SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 36
Download to read offline
SOCIAL HISTORY OF
VICTORIAN AGE
MODULE 1
SEMESTER 1
EN1331 COMPLEMENTARY COURSE
HISTORY OF ENGLISH LITERATURE 3
SREEKUMAR V. R.
ASSISTANT PROFESSOR
DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH
NSS COLLEGE NILAMEL
VICTORIAN AGE
1837-1901
BRITISH EMPIRE DURING THE
VICTORIAN AGE
 Political peace and economic prosperity
 No great war in Europe
 Naval supremacy of England
 Scientific progress
 Imperial expansion (empire where the sun never sets)
 Fifty years of ever broadening commerce, ever
brightening science and ever widening empire -
Tennyson on the golden jubilee of Queen Victoria’s reign
VICTORIAN EMPIRE
THE CRIMEAN WAR
THE FIRST WAR OF INDIAN
INDEPENDENCE
OPIUM WAR
COMMERCE AND INDUSTRY
 New manufacturing cities like Manchester, Leads and
Birmingham
 British products sold on every continent (ceramics,
textiles)
 Sterling enjoyed greater purchasing power than any other
currency
 London: largest financial centre of the world
 Policy of free trade
THE GREAT EXHIBITION
 Held in Hyde Park in London
 Crystal Palace symbolizes industrial, military and
economic superiority of Great Britain
 Invitations extended to all of the colonized world
 Reinforcing contentment with Q Victoria’s reign
CRYSTAL PALACE
VICTORIAN SOCIETY
 Upper class, middle class and lower class
 Upper class –
1. Royals (from royal family)
2. Middle Upper (important officers and lords)
3. Lower Upper (wealthy men and business owners)
 Expansion of middle class (industrialization)
CONDITION OF WOMEN
 Queen Victoria represented femininity (life revolves
around family, motherhood, respectability and
responsibilities)
 Roles of men and women sharply defined
 Women denied education
 Had no voting rights
 Had to remain ‘pure’ until marriage- pre marital relationship a
sin
 After marriage her rights, property and body belongs to her
husband
 Upper class women: oversee servants, organize parties
 Lower class women: less education, fewer opportunities
 Unskilled women forced to become prostitutes to make a
living
 The authorities indifferent to the plight of women
 Parliament passes Contagious Diseases Act (1864, 66, 69)
 Women forcibly checked for diseases
PRE-RAPHAELITE PAINTING
CONDITION OF CHILDREN
 Greater demand for labour led to child labour in
industrialized England
 Children forced to work as coal miners, chimney
sweepers, farm workers and domestic servants
 Coal mines infested with rats and disease
 Required to work 12 to 18 hours a day
 Issue of illegitimate children
 Lower class parents unable to support their children
 Bastardy clause/Poor Law Amendment Act 1834
 Unwed mothers prohibited relief from parishes
 Illegitimate children and their mothers forced to enter
workhouses
 Food, clothing and education for children
WORKHOUSE
RELIGION
 Nineteenth century England: a Christian country
 Judaism the only non-Christian faith, exodus of
Jews from Russia and eastern Europe
 Church of England: country’s established church
 Difficulty in creating new parishes
 Poor religious enthusiasm in England’s
manufacturing cities
 Govt. assistance in building new churches
OXFORD MOVEMENT
CARDINAL NEWMAN EDWARD PUSEY
 Cardinal Newman, John Kebble, Edward Pusey
 Showed an affinity with the authority of church in
pre-Reformation days
 Rebelled against the interference of state
 Highlighted the evils that were threatening the
church
 Strong protest against the materialism and
utilitarianism of the Victorian age
 Newman: Essay on Doctrinal Development,
Apologia Pro Vita Sua
 Tennyson influenced by the spiritual philosophy of
Newman
PHILOSOPHY
JEREMY BENTHAM JOHN STUART MILL
 Utilitarianism: Jeremy Bentham
 Greatest happiness of the greatest number
 Focuses on the profit/ convenience/ benefit/ advantages
 Responsible for a number of reforms
 New Poor Law (1834) exposed the heartlessness of this
philosophy
 John Stuart Mill: advocated liberalism, argues that
cultural, intellectual and spiritual pleasures are of greater
value than mere physical pleasure
CHARLES DARWIN
KARL MARX
SIGMUND FREUD
REFORM ACTS
 Addressing the gripping problems of the society
 Big industrial towns with huge population lacked representation in
Parliament
 Initiated parliamentary reforms, stiff opposition from the House of
Lords
 Reform Bill of 1832, middle class voters benefitted
 Chartism: movement started by William Lowett
 Demand for franchise by working class
 Demands rejected by Parliament in 1839, 1842
 Second Reform Bill opposition from the House of Commons
 Bill passed in 1867, voting rights to artisans and small house holders
 Third Reform Bill- electorate expanded
 Every man who lived in a permanent house, either as landlord/
tenant, has right to vote
 Factory Acts 1833,1842,1844
 Protection of children, reducing working hours
TRADE UNION MOVEMENT
 Robert Owen: one of
the pioneers of English
Socialism
 Trade Union Act
passed in 1871
 Voting right for working
classes
 Paved the way for
Labour party
EDUCATION
 Industrial Revolution: dislocation of population to industrialized
centres
 Majority of working class people illiterate (primary education
neglected)
 Secondary education (Grammar schools, Public schools,
Private Academies)
 Girls denied secondary education
 Universities of Oxford and Cambridge became secular
 Attempted syllabus revision
 Science and modern languages included
 Co-educational institutions and colleges for women were
started by the end of the 19 century
 Educational Act of 1870, greatest of all reforms
 Primary education available for every child in England
 Civil Service opened to public
 William Edward Gladstone: British Prime minister
SCIENTIFIC PROGRESS
TRANSPORT AND COMMUNICATION
 First steam engine and first railways invented in
England
 Britain led the world in shipping
 Usage of steel and iron in ship building; superior in
quality
 Railways revolutionized transportation
 Rural tourism prospered
 Charles Wheatstone: introduced earliest workable
telegraph in England
 Alexander Grahambell invented telephone
 First telephone exchange opened in 1879
POSTAL REFORMS
 Posts: Govt. monopoly
since James I
 Difficulty in imposing tax
on letters
 In 1840 Penny Black
Stamp with Q Victoria’s
image issued
 Britain the first country in
the world to use stamps
for letters
JOURNALISM
 Reuter’s news agency began in London
 Telegraph helped in conveying news very rapidly
 Cheap and sensational newspapers replaced stuffy
papers meant for the elite
 Daily Mail founded in 1896
REFERENCES
 Radhakumari, K. A Concise History of English
Literature and Language, Delhi: Primus Books,
2013.
 Ashok,Padmaja. The Social History of England,
Hyderabad: Orient BlackSwan, 2011
THANK YOU

More Related Content

What's hot

Victorian Age Literature
Victorian Age LiteratureVictorian Age Literature
Victorian Age LiteratureAbid Ali
 
History of victorian age
History of victorian ageHistory of victorian age
History of victorian agenidhijasani
 
Victorian Poetry - 1stLec
Victorian Poetry - 1stLecVictorian Poetry - 1stLec
Victorian Poetry - 1stLecHaALmaa
 
Characteristic of victorian age
Characteristic of victorian ageCharacteristic of victorian age
Characteristic of victorian agemansiba parmar
 
Background victorian age
Background  victorian ageBackground  victorian age
Background victorian agesaryubaraiya
 
Victorian Poet: Alfred Tennyson and Robert Browning
Victorian Poet: Alfred Tennyson and Robert BrowningVictorian Poet: Alfred Tennyson and Robert Browning
Victorian Poet: Alfred Tennyson and Robert BrowningJitendra Sumra
 
Modernism in Literature
Modernism in Literature Modernism in Literature
Modernism in Literature Monir Hossen
 
Transcendentalism
TranscendentalismTranscendentalism
Transcendentalismctawes
 
Social class and values in the Victorian Era
Social class and values in the Victorian EraSocial class and values in the Victorian Era
Social class and values in the Victorian Eraneledepauw
 
Everything you need to know about OSCAR WILDE
Everything you need to know about OSCAR WILDEEverything you need to know about OSCAR WILDE
Everything you need to know about OSCAR WILDERaja Zia
 
Major Poets of Victorian age
Major Poets of Victorian ageMajor Poets of Victorian age
Major Poets of Victorian ageVijay Makwana
 
Victorian History and Literature(Novels, Poems & Drams )
Victorian History and Literature(Novels, Poems & Drams )Victorian History and Literature(Novels, Poems & Drams )
Victorian History and Literature(Novels, Poems & Drams )Fida Muhammad
 

What's hot (20)

Victorian Age
Victorian AgeVictorian Age
Victorian Age
 
Victorian Age Literature
Victorian Age LiteratureVictorian Age Literature
Victorian Age Literature
 
History of victorian age
History of victorian ageHistory of victorian age
History of victorian age
 
Victorian Poetry - 1stLec
Victorian Poetry - 1stLecVictorian Poetry - 1stLec
Victorian Poetry - 1stLec
 
The Victorian Age
The Victorian AgeThe Victorian Age
The Victorian Age
 
Characteristic of victorian age
Characteristic of victorian ageCharacteristic of victorian age
Characteristic of victorian age
 
Background victorian age
Background  victorian ageBackground  victorian age
Background victorian age
 
Victorian age
Victorian ageVictorian age
Victorian age
 
Victorian Novel
Victorian NovelVictorian Novel
Victorian Novel
 
Victorian novel
Victorian novelVictorian novel
Victorian novel
 
The Victorian Era
The Victorian Era The Victorian Era
The Victorian Era
 
Victorian Poet: Alfred Tennyson and Robert Browning
Victorian Poet: Alfred Tennyson and Robert BrowningVictorian Poet: Alfred Tennyson and Robert Browning
Victorian Poet: Alfred Tennyson and Robert Browning
 
Modernism in Literature
Modernism in Literature Modernism in Literature
Modernism in Literature
 
Lord byron
Lord byronLord byron
Lord byron
 
Transcendentalism
TranscendentalismTranscendentalism
Transcendentalism
 
John keats
John keatsJohn keats
John keats
 
Social class and values in the Victorian Era
Social class and values in the Victorian EraSocial class and values in the Victorian Era
Social class and values in the Victorian Era
 
Everything you need to know about OSCAR WILDE
Everything you need to know about OSCAR WILDEEverything you need to know about OSCAR WILDE
Everything you need to know about OSCAR WILDE
 
Major Poets of Victorian age
Major Poets of Victorian ageMajor Poets of Victorian age
Major Poets of Victorian age
 
Victorian History and Literature(Novels, Poems & Drams )
Victorian History and Literature(Novels, Poems & Drams )Victorian History and Literature(Novels, Poems & Drams )
Victorian History and Literature(Novels, Poems & Drams )
 

Similar to Victorian Social Background

AP WORLD HISTORY: Chapter 17 Revolutions of Industrialization 1750-1914
AP WORLD HISTORY: Chapter 17  Revolutions of Industrialization  1750-1914AP WORLD HISTORY: Chapter 17  Revolutions of Industrialization  1750-1914
AP WORLD HISTORY: Chapter 17 Revolutions of Industrialization 1750-1914S Sandoval
 
The victorian age (1830 1901)
The victorian age (1830 1901)The victorian age (1830 1901)
The victorian age (1830 1901)Jithya Raveendran
 
Unit 3 Test Review
Unit 3 Test ReviewUnit 3 Test Review
Unit 3 Test Reviewbbrutto
 
AP WH Chapter 26 PowerPoint
AP WH Chapter 26 PowerPointAP WH Chapter 26 PowerPoint
AP WH Chapter 26 PowerPointBruce Mulford
 
Chapter 26 ppt - Balance of Power
Chapter 26 ppt - Balance of PowerChapter 26 ppt - Balance of Power
Chapter 26 ppt - Balance of PowerAPWorldHistory
 
Industrial revolution
Industrial revolutionIndustrial revolution
Industrial revolutionnuriaccastelo
 
Work, life & leisure part 1
Work, life & leisure part 1Work, life & leisure part 1
Work, life & leisure part 1Mukund Ingle
 
Work, life & leisure part 1
Work, life & leisure part 1Work, life & leisure part 1
Work, life & leisure part 1Mukund Ingle
 
Work Life & Leisure Part 1
Work Life & Leisure Part 1Work Life & Leisure Part 1
Work Life & Leisure Part 1Vraj Shah
 
Industrial revolution
Industrial revolutionIndustrial revolution
Industrial revolutionvilano11
 
Chpt 19 industrialization
Chpt 19 industrializationChpt 19 industrialization
Chpt 19 industrializationellarae1
 
Industrialization Notes
Industrialization NotesIndustrialization Notes
Industrialization NotesColleen Skadl
 
His 2002 World 19
His 2002 World 19His 2002 World 19
His 2002 World 19mr1861
 

Similar to Victorian Social Background (20)

AP WORLD HISTORY: Chapter 17 Revolutions of Industrialization 1750-1914
AP WORLD HISTORY: Chapter 17  Revolutions of Industrialization  1750-1914AP WORLD HISTORY: Chapter 17  Revolutions of Industrialization  1750-1914
AP WORLD HISTORY: Chapter 17 Revolutions of Industrialization 1750-1914
 
The victorian age (1830 1901)
The victorian age (1830 1901)The victorian age (1830 1901)
The victorian age (1830 1901)
 
Unit 3 Test Review
Unit 3 Test ReviewUnit 3 Test Review
Unit 3 Test Review
 
AP WH Chapter 26 PowerPoint
AP WH Chapter 26 PowerPointAP WH Chapter 26 PowerPoint
AP WH Chapter 26 PowerPoint
 
Chapter 26 ppt - Balance of Power
Chapter 26 ppt - Balance of PowerChapter 26 ppt - Balance of Power
Chapter 26 ppt - Balance of Power
 
Revolutions
RevolutionsRevolutions
Revolutions
 
Industrial revolution
Industrial revolutionIndustrial revolution
Industrial revolution
 
Work, life & leisure part 1
Work, life & leisure part 1Work, life & leisure part 1
Work, life & leisure part 1
 
Work, life & leisure part 1
Work, life & leisure part 1Work, life & leisure part 1
Work, life & leisure part 1
 
Work Life & Leisure Part 1
Work Life & Leisure Part 1Work Life & Leisure Part 1
Work Life & Leisure Part 1
 
Industrial revolution
Industrial revolutionIndustrial revolution
Industrial revolution
 
Industrial revolution part2
Industrial revolution part2Industrial revolution part2
Industrial revolution part2
 
Industrial revolution
Industrial revolutionIndustrial revolution
Industrial revolution
 
Zp923 pp
Zp923 ppZp923 pp
Zp923 pp
 
ppt
ppt ppt
ppt
 
Chpt 19 industrialization
Chpt 19 industrializationChpt 19 industrialization
Chpt 19 industrialization
 
Industrialization Notes
Industrialization NotesIndustrialization Notes
Industrialization Notes
 
His 2002 World 19
His 2002 World 19His 2002 World 19
His 2002 World 19
 
Peel's decade
Peel's decadePeel's decade
Peel's decade
 
Old regime
Old regimeOld regime
Old regime
 

Recently uploaded

Views in Odoo 17 - Kanban View in odoo 17
Views in Odoo 17 - Kanban View  in odoo 17Views in Odoo 17 - Kanban View  in odoo 17
Views in Odoo 17 - Kanban View in odoo 17Celine George
 
Basic cosmetics prepared by my student Mr. Balamurugan, II Maths, 2023-2024
Basic cosmetics prepared by my student Mr. Balamurugan, II Maths, 2023-2024Basic cosmetics prepared by my student Mr. Balamurugan, II Maths, 2023-2024
Basic cosmetics prepared by my student Mr. Balamurugan, II Maths, 2023-2024St.John's College
 
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 11 THEO ĐƠN VỊ BÀI HỌC - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (GLOB...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 11 THEO ĐƠN VỊ BÀI HỌC - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (GLOB...BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 11 THEO ĐƠN VỊ BÀI HỌC - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (GLOB...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 11 THEO ĐƠN VỊ BÀI HỌC - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (GLOB...Nguyen Thanh Tu Collection
 
How to Share Dashboard in the Odoo 17 ERP
How to Share Dashboard in the Odoo 17 ERPHow to Share Dashboard in the Odoo 17 ERP
How to Share Dashboard in the Odoo 17 ERPCeline George
 
4.4.24 Economic Precarity and Global Economic Forces.pptx
4.4.24 Economic Precarity and Global Economic Forces.pptx4.4.24 Economic Precarity and Global Economic Forces.pptx
4.4.24 Economic Precarity and Global Economic Forces.pptxmary850239
 
Self directed Learning - SDL, introduction to SDL
Self directed Learning - SDL, introduction to SDLSelf directed Learning - SDL, introduction to SDL
Self directed Learning - SDL, introduction to SDLspmdoc
 
Geoffrey Chaucer Works II UGC NET JRF TGT PGT MA PHD Entrance Exam II History...
Geoffrey Chaucer Works II UGC NET JRF TGT PGT MA PHD Entrance Exam II History...Geoffrey Chaucer Works II UGC NET JRF TGT PGT MA PHD Entrance Exam II History...
Geoffrey Chaucer Works II UGC NET JRF TGT PGT MA PHD Entrance Exam II History...DrVipulVKapoor
 
Transdisciplinary Pathways for Urban Resilience [Work in Progress].pptx
Transdisciplinary Pathways for Urban Resilience [Work in Progress].pptxTransdisciplinary Pathways for Urban Resilience [Work in Progress].pptx
Transdisciplinary Pathways for Urban Resilience [Work in Progress].pptxinfo924062
 
DiskStorage_BasicFileStructuresandHashing.pdf
DiskStorage_BasicFileStructuresandHashing.pdfDiskStorage_BasicFileStructuresandHashing.pdf
DiskStorage_BasicFileStructuresandHashing.pdfChristalin Nelson
 
Advancing Gender Equality The Crucial Role of Science and Technology 4 April ...
Advancing Gender Equality The Crucial Role of Science and Technology 4 April ...Advancing Gender Equality The Crucial Role of Science and Technology 4 April ...
Advancing Gender Equality The Crucial Role of Science and Technology 4 April ...EduSkills OECD
 
The Shop Floor Overview in the Odoo 17 ERP
The Shop Floor Overview in the Odoo 17 ERPThe Shop Floor Overview in the Odoo 17 ERP
The Shop Floor Overview in the Odoo 17 ERPCeline George
 
Executive Directors Chat Initiating Equity for Impact.pdf
Executive Directors Chat  Initiating Equity for Impact.pdfExecutive Directors Chat  Initiating Equity for Impact.pdf
Executive Directors Chat Initiating Equity for Impact.pdfTechSoup
 
PART 1 - CHAPTER 1 - CELL THE FUNDAMENTAL UNIT OF LIFE
PART 1 - CHAPTER 1 - CELL THE FUNDAMENTAL UNIT OF LIFEPART 1 - CHAPTER 1 - CELL THE FUNDAMENTAL UNIT OF LIFE
PART 1 - CHAPTER 1 - CELL THE FUNDAMENTAL UNIT OF LIFEMISSRITIMABIOLOGYEXP
 
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 - I-LEARN SMART WORLD - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (BẢN...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 - I-LEARN SMART WORLD - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (BẢN...BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 - I-LEARN SMART WORLD - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (BẢN...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 - I-LEARN SMART WORLD - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (BẢN...Nguyen Thanh Tu Collection
 
Supply agency market - aiming high 2.pdf
Supply agency market - aiming high 2.pdfSupply agency market - aiming high 2.pdf
Supply agency market - aiming high 2.pdftomeskell101
 
16. Discovery, function and commercial uses of different PGRS.pptx
16. Discovery, function and commercial uses of different PGRS.pptx16. Discovery, function and commercial uses of different PGRS.pptx
16. Discovery, function and commercial uses of different PGRS.pptxUmeshTimilsina1
 
Employablity presentation and Future Career Plan.pptx
Employablity presentation and Future Career Plan.pptxEmployablity presentation and Future Career Plan.pptx
Employablity presentation and Future Career Plan.pptxryandux83rd
 
DORA, ISO/IEC 27005, and the Rise of AI: Securing the Future of Cybersecurity
DORA, ISO/IEC 27005, and the Rise of AI: Securing the Future of CybersecurityDORA, ISO/IEC 27005, and the Rise of AI: Securing the Future of Cybersecurity
DORA, ISO/IEC 27005, and the Rise of AI: Securing the Future of CybersecurityPECB
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Views in Odoo 17 - Kanban View in odoo 17
Views in Odoo 17 - Kanban View  in odoo 17Views in Odoo 17 - Kanban View  in odoo 17
Views in Odoo 17 - Kanban View in odoo 17
 
Basic cosmetics prepared by my student Mr. Balamurugan, II Maths, 2023-2024
Basic cosmetics prepared by my student Mr. Balamurugan, II Maths, 2023-2024Basic cosmetics prepared by my student Mr. Balamurugan, II Maths, 2023-2024
Basic cosmetics prepared by my student Mr. Balamurugan, II Maths, 2023-2024
 
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 11 THEO ĐƠN VỊ BÀI HỌC - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (GLOB...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 11 THEO ĐƠN VỊ BÀI HỌC - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (GLOB...BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 11 THEO ĐƠN VỊ BÀI HỌC - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (GLOB...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 11 THEO ĐƠN VỊ BÀI HỌC - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (GLOB...
 
Israel Genealogy Research Assoc. April 2024 Database Release
Israel Genealogy Research Assoc. April 2024 Database ReleaseIsrael Genealogy Research Assoc. April 2024 Database Release
Israel Genealogy Research Assoc. April 2024 Database Release
 
How to Share Dashboard in the Odoo 17 ERP
How to Share Dashboard in the Odoo 17 ERPHow to Share Dashboard in the Odoo 17 ERP
How to Share Dashboard in the Odoo 17 ERP
 
4.4.24 Economic Precarity and Global Economic Forces.pptx
4.4.24 Economic Precarity and Global Economic Forces.pptx4.4.24 Economic Precarity and Global Economic Forces.pptx
4.4.24 Economic Precarity and Global Economic Forces.pptx
 
Self directed Learning - SDL, introduction to SDL
Self directed Learning - SDL, introduction to SDLSelf directed Learning - SDL, introduction to SDL
Self directed Learning - SDL, introduction to SDL
 
Geoffrey Chaucer Works II UGC NET JRF TGT PGT MA PHD Entrance Exam II History...
Geoffrey Chaucer Works II UGC NET JRF TGT PGT MA PHD Entrance Exam II History...Geoffrey Chaucer Works II UGC NET JRF TGT PGT MA PHD Entrance Exam II History...
Geoffrey Chaucer Works II UGC NET JRF TGT PGT MA PHD Entrance Exam II History...
 
Chi-Square Test Non Parametric Test Categorical Variable
Chi-Square Test Non Parametric Test Categorical VariableChi-Square Test Non Parametric Test Categorical Variable
Chi-Square Test Non Parametric Test Categorical Variable
 
Transdisciplinary Pathways for Urban Resilience [Work in Progress].pptx
Transdisciplinary Pathways for Urban Resilience [Work in Progress].pptxTransdisciplinary Pathways for Urban Resilience [Work in Progress].pptx
Transdisciplinary Pathways for Urban Resilience [Work in Progress].pptx
 
DiskStorage_BasicFileStructuresandHashing.pdf
DiskStorage_BasicFileStructuresandHashing.pdfDiskStorage_BasicFileStructuresandHashing.pdf
DiskStorage_BasicFileStructuresandHashing.pdf
 
Advancing Gender Equality The Crucial Role of Science and Technology 4 April ...
Advancing Gender Equality The Crucial Role of Science and Technology 4 April ...Advancing Gender Equality The Crucial Role of Science and Technology 4 April ...
Advancing Gender Equality The Crucial Role of Science and Technology 4 April ...
 
The Shop Floor Overview in the Odoo 17 ERP
The Shop Floor Overview in the Odoo 17 ERPThe Shop Floor Overview in the Odoo 17 ERP
The Shop Floor Overview in the Odoo 17 ERP
 
Executive Directors Chat Initiating Equity for Impact.pdf
Executive Directors Chat  Initiating Equity for Impact.pdfExecutive Directors Chat  Initiating Equity for Impact.pdf
Executive Directors Chat Initiating Equity for Impact.pdf
 
PART 1 - CHAPTER 1 - CELL THE FUNDAMENTAL UNIT OF LIFE
PART 1 - CHAPTER 1 - CELL THE FUNDAMENTAL UNIT OF LIFEPART 1 - CHAPTER 1 - CELL THE FUNDAMENTAL UNIT OF LIFE
PART 1 - CHAPTER 1 - CELL THE FUNDAMENTAL UNIT OF LIFE
 
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 - I-LEARN SMART WORLD - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (BẢN...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 - I-LEARN SMART WORLD - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (BẢN...BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 - I-LEARN SMART WORLD - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (BẢN...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 - I-LEARN SMART WORLD - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (BẢN...
 
Supply agency market - aiming high 2.pdf
Supply agency market - aiming high 2.pdfSupply agency market - aiming high 2.pdf
Supply agency market - aiming high 2.pdf
 
16. Discovery, function and commercial uses of different PGRS.pptx
16. Discovery, function and commercial uses of different PGRS.pptx16. Discovery, function and commercial uses of different PGRS.pptx
16. Discovery, function and commercial uses of different PGRS.pptx
 
Employablity presentation and Future Career Plan.pptx
Employablity presentation and Future Career Plan.pptxEmployablity presentation and Future Career Plan.pptx
Employablity presentation and Future Career Plan.pptx
 
DORA, ISO/IEC 27005, and the Rise of AI: Securing the Future of Cybersecurity
DORA, ISO/IEC 27005, and the Rise of AI: Securing the Future of CybersecurityDORA, ISO/IEC 27005, and the Rise of AI: Securing the Future of Cybersecurity
DORA, ISO/IEC 27005, and the Rise of AI: Securing the Future of Cybersecurity
 

Victorian Social Background

  • 1. SOCIAL HISTORY OF VICTORIAN AGE MODULE 1 SEMESTER 1 EN1331 COMPLEMENTARY COURSE HISTORY OF ENGLISH LITERATURE 3 SREEKUMAR V. R. ASSISTANT PROFESSOR DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH NSS COLLEGE NILAMEL
  • 3. BRITISH EMPIRE DURING THE VICTORIAN AGE  Political peace and economic prosperity  No great war in Europe  Naval supremacy of England  Scientific progress  Imperial expansion (empire where the sun never sets)  Fifty years of ever broadening commerce, ever brightening science and ever widening empire - Tennyson on the golden jubilee of Queen Victoria’s reign
  • 6. THE FIRST WAR OF INDIAN INDEPENDENCE
  • 8. COMMERCE AND INDUSTRY  New manufacturing cities like Manchester, Leads and Birmingham  British products sold on every continent (ceramics, textiles)  Sterling enjoyed greater purchasing power than any other currency  London: largest financial centre of the world  Policy of free trade
  • 9. THE GREAT EXHIBITION  Held in Hyde Park in London  Crystal Palace symbolizes industrial, military and economic superiority of Great Britain  Invitations extended to all of the colonized world  Reinforcing contentment with Q Victoria’s reign
  • 11. VICTORIAN SOCIETY  Upper class, middle class and lower class  Upper class – 1. Royals (from royal family) 2. Middle Upper (important officers and lords) 3. Lower Upper (wealthy men and business owners)  Expansion of middle class (industrialization)
  • 12. CONDITION OF WOMEN  Queen Victoria represented femininity (life revolves around family, motherhood, respectability and responsibilities)
  • 13.  Roles of men and women sharply defined  Women denied education  Had no voting rights  Had to remain ‘pure’ until marriage- pre marital relationship a sin  After marriage her rights, property and body belongs to her husband  Upper class women: oversee servants, organize parties  Lower class women: less education, fewer opportunities  Unskilled women forced to become prostitutes to make a living  The authorities indifferent to the plight of women  Parliament passes Contagious Diseases Act (1864, 66, 69)  Women forcibly checked for diseases
  • 15.
  • 16. CONDITION OF CHILDREN  Greater demand for labour led to child labour in industrialized England  Children forced to work as coal miners, chimney sweepers, farm workers and domestic servants  Coal mines infested with rats and disease  Required to work 12 to 18 hours a day  Issue of illegitimate children  Lower class parents unable to support their children  Bastardy clause/Poor Law Amendment Act 1834  Unwed mothers prohibited relief from parishes  Illegitimate children and their mothers forced to enter workhouses  Food, clothing and education for children
  • 19.  Nineteenth century England: a Christian country  Judaism the only non-Christian faith, exodus of Jews from Russia and eastern Europe  Church of England: country’s established church  Difficulty in creating new parishes  Poor religious enthusiasm in England’s manufacturing cities  Govt. assistance in building new churches
  • 21.  Cardinal Newman, John Kebble, Edward Pusey  Showed an affinity with the authority of church in pre-Reformation days  Rebelled against the interference of state  Highlighted the evils that were threatening the church  Strong protest against the materialism and utilitarianism of the Victorian age  Newman: Essay on Doctrinal Development, Apologia Pro Vita Sua  Tennyson influenced by the spiritual philosophy of Newman
  • 23.  Utilitarianism: Jeremy Bentham  Greatest happiness of the greatest number  Focuses on the profit/ convenience/ benefit/ advantages  Responsible for a number of reforms  New Poor Law (1834) exposed the heartlessness of this philosophy  John Stuart Mill: advocated liberalism, argues that cultural, intellectual and spiritual pleasures are of greater value than mere physical pleasure
  • 27. REFORM ACTS  Addressing the gripping problems of the society  Big industrial towns with huge population lacked representation in Parliament  Initiated parliamentary reforms, stiff opposition from the House of Lords  Reform Bill of 1832, middle class voters benefitted  Chartism: movement started by William Lowett  Demand for franchise by working class  Demands rejected by Parliament in 1839, 1842  Second Reform Bill opposition from the House of Commons  Bill passed in 1867, voting rights to artisans and small house holders  Third Reform Bill- electorate expanded  Every man who lived in a permanent house, either as landlord/ tenant, has right to vote  Factory Acts 1833,1842,1844  Protection of children, reducing working hours
  • 28. TRADE UNION MOVEMENT  Robert Owen: one of the pioneers of English Socialism  Trade Union Act passed in 1871  Voting right for working classes  Paved the way for Labour party
  • 30.  Industrial Revolution: dislocation of population to industrialized centres  Majority of working class people illiterate (primary education neglected)  Secondary education (Grammar schools, Public schools, Private Academies)  Girls denied secondary education  Universities of Oxford and Cambridge became secular  Attempted syllabus revision  Science and modern languages included  Co-educational institutions and colleges for women were started by the end of the 19 century  Educational Act of 1870, greatest of all reforms  Primary education available for every child in England  Civil Service opened to public  William Edward Gladstone: British Prime minister
  • 32. TRANSPORT AND COMMUNICATION  First steam engine and first railways invented in England  Britain led the world in shipping  Usage of steel and iron in ship building; superior in quality  Railways revolutionized transportation  Rural tourism prospered  Charles Wheatstone: introduced earliest workable telegraph in England  Alexander Grahambell invented telephone  First telephone exchange opened in 1879
  • 33. POSTAL REFORMS  Posts: Govt. monopoly since James I  Difficulty in imposing tax on letters  In 1840 Penny Black Stamp with Q Victoria’s image issued  Britain the first country in the world to use stamps for letters
  • 34. JOURNALISM  Reuter’s news agency began in London  Telegraph helped in conveying news very rapidly  Cheap and sensational newspapers replaced stuffy papers meant for the elite  Daily Mail founded in 1896
  • 35. REFERENCES  Radhakumari, K. A Concise History of English Literature and Language, Delhi: Primus Books, 2013.  Ashok,Padmaja. The Social History of England, Hyderabad: Orient BlackSwan, 2011