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HEALTH PROGRAMMES IN INDIA
SREESHNA KRISHNA KC
HMS051525
UNIVERSAL IMMUNIZATION PROGRAMME
 In 1974 WHO launched Expanded Programme on Immunization
against 6 most common vaccine preventable diseases.
 Polio, Diphtheria, Pertussis, Tetanus, TB, Measles
 1985- Universal Child Immunisation.
 Goal- to achieve universal immunisation by 1990
 1978 the govt of India launched EPI
Objectives
• Reducing the mortality and morbidity resulting from vaccine-preventable diseases of
childhood
• To achieve self-sufficiency in the production of vaccines
 1985-UIP
2 vital components
 Immunisation of pregnant woman against tetanus
 Immunisation of children in their first year against 6 diseases
• The aim was to achieve 100% coverage of pregnant women with
2 doses of tetanus toxoid (or a booster dose), and at least 85%
coverage of infants with 3 doses each of DPT, OPV, one dose of
BCG and one dose of measles vaccine by 1990.
PULSE POLIO IMMUNISATION PROGRAMME
 Launched in 1995
 children under 5yrs of age are given additional oral polio drops
in dec and jan every yr on fixed dates
 From 1999-2000 H-H vaccination of missed children was
introduced
 2011- one case
 25th –feb-2012- India was removed from the list of polio
endemic countries
 27th-Mar-2014- polio free country
INTRODUCTION OF HEPATITIS-B VACCINE
• 2010-2011 India universalized hepatitis B vaccine was to all
States/UTs in the country
• Monovalent hepatitis B vaccine is given as intramascular
injection to the infant at 6th , 10th and 14th week along with
primary series of DPT and polio vaccines
• One dose at birth within 24 hours
INTRODUCTION TO JAPANESE ENCEPHALITIS VACCINE
• In 2006
• Single dose for 1to 15yrs old children
INTRODUCTION OF MEASLES VACCINE SECOND
OPPORTUNITY
• The National Technical Advisory Group on immunisation
recommended introduction to 2nd dose of measles vaccine to
children b/w 9 month and 10 yrs of age through SIA for states
where evaluated coverage of first dose of measles vaccination is
less than 80%.
• Other states (more than 80%) given through routine
immunisation at 16-24
INTRODUCTION OF PENTAVALENT VACCINE
• In 2011- DPT, Hepatitis B and Hib vaccine through RIP
• DPT and Hep-B -6 doses
• Hib 3 doses
MISSION INDRADHANUSH
• Launched on 25th Oct 2014
• To cover children who are either unvaccinated
or partially vaccinated against seven vaccine
preventable diseases
• Goal- to vaccinate all children under 5 yrs of
age by 2020
NATIONAL HEALTH MISSION
• May 2013
• Aim – health system strengthening in rural and urban areas;
Reproductive- Maternal-Newborn-Child and Adolescent health
(RMNCH+A); and control of communicable and non
communicable diseases
• Two subsystem NRHM & NUHM
NATIONAL CANCER CONTROL PROGRAMME
• 2-2.5 million cancer patient in India
• 0.7 million new cases and nearly half die every year
• 1975 -launched NCCP
• Revised its strategies in 1984-85 stressing on primary prevention
and early detection of cancer
Goals
 The primary prevention of tobacco related cancer
 2ndary prevention of cancer of the uterine, cervix, mouth, breast
etc
 Tertiary prevention includes extension and strengthening of
therapeutic services
• Regional Cancer Research And Treatment Centres
• Oncology Wings Of Medical Colleges
• District Cancer Control Programme- 1990-91
• Comprehensive Anti-tobacco Programme
• National Cancer Registry Programme
REPRODUCTIVE AND CHILD HEALTH PROGRAMMES
Historical Background
• 1952- National Family Planning Programme
• 1977- National Family Welfare Programme
• 1985- Universal Immunization Programme
• 1992- Child Survival And Safe Motherhood
Programme
• 1997- RCH (Phase-1)
• 2005- RCH (Phase-11)
RCH Programme - I
Reproductive and child health approach has been defined as
“People have the ability to reproduce and regulate
their fertility, women are able to go through pregnancy and
child birth safety, the outcome of pregnancies is successful
in terms of maternal and infant survival and wellbeing and
couples are able to have sexual relations free of fear of
pregnancies and of contracting diseases”.
RCH Programme - I
• Immediate Objective- To promote health of
mother and children.
• Intermediate Objective- To reduce IMR and
MMR.
• Ultimate Objective- Population Stabilization
RCH Programme - I
Intervention / Strategies:-
• Prevention & Management of unwanted
pregnancies
• Maternal Care
• Child Survival
• Prevention & Management of RTIs & STIs
• Prevention of HIV / AIDs
RCH Programme - I
Management Strategies :-
• Bottom- up Planning
• Decentralized Training
• Management information and Evaluation
System (MIES) $
• IEC and Community Participation
MAJOR INTERVENTIONS
 Essential obstetric care
 Emergency obstetric care
 24 hours delivery services at PHCs / CHCs
 Medical termination of pregnancies
 Control of RTIs and STDs
 Immunisation
 Essential newborn care
 Diarrhoeal disease control
 Acute respiratory disease control
Preventive and control of vitamin A deficiency in
children
Prevention and control of anaemia in children
Introduction of Hepatitis B vaccination
RCH Programme - II
• Began 1st April 2005
AIM
• To reduce Infant Mortality Rate (IMR),
Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR), Total
Fertility Rate (TFR), To increase Couple
Protection Rate (CPR), and Immunization
coverage, specially in rural areas.
RCH Programme – II
Objectives
1.Reduction of Maternal Morbidity and Mortality
2. Reduction of Infant Morbidity and Mortality
3. Reduction of Under 5 Morbidity and Mortality
4. Promotion of Adolescent Health
5. Control of Reproductive Tract Infections and
Sexually Transmitted Infections.
Components of RCH-II
• Population Stabilization
• Maternal Health
• Newborn Care and Child Health
• Adolescent Health
• Control of RTIs / STIs
• Urban and Tribal Health
• Monitoring and Evaluation
Components of RCH-II
Maternal Health- Strategies
Essential Obstetrical Care
• Three or More Checkups
• Two doses of TT
• IFA Tablet
• Counseling
Emergency Obstetrical Care
• First Referral Unit
New Born Care and Child Health
Objectives
• Skilled care at birth
• Package of preventive, promotive and curative
intervention
• Strengthen IMNCI (Integrated Management of
Neonatal and Childhood Illness) services
JANANI SURAKSHA YOJANA (JSY)
o Launched on 12th April 2005
o Objectives:
Reducing maternal mortality and infant mortality
through encouraging delivery at health institutions and
focusing at institutional care among women in below
poverty line families
JANANI SHISHU SURAKSHA KARYAKRAM (JSSK)
o Launched on 1st June 2011
o A new national initiative to make available better health
facilities for women and child
Rashtriya Bal Swasthya Karyakram(RBSK)
• It is an important initiative aiming at early identification
and early intervention for children from birth to 18
years to cover 4 ‘D’s viz. Defects at birth, Deficiencies,
Diseases, Development delays including disability.
Navjat Shishu Suraksha Karyakram (NSSK)
• It has been launched to address care at birth issue i,e
prevention of hypothermia, prevention of infection,
early initiation of breast feeding and basic newborn
resuscitation.
NATIONAL FAMILY WELFARE PROGRAMME
• Launched in 1951
AIM
• To achieve a higher end that is to improve the quality of the life
of the people.
Objective
• reduce the birth rate to the extent necessary to stabilize the population at
a level consistent with the requirement of the national economy
• The department of Family welfare undertook many pilot activities for
implementation of the family welfare program to meet the needs of
women who are at risk of unwanted births and has assisted the country to
accelerate fertility decline.
•
CONCEPT
• The term “family welfare” is in much broader in scope
then “family Planning” . The concept of welfare is
• basically related to “quality of life”. It includes –
CONCEPT OF
FW
EDUCATION
SAFE DRINKING
WATER
EMPLOYMENT
WOMEN ‘S WELFARE
FAMILY PLANNING
CLIENT CENTERD
APPROACH
PREVENTION &
TREATMENT OF
MAJOR DISEASES
MCH & RCH
SERVICES
IMPACT OF FAMILY WELFARE ACTIVITIES
 Nearly 98% of women and 99% of men in the age group of 15 and 49
have a good knowledge about one or more methods of contraception.
Adolescents seem to be well aware of the modern methods of
contraception.
 Over 97% of women and 95% of men are knowledgeable about
female sterilization, which is the most popular modern permanent
method of family planning. While only 79% of women and 80% of
men have heard about male sterilization.
 93% of men have awareness about the usage of condoms while only
74% of women are aware of the same.
 Around 80% of men and women have a fair knowledge about
contraceptive pills.
MINIMUM NEEDS PROGRAMME
• Minimum Needs Programme (India) was introduced during the 5th
Five year plan to provide the basic needs of people so as to improve
their living standards
Components:
– Rural health
– Water supply
– Rural electrification
– Nutrition
– Elementary education
– Adult education
– Improving status of urban slums
– Houses for landless workers
Principles:
– It should first be implemented in areas which deserves it the
most
– All the aspects of the program should be implemented as a
package deal with intersectoral coordination
20- POINT PROGRAMME
• Initiated 1975
• Described as an agenda for national action to promote social
justice and economic growth
• On Aug 20, 1986 the existing 20- point programme was
restructured. Its objectives are spelt out by the government as
“eradication of poverty, raising productivity, reducing
inequalities, removing social and economic disparities and
improving the quality of life”
At least 8 of the 20 points are related directly or indirectly to
health. These are
Point 1- Attack on rural poverty
Point 7 – Clean drinking water
Point 8 – Health for all
Point 9 – Two child norm
Point 10 – Expansion of education
Point 14 – Housing for the people
Point 15 – Improvement of slums
Point 17 – Protection of the environment
THANK YOU

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Health programmes in india

  • 1. HEALTH PROGRAMMES IN INDIA SREESHNA KRISHNA KC HMS051525
  • 2. UNIVERSAL IMMUNIZATION PROGRAMME  In 1974 WHO launched Expanded Programme on Immunization against 6 most common vaccine preventable diseases.  Polio, Diphtheria, Pertussis, Tetanus, TB, Measles  1985- Universal Child Immunisation.  Goal- to achieve universal immunisation by 1990  1978 the govt of India launched EPI Objectives • Reducing the mortality and morbidity resulting from vaccine-preventable diseases of childhood • To achieve self-sufficiency in the production of vaccines  1985-UIP 2 vital components  Immunisation of pregnant woman against tetanus  Immunisation of children in their first year against 6 diseases
  • 3. • The aim was to achieve 100% coverage of pregnant women with 2 doses of tetanus toxoid (or a booster dose), and at least 85% coverage of infants with 3 doses each of DPT, OPV, one dose of BCG and one dose of measles vaccine by 1990. PULSE POLIO IMMUNISATION PROGRAMME  Launched in 1995  children under 5yrs of age are given additional oral polio drops in dec and jan every yr on fixed dates  From 1999-2000 H-H vaccination of missed children was introduced  2011- one case  25th –feb-2012- India was removed from the list of polio endemic countries  27th-Mar-2014- polio free country
  • 4. INTRODUCTION OF HEPATITIS-B VACCINE • 2010-2011 India universalized hepatitis B vaccine was to all States/UTs in the country • Monovalent hepatitis B vaccine is given as intramascular injection to the infant at 6th , 10th and 14th week along with primary series of DPT and polio vaccines • One dose at birth within 24 hours INTRODUCTION TO JAPANESE ENCEPHALITIS VACCINE • In 2006 • Single dose for 1to 15yrs old children
  • 5. INTRODUCTION OF MEASLES VACCINE SECOND OPPORTUNITY • The National Technical Advisory Group on immunisation recommended introduction to 2nd dose of measles vaccine to children b/w 9 month and 10 yrs of age through SIA for states where evaluated coverage of first dose of measles vaccination is less than 80%. • Other states (more than 80%) given through routine immunisation at 16-24 INTRODUCTION OF PENTAVALENT VACCINE • In 2011- DPT, Hepatitis B and Hib vaccine through RIP • DPT and Hep-B -6 doses • Hib 3 doses
  • 6. MISSION INDRADHANUSH • Launched on 25th Oct 2014 • To cover children who are either unvaccinated or partially vaccinated against seven vaccine preventable diseases • Goal- to vaccinate all children under 5 yrs of age by 2020
  • 7.
  • 8. NATIONAL HEALTH MISSION • May 2013 • Aim – health system strengthening in rural and urban areas; Reproductive- Maternal-Newborn-Child and Adolescent health (RMNCH+A); and control of communicable and non communicable diseases • Two subsystem NRHM & NUHM
  • 9. NATIONAL CANCER CONTROL PROGRAMME • 2-2.5 million cancer patient in India • 0.7 million new cases and nearly half die every year • 1975 -launched NCCP • Revised its strategies in 1984-85 stressing on primary prevention and early detection of cancer Goals  The primary prevention of tobacco related cancer  2ndary prevention of cancer of the uterine, cervix, mouth, breast etc  Tertiary prevention includes extension and strengthening of therapeutic services
  • 10. • Regional Cancer Research And Treatment Centres • Oncology Wings Of Medical Colleges • District Cancer Control Programme- 1990-91 • Comprehensive Anti-tobacco Programme • National Cancer Registry Programme
  • 11. REPRODUCTIVE AND CHILD HEALTH PROGRAMMES
  • 12. Historical Background • 1952- National Family Planning Programme • 1977- National Family Welfare Programme • 1985- Universal Immunization Programme • 1992- Child Survival And Safe Motherhood Programme • 1997- RCH (Phase-1) • 2005- RCH (Phase-11)
  • 13. RCH Programme - I Reproductive and child health approach has been defined as “People have the ability to reproduce and regulate their fertility, women are able to go through pregnancy and child birth safety, the outcome of pregnancies is successful in terms of maternal and infant survival and wellbeing and couples are able to have sexual relations free of fear of pregnancies and of contracting diseases”.
  • 14. RCH Programme - I • Immediate Objective- To promote health of mother and children. • Intermediate Objective- To reduce IMR and MMR. • Ultimate Objective- Population Stabilization
  • 15. RCH Programme - I Intervention / Strategies:- • Prevention & Management of unwanted pregnancies • Maternal Care • Child Survival • Prevention & Management of RTIs & STIs • Prevention of HIV / AIDs
  • 16. RCH Programme - I Management Strategies :- • Bottom- up Planning • Decentralized Training • Management information and Evaluation System (MIES) $ • IEC and Community Participation
  • 17. MAJOR INTERVENTIONS  Essential obstetric care  Emergency obstetric care  24 hours delivery services at PHCs / CHCs  Medical termination of pregnancies  Control of RTIs and STDs  Immunisation  Essential newborn care  Diarrhoeal disease control  Acute respiratory disease control
  • 18. Preventive and control of vitamin A deficiency in children Prevention and control of anaemia in children Introduction of Hepatitis B vaccination
  • 19. RCH Programme - II • Began 1st April 2005 AIM • To reduce Infant Mortality Rate (IMR), Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR), Total Fertility Rate (TFR), To increase Couple Protection Rate (CPR), and Immunization coverage, specially in rural areas.
  • 20. RCH Programme – II Objectives 1.Reduction of Maternal Morbidity and Mortality 2. Reduction of Infant Morbidity and Mortality 3. Reduction of Under 5 Morbidity and Mortality 4. Promotion of Adolescent Health 5. Control of Reproductive Tract Infections and Sexually Transmitted Infections.
  • 21. Components of RCH-II • Population Stabilization • Maternal Health • Newborn Care and Child Health • Adolescent Health • Control of RTIs / STIs • Urban and Tribal Health • Monitoring and Evaluation
  • 22. Components of RCH-II Maternal Health- Strategies Essential Obstetrical Care • Three or More Checkups • Two doses of TT • IFA Tablet • Counseling Emergency Obstetrical Care • First Referral Unit
  • 23. New Born Care and Child Health Objectives • Skilled care at birth • Package of preventive, promotive and curative intervention • Strengthen IMNCI (Integrated Management of Neonatal and Childhood Illness) services
  • 24. JANANI SURAKSHA YOJANA (JSY) o Launched on 12th April 2005 o Objectives: Reducing maternal mortality and infant mortality through encouraging delivery at health institutions and focusing at institutional care among women in below poverty line families JANANI SHISHU SURAKSHA KARYAKRAM (JSSK) o Launched on 1st June 2011 o A new national initiative to make available better health facilities for women and child
  • 25. Rashtriya Bal Swasthya Karyakram(RBSK) • It is an important initiative aiming at early identification and early intervention for children from birth to 18 years to cover 4 ‘D’s viz. Defects at birth, Deficiencies, Diseases, Development delays including disability. Navjat Shishu Suraksha Karyakram (NSSK) • It has been launched to address care at birth issue i,e prevention of hypothermia, prevention of infection, early initiation of breast feeding and basic newborn resuscitation.
  • 26. NATIONAL FAMILY WELFARE PROGRAMME • Launched in 1951 AIM • To achieve a higher end that is to improve the quality of the life of the people. Objective • reduce the birth rate to the extent necessary to stabilize the population at a level consistent with the requirement of the national economy • The department of Family welfare undertook many pilot activities for implementation of the family welfare program to meet the needs of women who are at risk of unwanted births and has assisted the country to accelerate fertility decline. •
  • 27. CONCEPT • The term “family welfare” is in much broader in scope then “family Planning” . The concept of welfare is • basically related to “quality of life”. It includes –
  • 28. CONCEPT OF FW EDUCATION SAFE DRINKING WATER EMPLOYMENT WOMEN ‘S WELFARE FAMILY PLANNING CLIENT CENTERD APPROACH PREVENTION & TREATMENT OF MAJOR DISEASES MCH & RCH SERVICES
  • 29. IMPACT OF FAMILY WELFARE ACTIVITIES  Nearly 98% of women and 99% of men in the age group of 15 and 49 have a good knowledge about one or more methods of contraception. Adolescents seem to be well aware of the modern methods of contraception.  Over 97% of women and 95% of men are knowledgeable about female sterilization, which is the most popular modern permanent method of family planning. While only 79% of women and 80% of men have heard about male sterilization.  93% of men have awareness about the usage of condoms while only 74% of women are aware of the same.  Around 80% of men and women have a fair knowledge about contraceptive pills.
  • 30. MINIMUM NEEDS PROGRAMME • Minimum Needs Programme (India) was introduced during the 5th Five year plan to provide the basic needs of people so as to improve their living standards Components: – Rural health – Water supply – Rural electrification – Nutrition – Elementary education – Adult education – Improving status of urban slums – Houses for landless workers
  • 31. Principles: – It should first be implemented in areas which deserves it the most – All the aspects of the program should be implemented as a package deal with intersectoral coordination
  • 32. 20- POINT PROGRAMME • Initiated 1975 • Described as an agenda for national action to promote social justice and economic growth • On Aug 20, 1986 the existing 20- point programme was restructured. Its objectives are spelt out by the government as “eradication of poverty, raising productivity, reducing inequalities, removing social and economic disparities and improving the quality of life”
  • 33. At least 8 of the 20 points are related directly or indirectly to health. These are Point 1- Attack on rural poverty Point 7 – Clean drinking water Point 8 – Health for all Point 9 – Two child norm Point 10 – Expansion of education Point 14 – Housing for the people Point 15 – Improvement of slums Point 17 – Protection of the environment