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0623 Participatory Irrigation Management


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Presenter: Ir. Mohamad Hasan

Audience: 4th World Water Forum

Subject Country: Indonesia

Published in: Technology, Business
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0623 Participatory Irrigation Management

  1. 1. Participatory Irrigation Management in Indonesia Lessons Learned from Decentralized Irrigation System Improvement Project In Eastern Region of Indonesia (DISIMP) JBIC ODA Loan Ir. Mohamad Hasan Director of Irrigation Directorate General of Water Resources, Ministry of Public Works, INDONESIA
  2. 2. Irrigation in Indonesia Eastern Indonesia Dry Zone in Indonesia <ul><li>The Irrigated area was 6.7 million ha . In Java, the irrigation area is decreasing at a rate of 30,000 - 40,000 ha annually. </li></ul><ul><li>Irrigation development now focuses on upgrading/rehabilitating existing irrigation systems and improving irrigation O&M performance. </li></ul><ul><li>Total rice production in 2003 was 54 million tons. </li></ul><ul><li>Of this, 85% was from irrigated paddy fields . </li></ul><ul><li>New Water Resources Law No.7 enacted in 2004 defined that Participatory Irrigation Management with empowerment of WUAs and WUAFs is a key policy in irrigation sector. </li></ul>Land Territory: Sea Territory: Population (2003): Ethnic Groups: 1.9 million km 2 8 million km 2 215 million 250 nos.
  3. 3. Irrigation Development in Eastern Indonesia Characteristics of Eastern Indonesia Irrigation Development in Eastern Indonesia <ul><li>Limited water resources </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture-based economy </li></ul><ul><li>Remote location / poor transport infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>Less development / investment in the past </li></ul><ul><li>Government policies to develop eastern Indonesia started in the 1980s. </li></ul><ul><li>Since 1990, SSIMP-DISIMP has continued to play a key role for water </li></ul><ul><li>resources and irrigation development in eastern Indonesia. </li></ul>SSIMP = Small Scale Irrigation Management Project DISIMP = Decentralized Irrigation System Improvement Project in Eastern Region of Indonesia (= SSIMP-IV)
  4. 4. Outline of the Project Project Objective Poverty alleviation by improving agricultural productivity and farmers’ income through water resources and irrigation development / improvement and capacity building in Eastern Region of Indonesia . Performance of the Project (JBIC Loan) Location of Sub-project of DISIMP
  5. 5. Irrigation Improvement in South Sulawesi <ul><li>In South Sulawesi, Kelara Karalloe Irrigation Scheme ( 7,004 ha ) was completed in 1974, and improved by 2003 under SSIMP-III. </li></ul><ul><li>Results of Improvement </li></ul><ul><li>Irrigation Water (m 3 /s): 2.8 > > 6 </li></ul><ul><li>Irrigation Area in the dry season (ha): 800 > > 4,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Paddy Yield (t/ha): 2.5 > > 5.5 > > 8.0 ( SRI) </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers’ Annual Income (Rp. mil./ha): 1.5 > > 5.0 </li></ul><ul><li>Water Management became Efficient and Equitable. </li></ul><ul><li>WUAs became Active and WUAFs Successfully Established. </li></ul><ul><li>As a result, farmers have changed to become happy, </li></ul><ul><li>positive and optimistic, ready to work with Government. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Irrigation Improvement in Bali <ul><li>Subak is a centuries old, self-managed, non-hierarchical and traditional irrigation institution, organized around hydraulic boundaries. </li></ul><ul><li>Subaks engage in multiple irrigation developmental and management tasks, including construction, O&M, water allocation and distribution, based on regulations to define the rights and obligations of member farmers. </li></ul><ul><li>There are 1,700 Subaks (covering whole irrigation area of 85,000 ha in Bali) ranging from 10 ha to 800 ha in size. </li></ul>In Bali, rehabilitation of main irrigation facilities is underway by DISIMP. Existing irrigation institutions in Bali “ Subak ” are not changed at all because it has been well established achieving “participatory irrigation Management” ideally. The key issues on Subak are: Subak Canal System with Dividing Wall Distributor Farmers are Responsible for O&M
  7. 7. SRI (System of Rice Intensification) <ul><li>SRI was developed in the 1980s in Madagaskar </li></ul><ul><li>but became widely known only after 1999. </li></ul><ul><li>SRI is an innovative method attaining higher paddy yields (7-9 t/ha) </li></ul><ul><li>   with lower resources utilization (>40% reduction for water; </li></ul><ul><li>   50% reduction for chemical fertilizer and insecticide). </li></ul><ul><li>SRI is a set of principles for rice cultivation: </li></ul><ul><li>(1) Unique transplanting method </li></ul><ul><li> Single planting of younger seedling (7-14 days) </li></ul><ul><li> at wider spacing (30 cm x 30 cm for DISIMP) </li></ul><ul><li>(2) Intermittent irrigation </li></ul><ul><li>SRI will increase burdens of water management and weeding, </li></ul><ul><li>   but can accepted by farmers owing to a strong incentives from </li></ul><ul><li>   yield increases. </li></ul><ul><li>Note: Application of organic fertilizers is preferable, but is not the “Must”. </li></ul>SRI => Water saving, cost saving, and profitable.
  8. 8. Lessons Learned of SRI under DISIMP <ul><li>SRI was introduced in 2002. </li></ul><ul><li>SRI area will increase to >4,000 ha in 2006. </li></ul><ul><li>Yield of SRI paddy (2002-2005 average) was </li></ul><ul><li>7.23 t/ha, 84% higher than non-SRI of 3.92 t/ha. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Production cost for SRI is >25% less than non-SRI. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Irrigation water use for SRI is </li></ul><ul><li> >40% less than non-SRI plots. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Water saving by SRI will contribute to: </li></ul><ul><li>Equitable water distribution in weir irrigation scheme by introducing SRI in the upstream areas. </li></ul><ul><li>Efficient use of expensive water by dam and pond. </li></ul><ul><li>Cost saving for groundwater scheme </li></ul>SRI area in DISIMP Year 2002: 2 ha Year 2003: 15 ha Year 2004: 365 ha Year 2005: 982 ha Year 2006: >4,000 ha The SRI method offers a strong incentive to strengthen farmer groups through high level of participation .
  9. 9. Procedure to Promote Farmer Participation <ul><li>To distribute project information to improve understanding; </li></ul><ul><li>To offer integrated solutions to irrigation system problems </li></ul><ul><li>To implement PCMs, seminars, workshops and training courses; </li></ul><ul><li>4. To organize WUAs at tertiary, sub-scheme and scheme levels; </li></ul><ul><li>5. To train beneficiaries in the O&M of irrigation facilities; </li></ul><ul><li>To train farmers in modern agricultural practices and introduction </li></ul><ul><li>   of SRI , to improve yields, diversify cropping and increase profits; </li></ul>“ INCENTIVE for farmers” is a key to promote participation.
  10. 10. Unique Approach to Realize PIM in DISIMP <ul><li>Comprehensive Project Management to cover the Whole Project </li></ul><ul><li>Cycle (Bottom up Project Formulation – Implementation – Guidance – M&E) </li></ul><ul><li>under One Management (DGWR + the Consultant) </li></ul><ul><li>Project Continuity made possible by GOI and JBIC. </li></ul><ul><li>Hard – Soft Integrated Approach for project implementation. </li></ul><ul><li>Bottom Up Project Formulation to meet local needs. </li></ul><ul><li>Farmer Agreement in Writing as obligation prior to implementation. </li></ul><ul><li>Intensive O&M and Farm Guidance with New Technology ( SRI ) </li></ul>Participatory Irrigation Management (PIM) can be realized through: Project Formulation Project Justification Detailed Design WUA Formulation Construction SV Guidance (Farm, O&M) Survey / Plan / Study Monitoring & Evaluation Project Cycle Farmer Agreement One Management