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The Comfort Theory
By Dr. Katherine Kolkaba RN

Presented by Sangita Maharjan RN
The Nursing Theorist.

Dr. Katherine Kolkaba RN
 Founder of Comfort Theory in Nursing
 Married with two children and eig...
The Nursing Theorist
Employment History:
 Co-Chair of the Theory Development Research
Section
 Midwest Nursing Research ...
The Comfort Theory
 First proposed comfort as nurse sensitive
outcome in 1992.
 A midrange theory
 A humanistic, holist...
Conceptual Framework of the
Theory
Major Concepts of the theory part 1
 Health Care Needs: identified by the
patient/family in a particular practice
setting...
Major Concepts of the theory part 2
Health Seeking Behavior (HSBs):
 Institutional Integrity - the values,
financial stab...
Types of comfort
 Comfort as a product of holistic nursing
art. ( Kolcaba K, 1995)
 Relief – the state of having a speci...
Context of Comfort
 Physical – bodily sensations, homeostatic mechanisms,
immune function, etc.
 Psychospiritual – inter...
Taxonomic Structure of the Theory
The Metaparadigm Concepts part 1

 Nursing: the intentional assessment of
comfort needs, design of comfort
measures to ad...
The Metaparadigm Concepts Part 2
 Patient: an individual, family, or
community in need of health care.

 Environment: ex...
Four Broad Assumptions & Theoretical
Assertions
 Human beings have holistic responses to
complex stimuli.
 Comfort is a ...
Propositions of Comfort Theory Part 1
If enhanced comfort is achieved, nurse,
patients and family members are more:
 like...
Propositions of Comfort Theory Part 2
 Nurses identify comfort needs of patients and
family members.
 Nurses design inte...
Conclusion
Applicable to all areas of the healthcare field,
nursing practice, nursing education, nursing
research to:
 im...
Reference
 Allysa Wolf (2011).The theory paper.
Theory Critique: Comfort. Retrieved from
htttp://alyssamif.files.wordpres...
Reference
 Erin Carlene ( June 24, 2012).Comfort Theory, Kathy
Kolcaba. Retrived from
http://www.slideshare.net/KathyKolc...
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Comfort theory

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Comfort theory

  1. 1. The Comfort Theory By Dr. Katherine Kolkaba RN Presented by Sangita Maharjan RN
  2. 2. The Nursing Theorist. Dr. Katherine Kolkaba RN  Founder of Comfort Theory in Nursing  Married with two children and eight grandchildren  Birthdate: December 28, 1944 Education:  Diploma, St. Luke's Hospital School of Nursing, 1965  RN/MSN Case Western Reserve University, 1987  PhD. Nursing Case Western Reserve University, 1997
  3. 3. The Nursing Theorist Employment History:  Co-Chair of the Theory Development Research Section  Midwest Nursing Research Society  Semi retired from The University of Akron, Associate Professor of Nursing, Emeritus Status  Consultant, The Comfort Line  Field of expertise: gerontology, end of life and long term care interventions, nursing theories, nursing research, comfort studies, instrument development, magnet status and enhancing the work environment for nurses
  4. 4. The Comfort Theory  First proposed comfort as nurse sensitive outcome in 1992.  A midrange theory  A humanistic, holistic theory that is based on patient’s need.
  5. 5. Conceptual Framework of the Theory
  6. 6. Major Concepts of the theory part 1  Health Care Needs: identified by the patient/family in a particular practice setting.  Comfort is the immediate experience of being strengthened by having needs for relief, ease, and transcendence met in four contexts (physical, psychospiritual, social, and environmental).
  7. 7. Major Concepts of the theory part 2 Health Seeking Behavior (HSBs):  Institutional Integrity - the values, financial stability, and wholeness of health care organizations at local, regional, state, and national levels.  Best Policies are protocols and procedures developed by an institution for overall use after collecting evidence.
  8. 8. Types of comfort  Comfort as a product of holistic nursing art. ( Kolcaba K, 1995)  Relief – the state of having a specific comfort need met.  Ease – the state of calm or contentment.  Transcendence – the state in which one can rise above problems of pain.
  9. 9. Context of Comfort  Physical – bodily sensations, homeostatic mechanisms, immune function, etc.  Psychospiritual – internal awareness of self, including esteem, identity, sexuality, meaning in one's life, and one's understood relationship to a higher order or being.  Environmental – the external background of human experience such as temperature, light, sound, odor, color, furniture, landscape etc.  Sociocultural – interpersonal, family, and societal relationships such as finances, teaching, health care personnel, family traditions, rituals, and religious practices etc.
  10. 10. Taxonomic Structure of the Theory
  11. 11. The Metaparadigm Concepts part 1  Nursing: the intentional assessment of comfort needs, design of comfort measures to address those needs, and reassessment of patients,' families, or community comfort after implementation of comfort measures, compared to a previous baseline.  The goal of nursing: providing comfort.
  12. 12. The Metaparadigm Concepts Part 2  Patient: an individual, family, or community in need of health care.  Environment: exterior influences (physical room or home, policies, institutional, etc.) which can be manipulated to enhance comfort.  Health: optimum function of a patient/ family/ community facilitated by attention to comfort needs.
  13. 13. Four Broad Assumptions & Theoretical Assertions  Human beings have holistic responses to complex stimuli.  Comfort is a holistic outcome of effective nursing care.  Human beings have a need for comfort and will seek comfort wherever possible.  Nurses are in a position to identify the comfort needs of their patients, design comfort measures, and assess outcomes to support enhanced comfort.
  14. 14. Propositions of Comfort Theory Part 1 If enhanced comfort is achieved, nurse, patients and family members are more:  likely to engage in health-seeking behaviors.  satisfied with health care and have better health-related outcomes.  Contributes to help the institution remain viable and flourish.  agree on desirable and realistic healthseeking behaviors.
  15. 15. Propositions of Comfort Theory Part 2  Nurses identify comfort needs of patients and family members.  Nurses design interventions to meet identified needs.  Intervening variables are considered when designing interventions.  When interventions are delivered in a caring manner and are effective, and when enhanced comfort is attained, interventions are called “comfort measures”
  16. 16. Conclusion Applicable to all areas of the healthcare field, nursing practice, nursing education, nursing research to:  improve societal acceptance  appreciation of the institution,  increase patient satisfaction  comforting the learner or student in an educatio nal environment.  test the benefits of comfort on learning.
  17. 17. Reference  Allysa Wolf (2011).The theory paper. Theory Critique: Comfort. Retrieved from htttp://alyssamif.files.wordpress.com/2011/09/comforttheory-paper.pdf  Comfort care in nursing (July, 2010).The nursing theorist. Retrieved from http://comfortcareinnursing.blogspot.com/p/nursingtheorist-dr-katharine-kolcaba.html  Dossey, B. M., & Keegan, L. (2013).Holistic nursing: a handbook for practice (6th ed.). Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
  18. 18. Reference  Erin Carlene ( June 24, 2012).Comfort Theory, Kathy Kolcaba. Retrived from http://www.slideshare.net/KathyKolcaba/erinkolcaba  Erik Neilson( 2013).What are the main points of the comfort theory? Retrieved from http://www.ehow.com/list_6821213_main-points-nursingcomfort-theory_.html .  Malinowski A, Stamler LL( 2002).National institute of health.Comfort: exploration of the concept in nursing.Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12207758 .  Nursing theories( 2011).Comfort theory.Retrieved from http://currentnursing.com/nursing_theory/comfort_theory_ Kathy_Kolcaba.html .

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