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Grassland Management and Livelihood Development in NW China: Some Observations from Agroecology Norman Uphoff, Cornell Uni...
Two Comments I Heard that are Reinforced by Much Experience <ul><li>As much as possible,  use power of nature  (Cheng Shu)...
Two Comments I Heard that are Reinforced by Much Experience <ul><li>(2) The  biological foundations of grasslands   are th...
Two Concerns becoming Evident <ul><li>Climate change  – will probably become  worse  -- </li></ul><ul><li>This has a  two-...
Community-Based  Natural Resource Management <ul><li>Depends on (a)  government willingness  to work out effective system ...
Carrying-Capacity as Concept <ul><li>This has been a central concept for rangeland and grassland management – for decades ...
Less Can Be MORE? <ul><li>I appreciated this suggestion very much – more intensive and better management can pay off </li>...
Cambodian farmer with rice plant from single seed using SRI methods
Roots of a single rice plant (MTU 1071)  grown at Agricultural Research Station Maruteru, AP, India, kharif 2003
SRI field in Cuba--  2003 CFA Camilo Cienfuegos 14 t/ha – Los Palacios 9
Cuba – 52 DAP, Variety VN 2084
Cuba: Rice plants at same age (80 days) and same variety
SRI rice field, hybrid variety, Yunnan province, 2004 – 18 t/ha
Normal 3-S
Liu Zhibin, Meishan Institute of Science & Technology, in raised-bed, no-till SRI field with certified yield of 13.4 t/ha
 
Principles being adapted to other Crops <ul><li>Winter wheat  in Poland;  sugar cane, finger millet  and  cotton  in India...
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0507 Grassland Management and Livelihood Development in NW China: Some Observations from Agroecology

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Presented by: Norman Uphoff

Presented at: COHD Workshop, Yinchuan, Ningxia, China

Published in: Technology, Business
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0507 Grassland Management and Livelihood Development in NW China: Some Observations from Agroecology

  1. 1. Grassland Management and Livelihood Development in NW China: Some Observations from Agroecology Norman Uphoff, Cornell University COHD Workshop, Yinchuan, Ningxia, August 7-8, 2005
  2. 2. Two Comments I Heard that are Reinforced by Much Experience <ul><li>As much as possible, use power of nature (Cheng Shu) </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanical or engineering solutions often favored – terraces, fences as windbreaks, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical solutions also favored – use of fertilizers, agrochemical control, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>These have their place in most strategies – but as much as possible – and increasingly over time – mobilize biological processes </li></ul>
  3. 3. Two Comments I Heard that are Reinforced by Much Experience <ul><li>(2) The biological foundations of grasslands are the fundamental issue (Ma Ming) </li></ul><ul><li>The life in the soil is basic to success – bacteria, fungi, earthworms, plant roots, and other organisms aggregate soil, retain water, mobilize nutrients, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Control erosion , resist effects of wind & rain </li></ul><ul><li>Absorb and use rainfall , make it productive </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain soil fertility – BNF, P solubilization </li></ul>
  4. 4. Two Concerns becoming Evident <ul><li>Climate change – will probably become worse -- </li></ul><ul><li>This has a two-way effect with grasslands </li></ul><ul><li>This makes it even more important that we nurture biological capacities to resist these changes, with: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attention to the growth and health of roots </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attention to abundance and diversity of soil biota </li></ul></ul><ul><li>(2) Uses of regulation and coercion – are often unsuccessful, and even counterproductive </li></ul><ul><li>Should consider alternatives , e.g. rotational grazing, limitations on stocking, local regulation, pasture improvement, etc. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Community-Based Natural Resource Management <ul><li>Depends on (a) government willingness to work out effective system with communities, and (b) local community management capacities </li></ul><ul><li>Some form of local organization is needed, probably combining formal and informal : </li></ul><ul><li>Four essential functions (of all organizations): </li></ul><ul><li>Decision-making for planning, implement, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Resource mobilization and management </li></ul><ul><li>Communication and coordination </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict resolution and management </li></ul>
  6. 6. Carrying-Capacity as Concept <ul><li>This has been a central concept for rangeland and grassland management – for decades </li></ul><ul><li>But it is being reconsidered in some circles </li></ul><ul><li>Too mechanical, too deterministic, </li></ul><ul><li>Not dynamic enough, biology is more variable </li></ul><ul><li>Rangelands/grasslands are renewable resources if managed within appropriate limitations </li></ul><ul><li>More intensive use can be, if managed correctly, more productive and more sustainable </li></ul>
  7. 7. Less Can Be MORE? <ul><li>I appreciated this suggestion very much – more intensive and better management can pay off </li></ul><ul><li>Need strong government and local control so that nobody takes unfair advantage of the resources being created by better management </li></ul><ul><li>In the irrigated rice sector, we are seeing that LESS CAN BE MORE – fewer plants per m 2 , fewer plants per hill, younger and smaller plants, LESS WATER (25-50% reduction), better to use compost (biomass) than chem. fertilizer </li></ul>
  8. 8. Cambodian farmer with rice plant from single seed using SRI methods
  9. 9. Roots of a single rice plant (MTU 1071) grown at Agricultural Research Station Maruteru, AP, India, kharif 2003
  10. 10. SRI field in Cuba-- 2003 CFA Camilo Cienfuegos 14 t/ha – Los Palacios 9
  11. 11. Cuba – 52 DAP, Variety VN 2084
  12. 12. Cuba: Rice plants at same age (80 days) and same variety
  13. 13. SRI rice field, hybrid variety, Yunnan province, 2004 – 18 t/ha
  14. 14. Normal 3-S
  15. 15. Liu Zhibin, Meishan Institute of Science & Technology, in raised-bed, no-till SRI field with certified yield of 13.4 t/ha
  16. 17. Principles being adapted to other Crops <ul><li>Winter wheat in Poland; sugar cane, finger millet and cotton in India; chickens in Cambodia </li></ul><ul><li>Not a technology but rather a methodology </li></ul><ul><li>A set of concepts and principles for </li></ul><ul><li>Mobilizing and capitalizing upon biological potentials that already exist in plants and animals and in the soil – if we understand and manage the soil as a living thing </li></ul><ul><li>Our mismanagement makes it inert, dead </li></ul>

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