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Intangible assets and participation in global value chains:
an analysis on a sample of European countries
C. Jona-Lasinio, (ISTAT and LUISS Lab), Rome
S. Manzocchi (LUISS), Rome
V. Meliciani (LUISS), Rome
WPIA Meeting - OECD
10-11 October 2016, Paris, France
This project has received funding from the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme for
research, technological development and demonstration under grant agreement No. 612774
C. Jona-Lasinio ISTAT and LUISS Lab of European Economics 1 / 24
Background
• International fragmentation of production, which implies that
countries specialise in portions of the value chain and trade other
portions of it, has led to widespread processes of globalisation of
value chains (GVC) over the past two decades (for recent reviews,
see Kaplinsky 2013; De Backer and Miroudot 2013; Timmer et al.
2012).
• Baldwin (2011) has defined these as a "second unbundling" of
globalisation, which has transformed the terms of international
competition and shifted the barycentre of the world’s global
headquarters and peripheries.
• While the international fragmentation of production has allowed
more countries to be involved in the production of a final good,
not all countries have retained the same benefits from such
process.
C. Jona-Lasinio ISTAT and LUISS Lab of European Economics 2 / 24
Background
• A growing number of studies have pointed out that gains are
unevenly distributed across the value chains (Gereffi, 1994;
Kaplinsky, 1998; Schmitz, 2006; Fitter and Kaplinsky, 2001;
Kaplinsky and Fitter, 2004; Kaplinsky, 2005; Milberg 2009).
• Some authors have observed that the balance of power often
favors nodes with high technology which would imply that firms
which control technology through mechanisms like patents or
licenses are in extremely powerful positions and are likely to
extract maximum rents in GVCs. (Mudambi, 2008; ).
• However, together with technology also better organizational skills
and better marketing capabilities might be crucial. Overall, to
extract maximum rents, governance becomes an important
ingredient in the value chain.
C. Jona-Lasinio ISTAT and LUISS Lab of European Economics 3 / 24
Background
• Therefore, firms investing in intangible assets (research,
marketing, organization capital etc.) should be able to generate
higher returns, ceteris paribus, with respect to other firms
(Mudambi, 2008).
• Marcolin, Le Mouel and Squicciarini (2016) provide evidence
about the linkages between global value chain and investment in
intangible assets focusing in particular on organizational capital.
Their analysis support the assumption that industry-level
investment in KBC is causally linked to GVCs in the form of
backward linkages with the foreign market.
C. Jona-Lasinio ISTAT and LUISS Lab of European Economics 4 / 24
Aim
• We investigate the role of intangible assets for participation in
global value chains (GVC) in a sample of European countries.
• The analysis distinguishes between different forms of participation
in GVC entailing a different degree of capability to create value
added domestically
• We examine if and to what extent different intangible assets
(R&D, advertising, market research, design, training, organization
capital) foster countries’ engagement in GVC and the returns
from such participation.
What is the role of intangible assets in explaining the degree
and the benefits of countries’ participation in GVC?
C. Jona-Lasinio ISTAT and LUISS Lab of European Economics 5 / 24
Data
We merge intangible data from INTAN - Invest (ed 2014) with
EUKLEMS information on value added, and hours worked and with
different measures of participation in global value chains from
OECD-WTO Trade in Value Added (TiVA) database:
• Domestic va embodied in export of a foreign country (DVAFEX)
• Domestic va embodied in foreign final demand (DVAFFD)
• Foreign va embodied in export of a domestic country (FVADEX)
• Foreign va embodied in domestic final demand (FVAFFD)
We measure:
• Participation = (DVAFEX+FVADEX) or (DVAFFD+FVADFD)
• Gains = (DVAFEX/FVADEX) or (DVAFFD/FVADFD)
C. Jona-Lasinio ISTAT and LUISS Lab of European Economics 6 / 24
Average VA share of intangible investment 1995-2010
The average VA share of intangible investment is relatively higher in the service sectors
(8.2 %) than in manufacturing (7.0%) in most of the sample countries besides SE, DE,
FI, IT and FR.
C. Jona-Lasinio ISTAT and LUISS Lab of European Economics 7 / 24
Participation to Global Value Chains
Participation significantly increased over time in manufacturing across the EU countries,
but to a lesser extent in Finland, Belgium and in the Mediterranean economies (ES and
IT).
C. Jona-Lasinio ISTAT and LUISS Lab of European Economics 8 / 24
Forward Participation to Global Value Chains
Forward participation (here measured in per hours worked) is likely to be higher for
countries (and sectors) involved in upstream production, with output and exports of that
country feeding into the production and exports of downstream producers (i.e. forward
integration).
C. Jona-Lasinio ISTAT and LUISS Lab of European Economics 9 / 24
Backward Participation to Global Value Chains
Backward participation, the extent to which a country’s exports are dependent on
imported content, it is likely to be higher for countries (sectors) involved in downstream
production.
C. Jona-Lasinio ISTAT and LUISS Lab of European Economics 10 / 24
Gains from Participation to Global Value Chains
Gains from participation refer to the capability of a country to appropriate a large share
of value added. In 2011, UK and NL have relatively higher gains both in manufacturing
and services, DK higher in manufacturing and DE in services.
C. Jona-Lasinio ISTAT and LUISS Lab of European Economics 11 / 24
Research hypothesis: 1
HP1: Advanced countries investing relatively more in intangible assets
display higher participation in global value chains.
• Advanced countries are expected to organize their production
along a value chain by keeping at home those activities that have
a higher strategic value, are more complex (involve higher
transaction costs) and allow them to keep control over the value
chains.
• Assets such as R&D expenditures, training, organizational capital
may play a strategic role in creating domestic value added in these
activities.
C. Jona-Lasinio ISTAT and LUISS Lab of European Economics 12 / 24
Research hypothesis: 2
HP2: Intangible assets provide a different contribution to forward and
backward linkages in GVC. R&D, and design are more relevant to
forward linkages while marketing and advertising to backward linkages.
• The role of intangible assets might differ according to the position
of a country in the GVC.
• While assets such as R&D and design may be strategic in the
upstream activities stages of the value chains, other assets such as
marketing and advertising may be more important in downstream
activities.
C. Jona-Lasinio ISTAT and LUISS Lab of European Economics 13 / 24
Research hypothesis: 3
HP3: Benefits from participation in GVC (in terms of value added
creation) increase with intangible capital assets in the advanced
economies.
Overall, there is evidence that a great part of the valued added of a final product is created in the first and last stages of the
production process (R&D, design, marketing and sales), while firms involved in intermediate stages (such as the production of
components and assembly) reap only a small part of the final value of the good or service produced (Mudambi, 2008).
C. Jona-Lasinio ISTAT and LUISS Lab of European Economics 14 / 24
Participation to Global Value Chains vs Intangible capital
C. Jona-Lasinio ISTAT and LUISS Lab of European Economics 15 / 24
Forward Participation vs Intangible assets
C. Jona-Lasinio ISTAT and LUISS Lab of European Economics 16 / 24
Backward Participation vs Intangible assets
C. Jona-Lasinio ISTAT and LUISS Lab of European Economics 17 / 24
Gains from Participation vs Intangible capital
C. Jona-Lasinio ISTAT and LUISS Lab of European Economics 18 / 24
Econometric analysis
lnY
GVCj
c,i,t = α1lnKIntgs
c,i,t + α2lnKICT
c,i,t + α3lnKTang
c,i,t + α4lnXc,i,t + δt + γi +
where:
• c=country, i=industry, t=time
• Y GVCj different indicators for GVC participation (total, forward and backward) and
gains from GVC
• KIntgs
is intangible capital with s=Tot Intg, R&D, Training, Design, Advertising and
marketing, Organizational capital; KICT
is ICT capital and KTang
is tangible capital
stock; X are other controls (corporate income taxes, country size); δt and γi are
time and industry dummies.
• All variables are in per hours term.
C. Jona-Lasinio ISTAT and LUISS Lab of European Economics 19 / 24
Empirical results:
factors influencing participation in global value chains
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8)
VARIABLES
lnKIntg
0.169***
(0.050)
lnKIntg(ex-R&D)
0.346*** 0.397***
(0.067) (0.120)
lnKR&D
0.247*** 0.143***
(0.035) (0.047)
lnKTrain
0.596***
(0.049)
lnKAdv-Mkt
0.306***
(0.069)
lnKDesign
0.015
(0.063)
lnKOrg	Cap
0.250***
(0.045)
lnKICT
0.316*** 0.262*** 0.173** 0.025 0.103 0.199** 0.495*** 0.160**
(0.080) (0.058) (0.084) (0.091) (0.065) (0.091) (0.077) (0.081)
lnKTang
0.447*** 0.406*** 0.421*** 0.355*** 0.098** 0.412*** 0.359*** 0.539***
(0.065) (0.058) (0.055) (0.062) (0.047) (0.057) (0.061) (0.064)
Country	Size -0.148*** -0.124*** -0.223*** -0.230*** -0.283*** -0.197*** -0.103 -0.140***
(0.049) (0.046) (0.052) (0.051) (0.036) (0.058) (0.070) (0.051)
Corporate	income	tax	rate -0.028*** -0.019*** -0.028*** -0.014*** -0.010** -0.031*** -0.028*** -0.030***
(0.006) (0.005) (0.005) (0.005) (0.005) (0.004) (0.005) (0.005)
Observations 92 82 92 82 92 92 92 92
Number	of	ctrysec 18 16 18 16 18 18 18 18
Standard	errors	in	parentheses
***	p<0.01,	**	p<0.05,	*	p<0.1
Participation	to	GVC
C. Jona-Lasinio ISTAT and LUISS Lab of European Economics 20 / 24
Empirical results:
factors influencing forward and backward linkages
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8)
VARIABLES
lnKIntg
0.301*** 0.144***
(0.060) (0.046)
lnKIntg(ex-R&D)
0.503*** 0.540*** 0.281*** 0.277*
(0.083) (0.116) (0.088) (0.152)
lnKR&D
0.385*** 0.251*** 0.119*** 0.036
(0.040) (0.051) (0.041) (0.064)
lnKTrain
0.787*** 0.415***
(0.048) (0.063)
lnKAdv-Mkt
0.141* 0.404***
(0.076) (0.074)
lnKDesign
-0.001 0.158**
(0.051) (0.074)
lnKOrg	Cap
0.124** -0.203***
(0.057) (0.050)
lnKICT
0.160** 0.108* 0.005 -0.206** -0.137*** 0.277*** 0.419*** -0.177** 0.385*** 0.399*** 0.299*** 0.254** 0.255*** 0.178* 0.413*** 0.278***
(0.074) (0.063) (0.089) (0.093) (0.051) (0.092) (0.051) (0.076) (0.084) (0.070) (0.100) (0.110) (0.088) (0.099) (0.087) (0.077)
lnKTang
0.553*** 0.513*** 0.505*** 0.441*** 0.213*** 0.518*** 0.479*** 0.075 0.325*** 0.319*** 0.256*** 0.264*** 0.084 0.265*** 0.262*** -0.224***
(0.069) (0.067) (0.071) (0.071) (0.040) (0.059) (0.050) (0.059) (0.069) (0.066) (0.068) (0.073) (0.063) (0.065) (0.070) (0.059)
Country	Size -0.222*** -0.250***-0.236*** -0.285*** -0.272*** -0.130* -0.064 -0.248*** -0.158** -0.158** -0.187** -0.234***-0.335***-0.225*** -0.162* -0.293***
(0.042) (0.034) (0.049) (0.052) (0.035) (0.067) (0.070) (0.039) (0.075) (0.074) (0.078) (0.078) (0.063) (0.060) (0.084) (0.076)
Corporate	income	tax	rate -0.032*** -0.015** -0.034*** -0.016** -0.012** -0.029***-0.029***-0.025*** -0.027*** -0.019*** -0.024***-0.016*** -0.010 -0.026***-0.027*** -0.028***
(0.005) (0.006) (0.005) (0.006) (0.005) (0.004) (0.005) (0.006) (0.005) (0.005) (0.006) (0.005) (0.006) (0.005) (0.006) (0.006)
Observations 92 82 92 82 92 92 92 92 92 82 92 82 92 92 92 92
Number	of	ctrysec 18 16 18 16 18 18 18 18 18 16 18 16 18 18 18 18
Standard	errors	in	parentheses
***	p<0.01,	**	p<0.05,	*	p<0.1
Forward	participation Backward	participation
C. Jona-Lasinio ISTAT and LUISS Lab of European Economics 21 / 24
Empirical results:
factors influencing gains from participation
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8)
VARIABLES
lnKIntg
0.285*** 0.044*
(0.056) (0.026)
lnKIntg(ex-R&D)
0.450*** 0.221* 0.027 0.014
(0.071) (0.116) (0.035) (0.063)
lnKR&D
0.152*** 0.095** 0.080*** 0.077***
(0.025) (0.043) (0.023) (0.026)
lnKTrain
0.331*** 0.056*
(0.049) (0.030)
lnKAdv-Mkt
-0.102 0.027
(0.080) (0.038)
lnKDesign
0.042 0.054*
(0.064) (0.032)
lnKOrg	Cap
0.297*** 0.033
(0.038) (0.021)
Observations 92 82 92 82 92 92 92 92 92 82 92 82 92 92 92 92
Number	of	ctrysec 18 16 18 16 18 18 18 18 18 16 18 16 18 18 18 18
Standard	errors	in	parentheses
***	p<0.01,	**	p<0.05,	*	p<0.1
Gains	from	GVC	participation	(export	based	measure) Gains	from	GVC	participation	(demand	based	measure)
C. Jona-Lasinio ISTAT and LUISS Lab of European Economics 22 / 24
Summing up
We find supportive evidence for our 3 main hypothesis.
• HP1: Intangible capital as a whole is positively related to participation in global
value chains in advanced countries. Moreover, nonR&D intangibles play a larger
role than R&D with training being the main driver.
• HP2: Intangibles contribute positively but to a different extent to both forward and
backward participation: R&D is more relevant for forward while marketing and
advertising are more important for backward linkages . This evidence supports the
assumption that R&D is a factor affecting upstream production while marketing
and advertising have a role in downstream production.
• HP3: Intangibles positively affect value appropriation and the results are robust to
introducing separately R&D and other intangible assets. Training and
organizational capital have a large positive effect while marketing and advertising
and architectural design do not.
C. Jona-Lasinio ISTAT and LUISS Lab of European Economics 23 / 24
Next steps
• Further develop the econometrics to control for possible
endogeneity biases affecting our results (IV)
• Extend the database across countries and sectors (INTAN-Invest
(2016), SPINTAN (2016) and EUKLEMS (2016))
• Extend the analysis to the total economy evaluating the role of
public intangible intensity in affecting country’s participation to
GVC.
C. Jona-Lasinio ISTAT and LUISS Lab of European Economics 24 / 24

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WPIA Meeting - OECD. Paris Oct2016

  • 1. Intangible assets and participation in global value chains: an analysis on a sample of European countries C. Jona-Lasinio, (ISTAT and LUISS Lab), Rome S. Manzocchi (LUISS), Rome V. Meliciani (LUISS), Rome WPIA Meeting - OECD 10-11 October 2016, Paris, France This project has received funding from the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme for research, technological development and demonstration under grant agreement No. 612774 C. Jona-Lasinio ISTAT and LUISS Lab of European Economics 1 / 24
  • 2. Background • International fragmentation of production, which implies that countries specialise in portions of the value chain and trade other portions of it, has led to widespread processes of globalisation of value chains (GVC) over the past two decades (for recent reviews, see Kaplinsky 2013; De Backer and Miroudot 2013; Timmer et al. 2012). • Baldwin (2011) has defined these as a "second unbundling" of globalisation, which has transformed the terms of international competition and shifted the barycentre of the world’s global headquarters and peripheries. • While the international fragmentation of production has allowed more countries to be involved in the production of a final good, not all countries have retained the same benefits from such process. C. Jona-Lasinio ISTAT and LUISS Lab of European Economics 2 / 24
  • 3. Background • A growing number of studies have pointed out that gains are unevenly distributed across the value chains (Gereffi, 1994; Kaplinsky, 1998; Schmitz, 2006; Fitter and Kaplinsky, 2001; Kaplinsky and Fitter, 2004; Kaplinsky, 2005; Milberg 2009). • Some authors have observed that the balance of power often favors nodes with high technology which would imply that firms which control technology through mechanisms like patents or licenses are in extremely powerful positions and are likely to extract maximum rents in GVCs. (Mudambi, 2008; ). • However, together with technology also better organizational skills and better marketing capabilities might be crucial. Overall, to extract maximum rents, governance becomes an important ingredient in the value chain. C. Jona-Lasinio ISTAT and LUISS Lab of European Economics 3 / 24
  • 4. Background • Therefore, firms investing in intangible assets (research, marketing, organization capital etc.) should be able to generate higher returns, ceteris paribus, with respect to other firms (Mudambi, 2008). • Marcolin, Le Mouel and Squicciarini (2016) provide evidence about the linkages between global value chain and investment in intangible assets focusing in particular on organizational capital. Their analysis support the assumption that industry-level investment in KBC is causally linked to GVCs in the form of backward linkages with the foreign market. C. Jona-Lasinio ISTAT and LUISS Lab of European Economics 4 / 24
  • 5. Aim • We investigate the role of intangible assets for participation in global value chains (GVC) in a sample of European countries. • The analysis distinguishes between different forms of participation in GVC entailing a different degree of capability to create value added domestically • We examine if and to what extent different intangible assets (R&D, advertising, market research, design, training, organization capital) foster countries’ engagement in GVC and the returns from such participation. What is the role of intangible assets in explaining the degree and the benefits of countries’ participation in GVC? C. Jona-Lasinio ISTAT and LUISS Lab of European Economics 5 / 24
  • 6. Data We merge intangible data from INTAN - Invest (ed 2014) with EUKLEMS information on value added, and hours worked and with different measures of participation in global value chains from OECD-WTO Trade in Value Added (TiVA) database: • Domestic va embodied in export of a foreign country (DVAFEX) • Domestic va embodied in foreign final demand (DVAFFD) • Foreign va embodied in export of a domestic country (FVADEX) • Foreign va embodied in domestic final demand (FVAFFD) We measure: • Participation = (DVAFEX+FVADEX) or (DVAFFD+FVADFD) • Gains = (DVAFEX/FVADEX) or (DVAFFD/FVADFD) C. Jona-Lasinio ISTAT and LUISS Lab of European Economics 6 / 24
  • 7. Average VA share of intangible investment 1995-2010 The average VA share of intangible investment is relatively higher in the service sectors (8.2 %) than in manufacturing (7.0%) in most of the sample countries besides SE, DE, FI, IT and FR. C. Jona-Lasinio ISTAT and LUISS Lab of European Economics 7 / 24
  • 8. Participation to Global Value Chains Participation significantly increased over time in manufacturing across the EU countries, but to a lesser extent in Finland, Belgium and in the Mediterranean economies (ES and IT). C. Jona-Lasinio ISTAT and LUISS Lab of European Economics 8 / 24
  • 9. Forward Participation to Global Value Chains Forward participation (here measured in per hours worked) is likely to be higher for countries (and sectors) involved in upstream production, with output and exports of that country feeding into the production and exports of downstream producers (i.e. forward integration). C. Jona-Lasinio ISTAT and LUISS Lab of European Economics 9 / 24
  • 10. Backward Participation to Global Value Chains Backward participation, the extent to which a country’s exports are dependent on imported content, it is likely to be higher for countries (sectors) involved in downstream production. C. Jona-Lasinio ISTAT and LUISS Lab of European Economics 10 / 24
  • 11. Gains from Participation to Global Value Chains Gains from participation refer to the capability of a country to appropriate a large share of value added. In 2011, UK and NL have relatively higher gains both in manufacturing and services, DK higher in manufacturing and DE in services. C. Jona-Lasinio ISTAT and LUISS Lab of European Economics 11 / 24
  • 12. Research hypothesis: 1 HP1: Advanced countries investing relatively more in intangible assets display higher participation in global value chains. • Advanced countries are expected to organize their production along a value chain by keeping at home those activities that have a higher strategic value, are more complex (involve higher transaction costs) and allow them to keep control over the value chains. • Assets such as R&D expenditures, training, organizational capital may play a strategic role in creating domestic value added in these activities. C. Jona-Lasinio ISTAT and LUISS Lab of European Economics 12 / 24
  • 13. Research hypothesis: 2 HP2: Intangible assets provide a different contribution to forward and backward linkages in GVC. R&D, and design are more relevant to forward linkages while marketing and advertising to backward linkages. • The role of intangible assets might differ according to the position of a country in the GVC. • While assets such as R&D and design may be strategic in the upstream activities stages of the value chains, other assets such as marketing and advertising may be more important in downstream activities. C. Jona-Lasinio ISTAT and LUISS Lab of European Economics 13 / 24
  • 14. Research hypothesis: 3 HP3: Benefits from participation in GVC (in terms of value added creation) increase with intangible capital assets in the advanced economies. Overall, there is evidence that a great part of the valued added of a final product is created in the first and last stages of the production process (R&D, design, marketing and sales), while firms involved in intermediate stages (such as the production of components and assembly) reap only a small part of the final value of the good or service produced (Mudambi, 2008). C. Jona-Lasinio ISTAT and LUISS Lab of European Economics 14 / 24
  • 15. Participation to Global Value Chains vs Intangible capital C. Jona-Lasinio ISTAT and LUISS Lab of European Economics 15 / 24
  • 16. Forward Participation vs Intangible assets C. Jona-Lasinio ISTAT and LUISS Lab of European Economics 16 / 24
  • 17. Backward Participation vs Intangible assets C. Jona-Lasinio ISTAT and LUISS Lab of European Economics 17 / 24
  • 18. Gains from Participation vs Intangible capital C. Jona-Lasinio ISTAT and LUISS Lab of European Economics 18 / 24
  • 19. Econometric analysis lnY GVCj c,i,t = α1lnKIntgs c,i,t + α2lnKICT c,i,t + α3lnKTang c,i,t + α4lnXc,i,t + δt + γi + where: • c=country, i=industry, t=time • Y GVCj different indicators for GVC participation (total, forward and backward) and gains from GVC • KIntgs is intangible capital with s=Tot Intg, R&D, Training, Design, Advertising and marketing, Organizational capital; KICT is ICT capital and KTang is tangible capital stock; X are other controls (corporate income taxes, country size); δt and γi are time and industry dummies. • All variables are in per hours term. C. Jona-Lasinio ISTAT and LUISS Lab of European Economics 19 / 24
  • 20. Empirical results: factors influencing participation in global value chains (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) VARIABLES lnKIntg 0.169*** (0.050) lnKIntg(ex-R&D) 0.346*** 0.397*** (0.067) (0.120) lnKR&D 0.247*** 0.143*** (0.035) (0.047) lnKTrain 0.596*** (0.049) lnKAdv-Mkt 0.306*** (0.069) lnKDesign 0.015 (0.063) lnKOrg Cap 0.250*** (0.045) lnKICT 0.316*** 0.262*** 0.173** 0.025 0.103 0.199** 0.495*** 0.160** (0.080) (0.058) (0.084) (0.091) (0.065) (0.091) (0.077) (0.081) lnKTang 0.447*** 0.406*** 0.421*** 0.355*** 0.098** 0.412*** 0.359*** 0.539*** (0.065) (0.058) (0.055) (0.062) (0.047) (0.057) (0.061) (0.064) Country Size -0.148*** -0.124*** -0.223*** -0.230*** -0.283*** -0.197*** -0.103 -0.140*** (0.049) (0.046) (0.052) (0.051) (0.036) (0.058) (0.070) (0.051) Corporate income tax rate -0.028*** -0.019*** -0.028*** -0.014*** -0.010** -0.031*** -0.028*** -0.030*** (0.006) (0.005) (0.005) (0.005) (0.005) (0.004) (0.005) (0.005) Observations 92 82 92 82 92 92 92 92 Number of ctrysec 18 16 18 16 18 18 18 18 Standard errors in parentheses *** p<0.01, ** p<0.05, * p<0.1 Participation to GVC C. Jona-Lasinio ISTAT and LUISS Lab of European Economics 20 / 24
  • 21. Empirical results: factors influencing forward and backward linkages (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) VARIABLES lnKIntg 0.301*** 0.144*** (0.060) (0.046) lnKIntg(ex-R&D) 0.503*** 0.540*** 0.281*** 0.277* (0.083) (0.116) (0.088) (0.152) lnKR&D 0.385*** 0.251*** 0.119*** 0.036 (0.040) (0.051) (0.041) (0.064) lnKTrain 0.787*** 0.415*** (0.048) (0.063) lnKAdv-Mkt 0.141* 0.404*** (0.076) (0.074) lnKDesign -0.001 0.158** (0.051) (0.074) lnKOrg Cap 0.124** -0.203*** (0.057) (0.050) lnKICT 0.160** 0.108* 0.005 -0.206** -0.137*** 0.277*** 0.419*** -0.177** 0.385*** 0.399*** 0.299*** 0.254** 0.255*** 0.178* 0.413*** 0.278*** (0.074) (0.063) (0.089) (0.093) (0.051) (0.092) (0.051) (0.076) (0.084) (0.070) (0.100) (0.110) (0.088) (0.099) (0.087) (0.077) lnKTang 0.553*** 0.513*** 0.505*** 0.441*** 0.213*** 0.518*** 0.479*** 0.075 0.325*** 0.319*** 0.256*** 0.264*** 0.084 0.265*** 0.262*** -0.224*** (0.069) (0.067) (0.071) (0.071) (0.040) (0.059) (0.050) (0.059) (0.069) (0.066) (0.068) (0.073) (0.063) (0.065) (0.070) (0.059) Country Size -0.222*** -0.250***-0.236*** -0.285*** -0.272*** -0.130* -0.064 -0.248*** -0.158** -0.158** -0.187** -0.234***-0.335***-0.225*** -0.162* -0.293*** (0.042) (0.034) (0.049) (0.052) (0.035) (0.067) (0.070) (0.039) (0.075) (0.074) (0.078) (0.078) (0.063) (0.060) (0.084) (0.076) Corporate income tax rate -0.032*** -0.015** -0.034*** -0.016** -0.012** -0.029***-0.029***-0.025*** -0.027*** -0.019*** -0.024***-0.016*** -0.010 -0.026***-0.027*** -0.028*** (0.005) (0.006) (0.005) (0.006) (0.005) (0.004) (0.005) (0.006) (0.005) (0.005) (0.006) (0.005) (0.006) (0.005) (0.006) (0.006) Observations 92 82 92 82 92 92 92 92 92 82 92 82 92 92 92 92 Number of ctrysec 18 16 18 16 18 18 18 18 18 16 18 16 18 18 18 18 Standard errors in parentheses *** p<0.01, ** p<0.05, * p<0.1 Forward participation Backward participation C. Jona-Lasinio ISTAT and LUISS Lab of European Economics 21 / 24
  • 22. Empirical results: factors influencing gains from participation (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) VARIABLES lnKIntg 0.285*** 0.044* (0.056) (0.026) lnKIntg(ex-R&D) 0.450*** 0.221* 0.027 0.014 (0.071) (0.116) (0.035) (0.063) lnKR&D 0.152*** 0.095** 0.080*** 0.077*** (0.025) (0.043) (0.023) (0.026) lnKTrain 0.331*** 0.056* (0.049) (0.030) lnKAdv-Mkt -0.102 0.027 (0.080) (0.038) lnKDesign 0.042 0.054* (0.064) (0.032) lnKOrg Cap 0.297*** 0.033 (0.038) (0.021) Observations 92 82 92 82 92 92 92 92 92 82 92 82 92 92 92 92 Number of ctrysec 18 16 18 16 18 18 18 18 18 16 18 16 18 18 18 18 Standard errors in parentheses *** p<0.01, ** p<0.05, * p<0.1 Gains from GVC participation (export based measure) Gains from GVC participation (demand based measure) C. Jona-Lasinio ISTAT and LUISS Lab of European Economics 22 / 24
  • 23. Summing up We find supportive evidence for our 3 main hypothesis. • HP1: Intangible capital as a whole is positively related to participation in global value chains in advanced countries. Moreover, nonR&D intangibles play a larger role than R&D with training being the main driver. • HP2: Intangibles contribute positively but to a different extent to both forward and backward participation: R&D is more relevant for forward while marketing and advertising are more important for backward linkages . This evidence supports the assumption that R&D is a factor affecting upstream production while marketing and advertising have a role in downstream production. • HP3: Intangibles positively affect value appropriation and the results are robust to introducing separately R&D and other intangible assets. Training and organizational capital have a large positive effect while marketing and advertising and architectural design do not. C. Jona-Lasinio ISTAT and LUISS Lab of European Economics 23 / 24
  • 24. Next steps • Further develop the econometrics to control for possible endogeneity biases affecting our results (IV) • Extend the database across countries and sectors (INTAN-Invest (2016), SPINTAN (2016) and EUKLEMS (2016)) • Extend the analysis to the total economy evaluating the role of public intangible intensity in affecting country’s participation to GVC. C. Jona-Lasinio ISTAT and LUISS Lab of European Economics 24 / 24