Holistic treatment based on the external
use of essential aromatic plant oils to
maintain and promote physical,
physiological, and spiritual well being.
a part of herbal medicine and one of the
fastest growing field in alternative
Used for the relief of pain, reduce anxiety,
and promote relaxation.
The History of Aromatherapy
Nearly 6000 years old
used in Greece, Rome and Egypt.
By Egyptian physician Imhotep, God of
medicine and healing and
Hippocrates, the father of modern
The History of Aromatherapy contd…
In modern era, the term is coined in 1928
from the French term aromatherapie by a
French chemist, René Maurice Gattefossé.
Discovered the healing properties of essential
Used In world war I and World war II
by Dr Jean Valnet, a French army surgeon
and Marguerite Maury, a surgical assistant
The Benefits of Aromatherapy contd
With holistic perspective, preventive health care
and useful complementary treatment
Essential oils have antiseptic, and some have
antiviral, anti inflammatory, pain relieving,
antidepressant, stimulation, relaxation, digestion
improvement, diuretic properties and expectorant
widely used at home, clinics and hospitals.
How does Aromatherapy work?
The effects of an aroma can be relaxing or
Work at psychological, physiological, and
affect body, mind and all the delicate links
Produced Only steam distillation or
expression or squeezing methods.
Methods of application
through olfaction, the fastest
effect, triggers olfactory sense and trigger
responses in limbic system.
through topical application, via
diffusion, compression, massage.
Evidence Based Research and Clinical
Human can the capability to distinguish 10,000
Smell controls our moods, emotions, memory
doctors have found that a life without fragrance
can lead to high incidence of psychiatric
smelling lavender increases alpha waves in the
back of head.
Fragrance of Jasmine increases beta waves in the
front of the heads.
Evidence Based Research and
Clinical Practice contd..
A study conducted in Japanese fragrance
company found that Japanese have reported
less mistakes by key punch operators when
exposed to fragrance.
British Medical Journal Lancet, elderly patients
slept "like babies" when a lavender aroma was
wafted into their bedrooms at night.
Han et al.(2006) found a mixture of essential
oils topically applied to the abdomen of 67
nurses had a statically significant effect on
reducing menstrual pain
Evidence Based Research and Clinical
Warnke et al., Edward-Jones et al, Bowlers et al. tested tea
tree against several staphylococcal strains including
MRSA, four streptococcus strains, and three candida strains
including candida krusei
decrease in prevalence of MRSA, most effective against
MRSA in dressing.
peppermint, and lemon reduced malodor and volatile sulfur
compound in intensive care unit patients.
A Japanese study found that black peeper stimulated
swallowing reflex in people with dysfunction following stroke
A paper by Lesho suggests that essential oils would be useful
to reduce the incidence of hospital acquired and ventilator
Implication for Nursing Practice and
Aromatherapy resonates with various theory of
Watson’s Theory of Caring
Barret’s Theory of Power
Nightingale’s Theory of Nursing
Erickson’s work which led to the modeling theory
Roger’s Nursing Theory
Added to holistic nursing board examinations in
the United States
Implication for Nursing Practice
In the United States and Great Britain, the
contemporary practice of aromatherapy is often
associated with naturopathy and Western herbal
The fastest growing therapy among nurses in the
In the United States, many hospital-affiliated
centers for the study of complementary and
alternative medicine (CAM) offer aromatherapy as
well as other alternative approaches.
Risks of aromatherapy
Not all essential oils, however, should be taken
Oral consumption only under the care and
supervision of an experienced practitioner.
Cautious use during pregnancy, have allergy,
high blood pressure or epilepsy.
Cautious use in young children or babies.
post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or any of
the dissociative disorders .
Aromatherapy.com (n.d).The balance and harmony of
body, mind. Essential oils. Retrieved 01/26/2014 from
Holisticonline.com( 2007). Aromatherapy.
Retrieved 01/26/2014 from http://holisticonline.com/Aromatherapy/aroma_benefits.htm
Dossey, B. M., & Keegan, L. (2013).Holistic nursing: a
handbook for practice (6th ed.). Burlington, MA: Jones
& Bartlett Learning.
Rebecca J. Frey( n.d). Encyclopedia of mental disorder.
Aromatherapy. Retrieved 01/26/2014 from