Martin Flade | Waterrietzanger

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Presentatie op de Landelijke Dag 2012 van spreker Martin Flade. Samenvatting: Fight for a small brown bird: Current status of the globally threatened Aquatic
Warbler (Acrocephalus paludicola) – Martin Flade (universiteit Brandenburg)
The Aquatic Warbler is the only globally threatened passerine species breeding on mainland Europe,
listed as Vulnerable in the IUCN Red List of Globally Threatened Species due to its rapid decline in the
past and the current limited area of occupancy of <500>95%. Although most current breeding sites are now protected, some peripheral breeding populations
are either decreasing in numbers (Pomerania, Lithuania) or have almost disappeared (West Siberia,
Hungary). However, Aquatic Warblers spend only about 3-4 months at the breeding sites and 2-3
months on migration, but about 5-7 months in the non-breeding areas in sub-Saharan West Africa.
This lecture summarises our current knowledge on breeding sites, population sizes and trends, on
migration routes and wintering sites and the threat status in Europe and West Africa.

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Martin Flade | Waterrietzanger

  1. 1. Operation Paludicola –Fight for a small brown bird Current status of the globally threatened Aquatic WarblerMartin Flade, chairman of the BirdLifeInternational Aquatic Warbler Conservation Team
  2. 2. Photos: Zymantas Morkvenas
  3. 3. Most threatenedpasserine bird ofcontinental Europe,classified as‚vulnerable‘ at aglobal scale Photo: Zymantas Morkvenas
  4. 4. inhabits large open mesotrophic to eutrophic fens and grassy marshes of central Europe and W-Siberia Photo: Arunas Pranaitis Biebrza, NE-Poland, May 2010
  5. 5. Biebrza, NE-Poland, May 2010
  6. 6. Historical breeding records of Aquatic Warbler in Central and West Europe (from J. Bellebaum in prep.) AW has suffered a population decline by >95 % during the 20th century
  7. 7. AW have no pair bonds - the mating system is characterised bysuccessive polygyny and promiscuity (unique in reed warblers!) Photos: Arunas Pranaitis
  8. 8. Intense spermcompetition:copula can last upto 45 minutes!drawing: David Quinn,from:Leisler, B. & K.Schulze-Hagen 2011:The Reed Warblers –Diversity in auniform Bird Family.KNNV Publishing,Zeist.
  9. 9. Size of testis of the Aquatic Warblerin comparison with otherreed warbler species from: Leisler, B. & K. Schulze-Hagen 2011: The Reed Warblers – Diversity in a uniform Bird Family. KNNV Publishing, Zeist.
  10. 10. Photo: Alexander Kozulinuniparental care by the females – possible due to high abundance of large invertebrates in the sedge fens
  11. 11. Photos: Zymantas Morkvenas
  12. 12. multiple paternity:broods are fathered byup to 5 different males!
  13. 13. Middle Pripyat, Belarus Biebrza, NE-Poland high degree of flexibility and mobility as adaption to quickly changing habitats in floodplain mires!Biebrza, NE-Poland
  14. 14. The BirdLife InternationalAquatic Warbler Conservation Team (AWCT) ... an informal association of researchers and conservationists working on the Aquatic Warbler coming from all breeding range states and some stopover and wintering countries (France, Spain, UK, Belgium, Senegal)
  15. 15. Operation Paludicola – Fight for a small brown bird Current status of the globally threatened Aquatic Warbler Overview1. Introduction to the Aquatic Warbler and the BLI Aquatic Warbler Conservation Team2. Breeding range, population trends3. Threats and conservation projects at the breeding sites4. West Siberia Mystery5. Wintering sites6. Geolocators – new approach to study migratory connectivity
  16. 16. Aquatic -15 0 15 30 45 60 75 90Warbler 75 Knowledge in 1995 75Global range ? ?current breeding: ? 60 60 <50 50-200 45 45 200-1000 1000-5000 30 30 >5000 Winter rec. (Dec., Jan.) 15 Pripyat 15 former range 0 0 migration -15 0 15 30 45 60 75 90
  17. 17. go there!
  18. 18. 75 1999 60 2006 2003 1998 1998 2001BirdLife AWCT 1995 2000expeditions since 1996 19961995 2004 1997 45 2005and national follow-up research 30
  19. 19. Aquatic Lithuania: c. 100Warbler 55 Pomerania: 34-54 Central Europe: 10,000-12,000Current breedingdistribution(maximum number ofsinging males) 50 0-10 Hortóbagy: 0-16 10-50 45 50-200 200-1000 1000-5000 40 >5000
  20. 20. Zvaniec, Belarus: discovered 1995,biggest AW breeding site on the world (150 km², 3,000-7,000 singing males) (mesotrophic green moss – sedge fen)
  21. 21. Zvaniets, Belarus24th May, 1995
  22. 22. Industrial peat extraction in Belarus, 1996
  23. 23. Borki, upper Pripyat, Ukraine, 2005Zvaniec, Belarus, summer 2004
  24. 24. Dikoe, Belarus, spring mire of Yaselda and Narew rivers Lysimachia thyrsiflora Menyanthes trifoliata
  25. 25. oscillating floodplain mire, middle Yaselda, West Belarus (mesotrophic green moss – sedge fen)globally highest abundance ofAquatic Warbler:up to 135 singing males/km²,but strong fluctuations
  26. 26. Breeding populations of Aquatic Warbler (Flade & Malashevich, in prep.)
  27. 27. Breeding sites of Aquatic Warbler (Flade & Malashevich, in prep.)
  28. 28. Aquatic Warbler: average global population 2001-2010 (singing males) Russia Lithuania 158 Pomerania 178 76E-Poland 3,045 Belarus 5,360 Ukraine Hungary 3,620 282
  29. 29. Aquatic Warblerin Hungary 1971-2012 Estimated Global population development of 800 Aquatic Warbler since 1996 (AWCT data base) 700 600 singing males 500 Belarus good estimates14.000 400 300 Belarus rough estimates/ extrapolations 200 Belarus best guesses, interpolations 100 012.000 1971 1973 1977 1979 1983 1985 1989 1991 1995 1997 2001 2003 2007 2009 1975 1981 1987 1993 1999 2005 2011 Ukraine extrapolations from monitoring Year transects Ukraine interpolations (minimum value) Aquatic Warbler in Lithuania 1996-2008 East-Poland (nearly) full counts10.000 350 East-Poland estimates 300 singing males 250 East-Poland interpolations (minimum value) 200 8.000 Lithuania counts 150 100 Lithuania estimates 50 6.000 Lithuania interpolations (minimum value) 0 1996 2002 2004 2012 1998 2000 2006 2008 2010 Year Hungary counts Aquatic Warbler in Pomerania 1993-2012 450 Hungary interpolations 400 4.000 Pomerania counts 350 observed Pomerania estimates 300 model Number of males 250 2.000 global population good estimate 200 global population weak estimate 150 100 50 0 0 1996 1998 2000 2001 2002 2004 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 1997 1999 2003 2005 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
  30. 30. Biebrza, NE-Poland, Bagno Lawki,second-biggest AW breeding site on the world (mesotrophic green moss – sedge fen)
  31. 31. Abandonment leads to overgrowth withtrees and bushes (Biebrza)
  32. 32. Successional overgrowth due toabandonment of land use (Biebrza)
  33. 33. Polish-German EU LIFE Projecton the Conservation of AquaticWarbler in Pomerania and NE-Poland (2005-2010)
  34. 34. Production of biomassbriquets and pellets inTrczianne, NE-Poland
  35. 35. Achievements of the LIFE project: and of course: more and better AW habitat • 3,200 ha actively managed by the project • 4,000 ha under AES packages good for AW • Area occupied by AW within managed areas strongly increased at Biebrza • Strong indications for higher densities of AW after mowing at Biebrza
  36. 36. SiberiaMystery
  37. 37. Aquatic -15 0 15 30 45 60 75 90Warbler 75 75Global rangecurrent breeding: 60 60 ?? <50 50-200 45 45 200-1000 1000-5000 30 30 >5000 Winter rec. (Dec., Jan.) 15 15 former range 0 0 migration -15 0 15 30 45 60 75 90
  38. 38. Siberia 1999:huge transport problems... Tara bridge near Mezhowka
  39. 39. Siberia 1999: Very hard field conditions, wild animals...Nice coffee break („I survived Vietnam“) „Moshka very klein, but bolshoj scheisse“ Fresh bear tracks beside the tents ...
  40. 40. Most important result in 1999: We need a helicopter!
  41. 41. Siberia 2000:Northern Omsk Oblast Bol. Uki Vegetation description & bird survey / teamsdropped off for 2 days Jarovskoe Place One 100 km
  42. 42. ‚Place One‘ N Omsk First singing Aquatic Warbler in W-Siberia, 22nd of May, 2000
  43. 43. Birch group ‚Hotel Aureola‘Jarovskoe, 25 May 2000
  44. 44. 2001 1960: 5 ind./km² 2000 1967: 53-220/km² 1999 1961/62 1962 1,000 kmSW-Siberian plain between Ural and middle Ob Southern Taiga and Forest Steppe zone unconfirmed historical AW records confirmed AW records mires surveyed by AWCT 1999-2001
  45. 45. The secret of Aquatic Warbler occurrence in W-Siberia tremendous drainage campaigns in central Europe/Russia starting in the 1950s concentration of reliable breeding records in W-Siberia in the 1960s increased occurrence of AW on migration in the E-Mediterranean 1958-66 occupation of sites in W-Siberia extremely discontinuous, despite huge areasof suitable habitats song, biometric measurements and genetics of Siberian AW are not different. The ‚Exodus Hypothesis‘: The strong occurrence of AW in W-Siberia in the 1950s/60s and recent disappearance was the result of a big exodus from central and eastern Europe to the east, initiated through large-scale drainage campaigns in the 1950s.
  46. 46. Africa
  47. 47. Minsk/Belarus 30.04.2003:
  48. 48. Desk study 1: Collecting records during the non-breeding period (Schäffer et al. 2006)January-FebruaryNovember-DecemberMarch-AprilSeptember-October
  49. 49. Desk study 2: δ13C isotope analysis (Pain et al. 2004 and unpublished)Pain et al. 2004 Potential non-breeding range: 13°-20°N
  50. 50. Desk study 3: BIOCLIM modelling of non-breeding distribution (Walther et al. 2007)
  51. 51. A model for successful inter-continental co-operation toprotect a globally threatened migratory species under CMS The Senegal 2007 Team for results see Flade et al 2011: J Ornithol 152 (supplem. 1): 129-140
  52. 52. French Group ACROLA (Julien Foucher et al.) at the Niger in Mali
  53. 53. 2011 2011 (3) 2007 (1) 2011 (13) from: Buchanan et al. 2011, Ostrich 82: 81-85New discoveries/ringing 2011: Julien Foucher et al., group ACROLA
  54. 54. Global distribution of Aquatic Warbler Global distribution of the Aquatic Warbler Wintering sites Historical records CONNECTIVITY? 1 – 3 ind. captured 13 and 205 ind. capt. Stopover on migration autumn spring Breeding sites 0 – 9 sing. males 10 – 499males > 500 males
  55. 55. Aquatic Warblers ringed at the wintering sites and recovered in the breeding grounds Poluda et al. 2012, Ringing & Migration, DOI:10.1080/03078698.2012.691250 Global distribution of the Aquatic Warbler Wintering sites Historical records 1 – 3 ind. captured 13 and 205 ind. capt. Stopover on migration autumn spring Breeding sites 0 – 9 sing. males 10 – 499males > 500 males
  56. 56. historical records hatched: stabile isotope signatures of birds at the breeding sites potential breeding habitatsNew modelling of Aquatic Warbler non-breeding distributionon the basis of satellite image analysesBuchanan et al. 2011: Ostrich 82 (2): 81–85
  57. 57. from:Zwarts/Bijlsma/vanden Kamp/Wymenga2009:Living on the edge.Wetlands and birds ina changing Sahel.
  58. 58. from:Zwarts/Bijlsma/vanden Kamp/Wymenga2009:Living on the edge.Wetlands and birds ina changing Sahel.
  59. 59. from: Zwarts/Bijlsma/van den Kamp/WymengaAW wintering 2009:site Living on the edge. Wetlands and birds in a changing Sahel.
  60. 60. Lac de Guers
  61. 61. Drought in the Inner Niger Delta in winter 2011/2012February 2011 November 2011
  62. 62. Existing and planned river dams in thecatchment of the Inner Niger Delta(after Zwarts et al. 2009)
  63. 63. The Geolocator Project – which breeding population winters where?• Geolocators measure light intensity (every 5 minutes)• data are stored for one year• birds have to be recaptured to retrieve the logger data;• positions during migration and wintering can be calculated bysunrise and day length• Isolated population in central Ukraine (Supoij) chosen for pilot study (30 males withGL, 16 controls)• recapture of birds in May 2011 (6 GL, 6 controls)
  64. 64. 0.6 g Geolocator (SOI-GDL2): • newly developed in 2010 by the Swiss Ornithol. Institute • at the first time used for Aquatic Warbler
  65. 65. Geolocator Project:First results from the first pilot study 2010/11 from: Salewski et al. in press (J. Ornithol.)
  66. 66. change in global priorities im AW conservation Before c. 2000 todayBreeding - Site protection - restoration of hydrologyrange - restoration of hydrology - vegetation management - stabilisation of hydrology mowing techniques, - agricultural extensification controlled burning - biomass useWintering - identification of wintering - identification of wintering/range and moulting sites moulting sites - site protection - research on threat factors
  67. 67. Thanks for support toRoyal Society for the Protection of Birds (RSPB)Michael Otto Stiftung für UmweltschutzDeutsche Ornithologen-Gesellschaft (DO-G)Deutsche Bundesstiftung Umwelt (DBU)UK Department for Environment, Food and Agriculture (DEFRA)MAVA StiftungNaturschutzbund Deutschland (NABU)Sekretariat der Bonner Konvention (CMS)O.M.H. Schmidt-Felsche StiftungBirdLife Belarus (APB)The Wetlands TrustandThe members of the Aquatic Warbler Conservation Team,especially:Poland: Janusz Kloskowski, Jarek Krogulec, Grzegorz Kiljan, Lars Lachmann, PiotrMarczakiewiczAndrzej Dyrcz; Belarus: Alexander Kozulin, Viktar Fenchuk, OleghPareyko, Luba Vergeichik, Arkady Skuratovich; Belgium: Norbert Roothaert;France: Bruno Bargain, Julien Foucher, Arnaud LeNevé, Germany: Karl Schulze-Hagen, Benedikt Gießing, Sebastian Körner, Sven Baumung, Hans-Günther Bauer,Jürgen Jebram, Tanja Leinweber, Torsten Ryslavy, Volker Salewski, FranziskaTanneberger; Latvia: Oskars Keiss; Lithuania: Zymantas Morkvenas, ZydrunasPreiksa, Renatas Jakaitis; Russia: Mikhail Kalyakin, Sergej Tsibulin, SergejSoloviev, Vladimir Morozov; Ukraine: Anatoly Poluda, Igor Gorban; Hungary: ZsoltVégváry; Senegal: Ibrahima Diop, Indega Bindia
  68. 68. Wanted:We are searching for skilled volunteers for Aquatic Warblercounts in S Belarus and NW Ukraine in late May/June 2013 Are you interested? Please have a look on our AWCT Website www.aquaticwarbler.net or contact me via e-mail: flade@dda-web.de

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