Spillovers from public intangibles
C. Corrado, (The Conference Board), New York
J. Haskel, (Imperial College, CEPR and IZA), London
C. Jona-Lasinio, (LUISS Lab and ISTAT), Rome
Society for Economic Measurement Annual Conference
6-8 July 2016, Thessaloniki, Greece
This project has received funding from the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme for
research, technological development and demonstration under grant agreement No. 612774
Corrado, Haskel, Jona-Lasinio SPINTAN 1 / 20
• The public sector is a major investor in many intangible assets (e.g. education,
training and R&D), as well as more tangible assets such as roads and telecoms
infrastructure. The analysis of possible public sector spillovers to the private sector
typically looks (in isolation) at three main public sector investments, in
• (a) R&D
• (b) education
• (c) infrastructure, but there are of course many other assets.
• Spillovers from public R&D to the market sector has been studied for Europe by for
example Guellec and van Pottelsberghe (2002, and 2004), Salter and Martin (2002)
and Park (1995).
• One area of spillovers from the Public Sector that has attracted much attention is
spillovers from general education to growth (Krueger and Lindahl, 2001; Bassanini
and Scarpetta, 2002; Arnold et al. 2007; Inklaar, Timmer and van Ark, 2008;
Dearden, Reed and van Reenen, 2006)
• ......but there are very few studies of possible spillovers from a wider set of public
intangibles to productivity growth.
Corrado, Haskel, Jona-Lasinio SPINTAN 2 / 20
Knowledge based capital in the total economy
correspondence for computer software, purchased investments in organizational capital, and
function-speciﬁc worker capital (employer-provided training) is of course far closer.
Table 3: Knowledge Capital in a Total Economy
Market Sector Nonmarket Sector
Computerized Information Information, Scientiﬁc, and Cultural Assets
1 Software 1 Software
2 Databases 2 Open data
3 R&D, broadly deﬁned to 3 R&D, basic and applied science
include all NPD costs
4 Entertainment & artistic originals 4 Cultural and heritage, including
5 Design arch. & eng. design
6 Mineral exploration 5 Mineral exploration
Economic Competencies Societal Competencies
7 Brands 6 Brands
8 Organizational capital 7 Organizational capital
(a) Manager capital (a) Professional and manager capital
(b) Purchased organizational services (b) Purchased organizational services
9 Firm-speciﬁc human capital 8 Function-speciﬁc human capital
(employer-provided training) (employer-provided training)
Note—NPD=New Product Development, including testing and spending for new ﬁnancial products
and other services development not included in software or conventional science-based R&D.
The circled items are rather di↵erent in a public sector context. Open data refers to in-Source: Corrado, Haskel, Jona-Lasinio (2014), SPINTAN Working Paper N.1
Corrado, Haskel, Jona-Lasinio SPINTAN 3 / 20
The scope of intangible assets used by the public sector:
industries of interest
laboratories, public parks and museums) in many countries; see table 1 below. The use of “mar-
ket” vs. “nonmarket” groupings of industries is thus not precise because an industry can reﬂect
activity carried out by a mix of producers, as is evident with NACE Section R and the larger
section of which NACE Section MB is a part.4
Table 1: SPINTAN Industries of Interest
section Industry title number
MB Scientiﬁc research and development 72
O Public administration and defence; compulsory social security 84
P Education 85
QA Human health activities 86
QB Residential care and social work activities 87-88
R Creative, arts and entertainment activities;
libraries, archives, museums and other cultural activities 90-91
Gambling and betting activities;
sports activities and amusement and recreation activities 92-93
Note—NACE Rev. 2.
Before we leave the subject of NACE-deﬁned industries, it must be said that in some countries
there are industries with signiﬁcant government or nonmarket production besides those listed
in table 1. These tend to be industries that engage in activities not germane to our topic areas,
Besides Public administration and defence, other industries in the
table contain a mix of market and nonmarket producers.
Corrado, Haskel, Jona-Lasinio SPINTAN 4 / 20
The analysis of spillovers from public Non R&D intangibles is a new territory to
be explored looking at all the possible channels trough which market and
nonmarket sectors interact. Thus we start investigating:
• the synergies between nonmarket intangibles and business sector productivity
performance and their impact on country’s economic growth.
• complementarity/substitutability between market and nonmarket intangibles
• the mechanisms through which nonmarket intangibles spillover to the private
sector exploring the relation between market sector TFP growth and diﬀerent
measures of public sector knowledge creation using a cross-country-industry
Corrado, Haskel, Jona-Lasinio SPINTAN 5 / 20
• Database with multiple dimensions: country, industry,
institutional sector, time
• Tangible and intangible assets (NA, INTAN Invest and SPINTAN)
• 20 industries (A-U Nace Rev 2), 1995-2013, so far 12 countries:
• Big Northern Europe: DE, FR, UK
• Scandinavian: DK FI, SE
• Small Europe: AT, CZ, NL
• Mediterranean: ES, IT
Corrado, Haskel, Jona-Lasinio SPINTAN 6 / 20
Empirical strategy 1
• We extend the time span of our previous work about spillovers
from market sector intangible capital, where we looked at 10
major European countries, over the period 1998-2007 (Corrado,
Haskel, Jona-Lasinio, 2014).
• We founded evidence of productivity spillovers to increases in
market sector intangible capital.
• Our ﬁnding of growth spillovers to intangible capital was
robust to whether R&D is included or excluded and with IV,
consistently with an underlying mechanism producing a
growth dividend to investments in non-R&D intangibles.
Corrado, Haskel, Jona-Lasinio SPINTAN 11 / 20
Empirical strategy 2
• Check for spillovers to intangibles over 1998-2013.
Did the occurrence of the ﬁnancial crisis aﬀect (CHJL, 2014)
• Investigate spillovers from nonmarket sector intangibles
distinguishing between R&D and NonR&D intangible capital.
Corrado, Haskel, Jona-Lasinio SPINTAN 12 / 20
∆ln(TFPc,t) = β1∆ln(KICT
s,c,t) + β2∆ln(KNonICT
s,c,t ) (1)
s,c,t) + β4∆ln(Ls,c,t)
s,c,t) + λc + λt + ηs,c,t .
where s= market, nonmarket sector, i= intangible asset types and ∆ln(Xj
other controls depending on the sectoral and asset disaggregation.
Corrado, Haskel, Jona-Lasinio SPINTAN 13 / 20
• Spillovers from Non R&D market intangibles are identiﬁed
supporting previous ﬁndings (CHJL, 2014)
• Coherently with existing empirical literature (Guellec and van
Pottelsberghe (2002, and 2004)) our ﬁndings support the
existence of spillovers from nonmarket R&D to market sector
• Correlations between market and nonmarket intangibles are
positive suggesting complementarities more relevant for Non R&D
Corrado, Haskel, Jona-Lasinio SPINTAN 16 / 20
Conclusions Policy challenges
• A primary characteristic of intangible capital, widely supported by
growth accounting exercises and macroeconomic studies, is to be
• This is because intangible investments likely generate spillovers to
the economic system being non-rival and possibly non-excludable.
Such spillovers, if they exist, might be within the private sector
and/or between the public and private sector.
• In the light of the prolonged productivity slowdown experienced by
many advanced countries after the ﬁnancial crisis, it would be
vital to know which, if any, public sector intangibles had positive
spillovers to the rest of the economy.
Corrado, Haskel, Jona-Lasinio SPINTAN 17 / 20
• As a ﬁrst step, we will investigate the relationship between market sector
labor productivity and public intangibles estimating a production function
augmented with market and nonmarket sector intangible capital.
∆ln(Vs,c,t/Ls,c,t) = α1∆ln(KICT
s,c,t/Ls,c,t) + α2∆ln(KNonICT
s,c,t /Ls,c,t) (2)
+ α3∆ln(Rs,c,t/Ls,c,t) + λc + λt + ηs,c,t .
Where s refers to market and to nonmarket sectors (s=mk, nm), c to the
countries and t is time. λc + λt are country and time dummies.
• We test equation (1) to check the linkages between market sector labor
productivity growth and nonmarket sector intangibles accounting also for
R&D and Non R&D intangible capital.
Corrado, Haskel, Jona-Lasinio SPINTAN 19 / 20
• As a second step, we will analyze the complementary/substitute relationship
between market and nonmarket intangibles distinguishing between R&D and
NonR&D intangible capital.
mk,c,t/Lmk,c,t) = β1∆ln(KICT
mk,c,t/Lmk,c,t) + β2∆ln(KNonICT
mk,c,t/Lmk,c,t) + β4∆ln(RZ
+ λc + λt + ηs,c,t .
where Z= total, NonR&D intangible capital and ∆ln(Xj
) are other controls
(such as ∆ln(RR&D
s,c,t ), ∆ln(Q/L)s,c,t ) depending on the dependent variable
being total or NonR&D intangible capital.
Corrado, Haskel, Jona-Lasinio SPINTAN 20 / 20