Picture provided by Dr. Koma Yang Saing, director, Cambodian Center for the Study and Development of Agriculture (CEDAC), September 2004.
Picture provided by Dr. P. V. Satyanarayana, the plant breeder who developed this very popular variety, which also responds very well to SRI practices.
Picture provided by Dr. Rena Perez of SRI field in 2002 at the cooperative where SRI got its start in Cuba. This field gave yields of about 6 t/ha before. This cooperative has expanded from 2 ha to 20 ha in SRI.
These two rice plants are ‘twins,’ planted on the same day in the same nursery from the same seed bag. The one on the right was taken out at 9 days and transplanted into an SRI environment. The one on the left was kept in the flooded nursery until its 52 nd day, when it was taken out for transplanting (in Cuba, transplanting of commonly done between 50 and 55 DAP). The difference in root growth and tillering (5 vs. 42) is spectacular. We think this difference is at least in part attributable to the contributions of soil microorganisms producing phytohormones in the rhizosphere that benefit plant growth and performance.
Picture provided by Dr. Zhu Defeng, China National Rice Research Institute, September 2004.
Two fields of rice growth with normal methods and 3-S. The phenotypical differences are evident, much as seen with SRI.
This is Liu Zhibin with a plot that was harvested just before my visit, with an official certificate for a yield of 13.4 t/ha. I was most interested in his experimentation with no-till methods and SRI.
This is a picture sent by Thadeusz Niesiobedzki in Poland, of his winter wheat crop that is being grown with single seedlings, wide spacing, use of organic matter, etc. approximating SRI. He hit upon these practices by accident (a long story) and also discovered the SRI internet web page, and saw the similarities between his practices and SRI, thereafter contacting Cornell by email to open up dialogue.
0507 Grassland Management and Livelihood Development in NW China: Some Observations from Agroecology
Grassland Management and Livelihood Development in NW China: Some Observations from Agroecology Norman Uphoff, Cornell University COHD Workshop, Yinchuan, Ningxia, August 7-8, 2005
Two Comments I Heard that are Reinforced by Much Experience <ul><li>As much as possible, use power of nature (Cheng Shu) </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanical or engineering solutions often favored – terraces, fences as windbreaks, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical solutions also favored – use of fertilizers, agrochemical control, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>These have their place in most strategies – but as much as possible – and increasingly over time – mobilize biological processes </li></ul>
Two Comments I Heard that are Reinforced by Much Experience <ul><li>(2) The biological foundations of grasslands are the fundamental issue (Ma Ming) </li></ul><ul><li>The life in the soil is basic to success – bacteria, fungi, earthworms, plant roots, and other organisms aggregate soil, retain water, mobilize nutrients, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Control erosion , resist effects of wind & rain </li></ul><ul><li>Absorb and use rainfall , make it productive </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain soil fertility – BNF, P solubilization </li></ul>
Two Concerns becoming Evident <ul><li>Climate change – will probably become worse -- </li></ul><ul><li>This has a two-way effect with grasslands </li></ul><ul><li>This makes it even more important that we nurture biological capacities to resist these changes, with: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attention to the growth and health of roots </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attention to abundance and diversity of soil biota </li></ul></ul><ul><li>(2) Uses of regulation and coercion – are often unsuccessful, and even counterproductive </li></ul><ul><li>Should consider alternatives , e.g. rotational grazing, limitations on stocking, local regulation, pasture improvement, etc. </li></ul>
Community-Based Natural Resource Management <ul><li>Depends on (a) government willingness to work out effective system with communities, and (b) local community management capacities </li></ul><ul><li>Some form of local organization is needed, probably combining formal and informal : </li></ul><ul><li>Four essential functions (of all organizations): </li></ul><ul><li>Decision-making for planning, implement, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Resource mobilization and management </li></ul><ul><li>Communication and coordination </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict resolution and management </li></ul>
Carrying-Capacity as Concept <ul><li>This has been a central concept for rangeland and grassland management – for decades </li></ul><ul><li>But it is being reconsidered in some circles </li></ul><ul><li>Too mechanical, too deterministic, </li></ul><ul><li>Not dynamic enough, biology is more variable </li></ul><ul><li>Rangelands/grasslands are renewable resources if managed within appropriate limitations </li></ul><ul><li>More intensive use can be, if managed correctly, more productive and more sustainable </li></ul>
Less Can Be MORE? <ul><li>I appreciated this suggestion very much – more intensive and better management can pay off </li></ul><ul><li>Need strong government and local control so that nobody takes unfair advantage of the resources being created by better management </li></ul><ul><li>In the irrigated rice sector, we are seeing that LESS CAN BE MORE – fewer plants per m 2 , fewer plants per hill, younger and smaller plants, LESS WATER (25-50% reduction), better to use compost (biomass) than chem. fertilizer </li></ul>
Cambodian farmer with rice plant from single seed using SRI methods
Roots of a single rice plant (MTU 1071) grown at Agricultural Research Station Maruteru, AP, India, kharif 2003
SRI field in Cuba-- 2003 CFA Camilo Cienfuegos 14 t/ha – Los Palacios 9
Liu Zhibin, Meishan Institute of Science & Technology, in raised-bed, no-till SRI field with certified yield of 13.4 t/ha
Principles being adapted to other Crops <ul><li>Winter wheat in Poland; sugar cane, finger millet and cotton in India; chickens in Cambodia </li></ul><ul><li>Not a technology but rather a methodology </li></ul><ul><li>A set of concepts and principles for </li></ul><ul><li>Mobilizing and capitalizing upon biological potentials that already exist in plants and animals and in the soil – if we understand and manage the soil as a living thing </li></ul><ul><li>Our mismanagement makes it inert, dead </li></ul>