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  1. 1. By Sangita Maharjan RN
  2. 2. Aromatherapy  Holistic treatment based on the external use of essential aromatic plant oils to maintain and promote physical, physiological, and spiritual well being.  a part of herbal medicine and one of the fastest growing field in alternative medicine.  Used for the relief of pain, reduce anxiety, and promote relaxation.
  3. 3. The History of Aromatherapy  Nearly 6000 years old  used in Greece, Rome and Egypt.  By Egyptian physician Imhotep, God of medicine and healing and Hippocrates, the father of modern medicine.
  4. 4. The History of Aromatherapy contd…  In modern era, the term is coined in 1928 from the French term aromatherapie by a French chemist, René Maurice Gattefossé.  Discovered the healing properties of essential plants oil.  Used In world war I and World war II  by Dr Jean Valnet, a French army surgeon and Marguerite Maury, a surgical assistant
  5. 5. The Benefits of Aromatherapy
  6. 6. The Benefits of Aromatherapy contd  With holistic perspective, preventive health care and useful complementary treatment  Essential oils have antiseptic, and some have antiviral, anti inflammatory, pain relieving, antidepressant, stimulation, relaxation, digestion improvement, diuretic properties and expectorant properties.  widely used at home, clinics and hospitals.
  7. 7. How does Aromatherapy work?
  8. 8. How does Aromatherapy work?  The effects of an aroma can be relaxing or stimulating.  Work at psychological, physiological, and cellular levels.  affect body, mind and all the delicate links in between  Produced Only steam distillation or expression or squeezing methods.
  9. 9. Methods of application  Three ways:  through ingestion,  through olfaction, the fastest effect, triggers olfactory sense and trigger responses in limbic system.  through topical application, via diffusion, compression, massage.
  10. 10. Evidence Based Research and Clinical Practice  Human can the capability to distinguish 10,000 different smells.  Smell controls our moods, emotions, memory and learning.  doctors have found that a life without fragrance can lead to high incidence of psychiatric problems.  smelling lavender increases alpha waves in the back of head.  Fragrance of Jasmine increases beta waves in the front of the heads.
  11. 11. Evidence Based Research and Clinical Practice contd..  A study conducted in Japanese fragrance company found that Japanese have reported less mistakes by key punch operators when exposed to fragrance.  British Medical Journal Lancet, elderly patients slept "like babies" when a lavender aroma was wafted into their bedrooms at night.  Han et al.(2006) found a mixture of essential oils topically applied to the abdomen of 67 nurses had a statically significant effect on reducing menstrual pain
  12. 12. Evidence Based Research and Clinical Practice contd..  Warnke et al., Edward-Jones et al, Bowlers et al. tested tea tree against several staphylococcal strains including MRSA, four streptococcus strains, and three candida strains including candida krusei  decrease in prevalence of MRSA, most effective against MRSA in dressing.  peppermint, and lemon reduced malodor and volatile sulfur compound in intensive care unit patients.  A Japanese study found that black peeper stimulated swallowing reflex in people with dysfunction following stroke  A paper by Lesho suggests that essential oils would be useful to reduce the incidence of hospital acquired and ventilator associated pneumonia
  13. 13. Implication for Nursing Practice and Theory  Aromatherapy resonates with various theory of nursing.  Watson’s Theory of Caring  Barret’s Theory of Power  Nightingale’s Theory of Nursing  Erickson’s work which led to the modeling theory  Roger’s Nursing Theory  Added to holistic nursing board examinations in the United States
  14. 14. Implication for Nursing Practice and Theory  In the United States and Great Britain, the contemporary practice of aromatherapy is often associated with naturopathy and Western herbal medicine.  The fastest growing therapy among nurses in the united states.  In the United States, many hospital-affiliated centers for the study of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) offer aromatherapy as well as other alternative approaches.
  15. 15. Risks of aromatherapy  Not all essential oils, however, should be taken internally.  Oral consumption only under the care and supervision of an experienced practitioner.  Cautious use during pregnancy, have allergy, high blood pressure or epilepsy.  Cautious use in young children or babies.  post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or any of the dissociative disorders .
  16. 16. REFRENCE  (n.d).The balance and harmony of body, mind. Essential oils. Retrieved 01/26/2014 from  2007). Aromatherapy. Retrieved 01/26/2014 from  Dossey, B. M., & Keegan, L. (2013).Holistic nursing: a handbook for practice (6th ed.). Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.  Rebecca J. Frey( n.d). Encyclopedia of mental disorder. Aromatherapy. Retrieved 01/26/2014 from