0410 Diversifying Rice-Based Farming Systems in the Southern Philippines Irrigation Sector Project with the System of Rice Intensification

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Presented by: Roger C. Lazaro, et al., SPISP

Presented at: World Rice Research Conference, Tsukuba

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0410 Diversifying Rice-Based Farming Systems in the Southern Philippines Irrigation Sector Project with the System of Rice Intensification

  1. 1. Diversifying Rice-Based Farming Systems in the Southern Philippines Irrigation Sector Project with the System of Rice Intensification ( Paper for presentation in the World Rice Research Conference, Tokyo-Tsukuba, Japan, 4-7 November 2004) Felipe Rafols Jr., Allan Gayem, Ligaya Belarmino, Flor L. Magbanua, Rene Q. Nombre, Joel A. Basiao, Carlos S. Salazar, Edgar F. Tagarao, Elmer T. Nepa, Pacifico E. Calibayan, and Roger C. Lazaro (SPISP Stakeholders: Farmers, Staff and Consultant)
  2. 2. Outline of the Presentation <ul><li>Information on Philippines Irrigation and Improvements-Expectations from the Southern Philippines Irrigation Sector Project in its revitalized PIM&T. </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation for establishing the Pilot </li></ul><ul><li>Techno-Demo Farms with the IAs. </li></ul><ul><li>Some Results todate, Extended Analysis, </li></ul><ul><li>and Future Further Plans. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>SPISP SubProject Location Map </li></ul>Region VI Visayas West Region VII Visayas Central Region XIII Caraga Mindanao Region XII ARMM Mindanao
  4. 4. Climatic Types and Topography <ul><li>In the Visayas the wetter and drier months are quite distinct, and generally the topography is quite hilly. </li></ul><ul><li>In Mindanao, in general, rainfall is almost uniformly distributed thru out the year with flat topographic features. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Innovations Introduced in SPISP <ul><li>Watershed Management : Rehabilitation and Protec-tion to improve water harvesting and reduce (soil and streambank) erosion as well as sedimentation. </li></ul><ul><li>Proportional weirs , in lieu of steel gates, with an orifice provided to pass the conveyance loss, and </li></ul><ul><li>a built-in slit, to assure that no standing water remains within the irrigation canal network and to keep snails, schistosomiasis host, from thriving. </li></ul><ul><li>Canal lining reduces maintenance cost as well as speeds up irrigation water flow velocity that will prevent the snails from hanging around. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Motivation for SPISP, NIA & IAs <ul><li>With water savings, expand the irrigable area, and eventually convert part of the rice land into diversified crop land . </li></ul><ul><li>Ultimate Purpose: To produce enough rice for self-sufficiency requirement and to…. </li></ul><ul><li>Diversify into high-valued cash crops that may provide cash to buy rice elsewhere whenever the production falls below expectation. </li></ul><ul><li>Eventual Goal: Further diversification to include livestock and/or aquaculture farm for extra income- assurance/insurance plus resources for composting. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Options in the Pilot Techno-Demo Farms <ul><li>Margate rice production system, popularized in the Philippines in the 70’s, was simply an intermittent irrigation and drainage scheme. </li></ul><ul><li>Some similarities with SRI, developed in the 80’s, at Madagascar, and now being promoted in Asia. </li></ul><ul><li>Total Quality and Production Management (TQPM) proposed by the Department of Agriculture’s Agricultural Training Institute (ATI) </li></ul><ul><li>Features : Water savings of up to 50% while crop yield could be at least double from present yield with continuously basin flooded irrigation. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Margate Monument Dipolog, Zamboanga, Mindanao Courtesy of Mr. Mike D. Lopez 30 years ago
  9. 9. SRI from Madagascar <ul><li>A Jesuit priest, Father Henri de Laulanié, in Madagascar is considered the SRI developer helped launch the not-for-profit organization, ‘Association Tefy Saina’ meaning &quot;to improve the mind.&quot; </li></ul>20 years ago From 1 plant
  10. 10. SRI Yields in Mindanao SPs <ul><li>In Mindanao, at a one-ha. techno-demo farm established at the CARAGA Regional Irrigation Manager’s personal farm with poultry waste, used as a major component of self-produced, organic matter. </li></ul><ul><li>The Mestizo PSBRC 72H Hybrid rice variety grown the SRI way yield 8.90 t/ha on a 40 x 40-cm. grid plant spacing. </li></ul><ul><li>In Gibong Right Bank Subproject at the Caraga Region of Mindanao the Farmer-President of the Federation of IAs joined in following the first SRI pilot techno-demo farm. </li></ul><ul><li>The SRI Inbred IR64 rice variety gave a 7.50 t/ha yield in a 35 x 35-cm plant spacing compared to 4.59 t/ha from a hybrid PSB RC 72H rice planted at usual random spacing. </li></ul>
  11. 11. SRI Results in SPISP, Mindanao 1 st Trial 2 nd Trial N.A. 23,500 4.59 Random HyB72H Gibong ditto 6.50 25 x 25 InBIR64 ditto 38,482 7.50 35 x 35 ditto 6.80 45 x 45 ~45-73% 42,000 8.90 40 x 40 HyB72H Caraga Water Saved Net P/ha Income Yield tonsha -1 Spacing cm x cm Rice Variety Sub-Project Area
  12. 12. SRI Yields at the Visayas SPs <ul><li>In the Visayas Barangay Balicotoc, an originally rainfed area supplied with irrigation pump, the Inbred C64 rice variety was grown the SRI way </li></ul><ul><li>Yield was 7.33 t/ha from 35 x 35-cm plant spacing surpassing the 3.67 t/ha yield from 10 x 30-cm spacing from the Total Quality & Productivity Management (TQPM) approach with a booster chemical fertilizer. </li></ul><ul><li>Also in the Visayas in Magballo Communal Irrigation System, SRI growers used registered PSB RC18 rice variety. </li></ul><ul><li>The yields ranged from 2.83 – 5.50 tons/ha (the highest from 40 x 40-cm plant spacing), these were slightly lower than the first attempt and attributed to possible toxicity build-up from long years of chemical fertilizer and pesticide use. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Total Quality & Productivity Management (TQPM) vs SRI <ul><li>TQPM is similar to SRI with booster inorganic/chemical fertilizer until the organic fertilizers has enhanced the micro-organism population in the soil community. </li></ul><ul><li>The TQPM pilot techno-demo plots did show a quick initial response from the chemical fertilizer with very dark green leaves but </li></ul><ul><li>SRI plots with organic fertilizer that initially showed yellowing leaves eventually prevailed. </li></ul>
  14. 14. TQPM (left) & SRI (Right) Booster effect obvious Lighter color start
  15. 15. SRI Results in SPISP-Visayas 1/2 ~ 38 % 6,443 2.70 Random PSBRC 18 Magballo ~ 68 % 6,641 2.83 35 x 17.5 Hernanie Communal ~ 68 % 7,521 3.04 35 x 35 Domingo Irrigation ~ 71% 15,972 4.30 35 x 35 J.E. Caldito System ~ 61 % 10,757 4.73 30 x 30 Anselma 2004 Dry Season 3 rd Attempt ~ 61 % 15,931 5.54 40 x 40 Colendres 7,592 2.66 Random InbredC64 Balicotoc 11,130 3.66 10 x 30 TQPM Rainfed but ~ 71 % 26,512 7.33 35 x 35 SRI Pump Assisted Water Saved Net P/ha Income Yield Tonsha -1 Spacing cm x cm Variety/ Cooperator Sub-Pro-ject Area 6.6 –16.0k 2.83-5.54 Range 2003 Wet Season 1 st Attempt
  16. 16. Soil Test Results at Balicotoc & Magballo SRI Test Sites
  17. 17. SRI Results in SPISP-Visayas 2/2 12.7 – 27.9 k 3.46 – 5.60 Range Jun – Oct ‘04 Dry Season 5th Attempt N.A. 13,369 4.92 25 x 25 J.E. Caldito Magballo 15,531 4.81 25 x 25 A. Collendres Communal 6,157 3.54 25 x 25 H. Domingo Irrigation 20,623 4.61 Average 11,686 4.24 Average N.A. 12,705 3.46 35 x 35 J. Tubola Magballo 21,286 4.76 35 x 35 R. Abelida Communal 27,878 5.60 30 x 30 A. Gilvero Irrigation Water Saved Net P/ha Income Yield Tons/Ha Spacing cm x cm Season/ Cooperator Sub-Project Area 6.1 –15.5 k 3.54 – 4.92 Range May – Jun ’04 Wet Season 4th Attempt
  18. 18. 1 st SRI Results Pilot Techno-Demo Farms at Balicotoc, the Visayas Schemes 1/2 Farmers Practice Random 1 Ha. 66.30 2.65 18,540 10,948 (1.69) 7,592 TQPM Techno- Demo 10 x 30 200 m ² 0.02 Ha. 91.50 3.66 27,450 16,320 (1.68) 11,130 10 x 40 200 m ² 0.02 Ha. 75.00 3.00 22,500 15,436 (1.46) 7,064 SRI Techno- Demo 25 x 25 35 x 35 45 x 45 133 m ² 0.013 Ha. 125.00 5.00 37,500 29,865 (1.26) 7,634 133 m ² 0.013 Ha. 183.33 7.33 54,999 28,487 (1.93) 26,512 133 m ² 0.013 Ha. 154.18 6.17 46,254 26,645 (1.74) 19,609 Profitability (*.**) = Gross Income/Expenses) Net Income Expenses PhP/Ha. Gross Income Production (Sacks: Tons ) Land Area Spacing cm x cm Practices
  19. 19. 2 nd SRI Results at Magballo CIS, the Visayas SPs 2004 2/2
  20. 20. Productivity/ProfitabilityAnalysis: SRI & TQPM in SPISP
  21. 21. Productivity & Profitability Comparative Analysis with SRI in Sri Lanka Namara, R. E, et.al. (2003) Prospects for Adopting System of Rice Intensification in Sri Lanka: A Socioeconomic Assessment. International Water Management Institute, Kandy, Sri Lanka,. Report No. 75 Profitability= Gross Income/GrossExpense
  22. 22. Updated Summary of Results:Oct.04 1/2
  23. 23. Updated Summary of Results:Oct.04 2/2
  24. 24. What is Next in the Immediate Future? <ul><li>SPISP is already at the System Management and Agricultural Development Plan Implementation Phase in the three core subprojects. </li></ul><ul><li>The plan to extend the experiences of SRI to other Visayas SubProjects is expected soonest and a wider application of the Pilot Techno-Demo results is already on the drawing board. </li></ul><ul><li>The socio-institutional aspects would also then be considered, focusing on adoption and dis-adoption rates cited in Namara, et. al. (2003) and </li></ul><ul><li>Maybe a randomized complete block research if only to convince the unbelieving partners. </li></ul>
  25. 25. That is all Folks! Thank you for your patience.
  26. 26. Effective Rain vs Evapotranspiration Water Balances in the Major Islands of the Philippines and at SPISP’s Sub-Projects Obtained with FAO’s WATPOW & CLIMWAT Computer Program
  27. 27. Philippine Irrigation Statistics-2003 est. 2.00 ave. (100%) 3,130,000 Potentially Irrigable Hectare 3.70 ave. 100 ( 43%) 1,354,000 10,892 Total Irrigable 13 147,000 4,000 Pump Lift 104 36 490,000 6,700 Communal 137 51 690,000 192 National % Crop Intensity Tons/ha Yield Per Cent Of Total Area, ha. Served Number Counted Irrigation System
  28. 28. SRI Subproject(SP) Sites’ Statistics 197 806 738 772 Can-asujan SRIP, Cebu Island 181 872 458 737 Visayas: Magballo SP, NeOcc 200 380 4,786 2,583 Mindanao:Gibong RB, SP, Caraga Cropping Intensity % Diversified Crops Ha. Rice Crop Ha. Service Area Ha. Initial Pilot SRI Sites
  29. 29. Proportional Weirs with an Orifice to pass on Conveyance Loss and a Slit to avoid standing water collecting upstream Can-asujan SP Cebu, The Visayas Gibong RB Core SP, Mindanao Proportionate Share Maintain Uniform Water Levels Schistosomiasis Unfriendly
  30. 30. Comparative Mean Values of ET, P and Total Water Requirements (WR) Mao Zhi. (1996) Environmental impact of water saving irrigation for rice. In: M.Smith, L. S.Pereira, Eds, Irrigation scheduling: From theory to practice. Proc. of the ICID/FAO workshop on irrigation scheduling. 12-13 Sep. 1995; Rome (Italy). P141-146. 422 346 (67%) 67 Difference 858 169 689 Water Saving (SRI) 1,280 515 765 Conventional Flooding Totals WR, mm Percolation, P , mm E vapo T rans- piration, mm Irrigation technique

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