0636 System of Rice Intensification: Less Can Produce More


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Presenter: A. Satyanarayana

Presented at: 1st National SRI Symposium

Institution: Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University. Rajendranagar, Hyderabad, India

Subject Country: Tamil Nadu, India

Published in: Technology, Business
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0636 System of Rice Intensification: Less Can Produce More

  1. 1. System of Rice Intensification (SRI) - “ Less can Produce more” Dr. A. SATYANARAYANA Director of Extension Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University Rajendranagar, Hyderabad
  2. 2. Modern Agriculture <ul><li>Overly Genocentric </li></ul><ul><li>Productivity gains were possible with increased </li></ul><ul><li>use of inputs – Fertilizers, Pesticides, Water etc . </li></ul><ul><li>They are now giving </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diminishing returns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creating environmental hazards, health risks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rising costs of production </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>More productive in terms of </li></ul><ul><li>- Land, Labour, Water, Capital, Energy, inputs </li></ul><ul><li>More environmentally benign </li></ul><ul><li>More robust in the face of climate change </li></ul><ul><li>More socially beneficial </li></ul><ul><li>- reducing poverty, greater food security </li></ul>21 st Century Agriculture needs to be
  4. 4. Biological power and Eco-agriculture should be basic foundations for soil health <ul><li>Micro organisms and other soil biota as </li></ul><ul><li>creators and maintainers of soil fertility </li></ul><ul><li>Greater attention to plants roots </li></ul>
  5. 5. The basic idea of SRI Rice plants do best when their - roots can grow large because the plants are transplanted carefully at wider spacing and grown on soil that is kept well aerated with abundant and diverse soil microorganisms
  6. 6. The contribution of soil microbial activity need to be taken more seriously The microbial flora causes a large number of biochemical changes in the soil that largely determine the fertility of soil (De Datta, 1981)
  7. 7. System of Rice Intensification (SRI) – a way out
  8. 8. <ul><li>SRI offers increased factor productivity of </li></ul><ul><li>Land </li></ul><ul><li>Labour </li></ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Rice is the most important food crop of India </li></ul><ul><li>Rice has been identified as Growth Engine under vision 2020 of Andhra Pradesh </li></ul><ul><li>The area and production of rice is coming down in recent years due to lack of sufficient water in irrigation systems </li></ul><ul><li>SRI has the potential to meet the challenge by virtue of its capacity to double or even triple the productivity and less water requirement </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>SRI was first developed in Madaskar during 1980’s </li></ul><ul><li>Not known outside Madagaskar until 1997 </li></ul><ul><li>Its potential is under testing in China, Indonesia, Combodia, Thailand, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, India </li></ul><ul><li>In A.P, SRI is experimented all the 22 districts with encouraging results </li></ul><ul><li>Over 1,00,000 farmers are experimenting with this system world wide at present </li></ul><ul><li>Few thousands of acres are under SRI in the very second season in AP </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>SRI Technology uses </li></ul><ul><li>Less external inputs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Less seed (2 kg/ac) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fewer plants per unit area (25 x 25 cm) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less chemical fertilizer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More organic manures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less pesticides </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>SRI is initially labour intensive </li></ul><ul><li>Needs 50% more man days for transplanting and weeding </li></ul><ul><li>Mobilises labour to work for profit </li></ul><ul><li>It offers an alternative to resource poor, who puts in their family labour </li></ul><ul><li>Once skills are learnt and implements are used, the labour costs will be lesser than the present day Rice cultivation </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>SRI encourages rice plant to grow healthy with </li></ul><ul><li>Large root volume </li></ul><ul><li>Profuse and strong tillers </li></ul><ul><li>Non-lodging </li></ul><ul><li>Big panicle </li></ul><ul><li>More and well filled spikelets and higher grain weight </li></ul><ul><li>Resists insects </li></ul><ul><li>Because it allows Rice to grow naturally </li></ul>
  14. 14. Root growth <ul><li>Root growth can be massive in response to SRI practices </li></ul><ul><li>3 hills under conventional method required 28 kg of force to be pulled up </li></ul><ul><li>Single SRI rice plants required 53 kg for uprooting </li></ul>
  15. 16. Tillering is greatly increased <ul><li>30 tillers per plant are fairly easy to achieve </li></ul><ul><li>50 tillers per plant are quite attainable </li></ul><ul><li>With really good use of SRI, individual plants can have 100 fertile tillers or even more </li></ul><ul><li>Because no set back due to early transplanting and no die back of roots </li></ul><ul><li>Maximum tillering occurs concurrently with panicle initiation </li></ul><ul><li>With SRI positive correlation is found between the number of panicles per plant and number of grains per panicle </li></ul>
  16. 22. Rice plant <ul><li>Everybody believe that Rice is an aquatic plant and grows best in standing water </li></ul><ul><li>Rice is not an aquatic plant, it can survive in water but does not thrive under hypoxic conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Rice plants spends lot of its energy to develop air pockets (aerenchyma tissue) in its roots under continuous inundation </li></ul><ul><li>70% of Rice root tips get degenerated by flowering period </li></ul><ul><li>Under SRI paddy fields are not flooded but keep the soil moist during vegetative phase </li></ul><ul><li>SRI requires only about half as much water as normally applied in irrigated rice </li></ul>
  17. 23. Conventional system with more water
  18. 24. Intermittent wetting and drying and Aeration
  19. 25. SIX MECHANISMS AND PROCESSES FOR SRI <ul><li>EARLY TRANSPLANTING </li></ul><ul><li>seedlings 8-12 days old, </li></ul><ul><li>when plant has only </li></ul><ul><li>two small leaves ,before </li></ul><ul><li>fourth phyllochron </li></ul><ul><li>2. CAREFUL TRANSPLANTING </li></ul><ul><li>Minimize trauma in transplanting </li></ul><ul><li>Remove plant from nursery with the </li></ul><ul><li>seed, soil and roots carefully and </li></ul><ul><li>place it in the field without plunging </li></ul><ul><li>too deep into soil </li></ul><ul><li>More tillering potential </li></ul><ul><li>More root growth potential </li></ul><ul><li>More tillering potential </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  20. 29. After 12 days in nursery the plant height is 7.7 inches (18.8cm) Length of main root is 5 inches (12.7 cm) 4 leaves 8 small roots
  21. 34. Diagram of possible stalks of a rice shoot stalks grow following a regular cycle (phyllochron)
  22. 35. Contd.. <ul><li>WIDE SPACING </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>plant single seedlings, </li></ul><ul><li>not in clumps, and in </li></ul><ul><li>a square pattern, not rows, </li></ul><ul><li>25cm x 25cm or wider </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>4. WEEDING AND AERATION </li></ul><ul><li>needed because no standing water; use simple mechanical “rotating hoe” that churns up soil; 2 weedings required, with 4 recommended before panicle initiation; first weeding 10 days after transplanting </li></ul><ul><li>More root growth potential </li></ul><ul><li>More root growth , due to reduced weed competition, and aeration of soil, giving roots more oxygen and N due to increased microbial activity we left in soil; can add 1+tons per weeding? Each additional weeding after two rounds results in increased productivity up to 2 t/ha/weeding </li></ul>
  23. 37. Contd.. <ul><li>WATER MANAGEMENT </li></ul><ul><li>regular water applications to </li></ul><ul><li>keep soil moist but not saturated , </li></ul><ul><li>with intermittent dryings,alternating </li></ul><ul><li>aerobic and anaerobic soil conditions </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>COMPOST/FYM </li></ul><ul><li>applied instead of or in addition to </li></ul><ul><li>chemical fertilizer; 10 tons/ha; </li></ul><ul><li>More root growth because avoids root degeneration able to acquire more and more varied nutrients from the soil </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>More plant growth because of better soil health and structure, and more balanced nutrient supply </li></ul>
  24. 39. Green Manure crop (Sunhemp)
  25. 40. Crop residues
  26. 41. Crop residues
  27. 42. Nursery Management <ul><li>Seed rate 2 kg/ac </li></ul><ul><li>Nursery area 1 cent/ac </li></ul><ul><li>Select healthy seed </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-sprouted seeds are sown on raised nursery bed </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare nursery bed like garden crops </li></ul><ul><li>Apply a layer of fine manure </li></ul><ul><li>Spread sprouted seed sparcely </li></ul><ul><li>Cover with another layer of manure </li></ul><ul><li>Mulch with paddy straw </li></ul><ul><li>Water carefully </li></ul><ul><li>Banana leaf sheath may be used for easy lifting and transport of seedlings </li></ul>
  28. 44. Main field preparation <ul><li>Land preparation is not different from regular irrigated rice cultivation </li></ul><ul><li>Levelling should be done carefully so that water can be applied very evenly </li></ul><ul><li>At every 3 m distance form a canal to facilitate drainage </li></ul><ul><li>With the help of a marker draw lines both way at 25 x 25 cm apart and transplant at the intersection </li></ul>
  33. 49. Performance of SRI in AP- Kharif 2003 1145 3.2-14.3 17 84 Coastal 2504 4.2-16.2 10 40 Telangana 4731 7.8-15.5 6 10 Rayalaseema 1869 3.2-16.2 33 134 AP State Yield advantage (kg/ha) Range of results Yield results > 10 t/ha No. of trials
  34. 50. Performance of SRI in AP- Kharif 2003 (Trials organized by State DOA) No. of trials - 69 Average SRI yield (t/ha) - 8.36 Control (t/ha) - 4.89 State average productivity (t/ha) - 3.87 5 districts averaged over 10 t/ha
  35. 51. Report on SRI Cultivation Name of the Farmer : Mr.A.Jayasurya Reddy Address : Tarimala Village, Singanamala Mandal Anantapur district, Andhra Pradesh Season : Rainy season 2003 Area under SRI : 0.2 ha Variety : BPT 5204 140 150 Duration(days) 8 12600 7110 Straw yield (kg/ha) 7 13297 5850 Grain yield (kg/ha) 6 3.2 19.2 Chaffy grain (%) 5 14.4 13.3 1000 grain weight (g) 4 14.2 15.5 Length of panicle (cm) 3 152 87 No. of grains/panicle 2 706 503 No. of productive tillers/m2 1. SRI Farmers method Parameter S.No.
  36. 52. Report on SRI Cultivation Name of the Farmer : Mr.K.Venka Subba Reddy Address : Konidedu Village, Panyam Mandal Kurnool district, Andhra Pradesh Season : Rainy season 2003 Area under SRI : 840 m 2 Variety : BPT 5204 18000 16250 Cost of cultivation (Rs/ha) 9 15774 5625 Grain yield kg/ha 8 21.1 18.8 1000 grain weight(g) 7 202 105 No. of grains/panicle 6 20.2 17.2 Panicle length (cm) 5 1040 510 Productive tillers/m 2 4 10-12-2003 10-12-2003 Date of harvesting 3 28-7-2003 31-7-2003 Date of Transplanting 2 19-7-2003 22-6-2003 Date of sowing 1. SRI Farmers method Parameter S.No.
  37. 53. Report on SRI Cultivation Name of the Farmer : Mr.Rakesh Address : EdulapalliVillage, Kotturu Mandal Mahabubnagar district, Andhra Pradesh Variety : BPT 5204 Area under SRI : 0.8 ha (*) Only organic manures were applied 8.9 4.7 Grain yield t/ha 7 210 150 No. of grains/panicle 6 20 14 Length of the panicle (cm) 5 40 20 No. of productive tillers/hill 4 5-12-2003 6-11-2003 Date of harvesting 3 17-7-2003 28-6-2003 Date of Transplanting 2 7-7-2003 6-6-2003 Date of sowing 1. SRI (*) Farmers method Parameter S.No.
  38. 54. Report on SRI Cultivation National Seed Project, ANGRAU, Hyderabad Variety : BPT 5204 Area under SRI : 0.2 ha SRI crop matured 10 days earlier 7.1 5.7 Yield t/ha 7 14.4 14.4 1000 grain weight (g) 6 166 162 No. of grains per panicle 5 21.0 21.4 Panicle length (cm) 4 28 10 No. of productive tillers/hill 3 108 114 Days to 50% flowering 2 10 30 Age of seedling at transplanting 1. SRI Farmers method Parameter S.No.
  39. 55. Report on SRI Cultivation Name of the Farmer : Mr.T.Sambi Reddy Address : Bhadirajupalem Village, ThotlavallurMandal Krishna district, Andhra Pradesh Area under SRI : 0.2 ha Variety : BPT 5204 17,500 15,000 Cost of cultivation per ha 8 12576 8036 Grain yield (kg/ha) 7 357 254 No. of grains/panicle 6 30 22 Length of the panicle(cm) 5 42 13 No. of productive tillers/hill 4 13-12-2003 13-12-2003 Date of harvesting 3 1-8-2003 17-8-2003 Date of Transplanting 2 20-7-2003 20-7-2003 Date of sowing 1. SRI Farmers method Parameter S.No.
  40. 56. SRI is counter - Intuitive Less can produce more Younger seedlings becomes larger and more productive Fewer plants/hill and per m 2 give more yield Less water can give greater yield
  41. 57. SRI utilizes Biological Power <ul><li>Rice root system grown under SRI i.e., aerated soil do not degenerate, are much larger and function better </li></ul><ul><li>Soils that are aerated and well supplied with organic matter can support longer and diverse populations of soil micro organisms, which inturn mobilizes nutrients to the plant </li></ul><ul><li>Phytohormones produced by bacteria and fungi living in soils and roots promote root growth and the health of the plants </li></ul><ul><li>Root exudates provide food to microorganisms </li></ul><ul><li>Application of fertilizers and other agro chemicals has inhibiting effect on soil biota </li></ul>
  42. 58. Benefits of SRI 1. Higher yields – Both grain and straw 2. Reduced duration (by 10 days) 3. Lesser chemical inputs 4. Less water requirement 5. Less chaffy grain % 6. Grain weight increased without change in grain size 7. Higher head rice recovery 8. Withstood cyclonic gales 9. Cold tolerance 10. Soil health improves through biological activity
  43. 59. <ul><li>Future needs </li></ul><ul><li>Research to produce different models for different situations </li></ul><ul><li>To promote SRI by way of making information available </li></ul><ul><li>To organise a few demonstrations with farmers participation </li></ul>
  44. 60. Swarna under SRI
  45. 61. THANK YOU