area cultivated with SRI methods (in ha, from 2000 to 2006)
  21. 24. <ul><li>Note: Number of rice growing villages: around 12,000 villages </li></ul><ul><li>Number of provinces and municipality: 24 </li></ul>Number of SRI villages and provinces 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 Number of villages 18 122 350 815 1397 2500 2685 Number of provinces 4/24 7/24 11/24 14/24 17/24 20/24 24/24
  22. 25. Benefits from SRI <ul><li>Yield increase from 1.5-1.8 tons per ha to 2.5-3.5 tons per ha (increase of 50% to 150%), with traditional/local varieties </li></ul><ul><li>Some SRI farmers achieve yield more than 6 tons per ha </li></ul>
  23. 26. Traditional Practice Technical Practice (SRI)
  24. 27. Traditional Practice Technical Practice (SRI)
  25. 28. Benefits of SRI for farmers <ul><li>Seed requirement reduced by 70-80%, fertilizers use decreased by 50 % (from 150 kg per ha to 75 kg per ha), and most SRI farmers have given up pesticide use </li></ul><ul><li>Net income from rice per ha has increased from around 58 $US per ha to 172 $US per ha (almost 200 % increase ). </li></ul><ul><li>Under marketing support from CEDAC, increasing number of SRI farmers now market their rice under organic brand, and receive 15 % premium </li></ul>
  26. 29. Change of income earned from rice production ( n=120 farmers, in riel )
  27. 30. Benefits of SRI for farmers <ul><li>Increased self-confidence and self-reliance as they can get higher production by using only their existing resources </li></ul><ul><li>Growing interest among farmers in working on other technical and social innovations (for example saving for self-reliance, joint marketing and joint purchase) </li></ul><ul><li>Enabling farmers to diversify by using rice surplus to feed animal and to allocating or converting parts of rice field for other agricultural production (vegetable, fish, animals, tree planting), from SRI to SID (System of intensification and diversification ) </li></ul>
  28. 31. <ul><li>Concluding remarks </li></ul><ul><li>Consistent positive field results with since 2000 shows that SRI is appropriate option to address problem related to food insecurity and poverty in Cambodia as well as good entry point in rural development </li></ul><ul><li>More works need to be done to reinforce this momentum of SRI development and dissemination so that existing farmers can get more benefits from SRI (higher yield, diversification, higher net income), and all rice farmers in Cambodia and other rice growing region have opportunity to use SRI to improve their livelihood </li></ul>