Reflective Teaching in ELT: An Effective Tool for Professional Development Dr V. Pala Prasada Rao Reader,JKC College,Guntur Prasadarao.email@example.com
Outcomes At the end of this FOUR PARTS lecture, you will be able to identify 1.Changed paradigm in ELT the qualities and and its importance competencies required from an effective teacher 2. Reflective Practices Apply skills for reflection and continuous 3. A Reflective Report of my class evaluation for professional advancement 4. Your Reflections
By three methods we may learnwisdom: First, by reflection, which is noblest; Second, by imitation, which is easiest; and Third, by experience, which is the bitterest”. - Confucius
University Teachers as ReflectiveProfessionals .QUESTIONS1. What professional competencies & personal attributes are required from an effective teacher?2. What is, in your opinion, reflective practice/a reflective practitioner?
Personal Attributes1. confident and calm2. hardworking and sincere3. witty and has a sense of humour4. humane, sensitive and sympathetic5.. patient and encouraging6. tolerant of errors committed by students7. can take criticism positively
Professional Expertise1.Allows students to work at their own pace2. Relates his teaching to everyday situations3. Corrects students without wounding them4. Has a good knowledge of his subject5. Builds up students‟ confidence6. Good classroom manager7. IS REFLECTIVE
Defining Reflective Practice “A set of abilities “When learners and skills, to indicate analyze or evaluate the taking of a critical one or more personal stance to problem experiences, and solving or state of attempt to generalize mind”. - Moon from that thinking”. - Cowan
To put it simply ….. „Reflective practitioners‟ usually refer to adult learners who are engaged in some kind of activity (often professional) which they can use to reflect on their strengths and/or weaknesses.
Philosophers on Reflective Practicesin Teaching John Dewey‟s “How We Think” Donald Schon‟s “Educating the Reflective Practitioners” :
Exploring the Possibilities ofReflection Academic Preparation-- "What Shall I Teach?” Understanding Learners-- "How Do Students Learn?” Organizing for Teaching --"How Shall I Teach?”And finally - was the lesson a success?
Why Reflect? To see ourselves To increase our awareness To improve the effectiveness of our own teaching
METHODS OF REFLECTION1.QUANTITATIVE METHODSEx: Rating Scales, Charts, graphs etc.2. QUALITATIVE METHODSEx: Field Notes, Diaries, Audio-visual Recordings etc.
QUANTITIATIVE METHODSChecklist: Instructional Events in a LessonS.No Events Observed Not observed 1. Creating a learning set +1 2. Stating the objectives of the lesson -1 3. Stimulating recall of task- relevant prior learning +1 4. Teaching new content +1 5. Providing practice +1 6. Providing feedback -1 7. Providing a review of the lesson -1
SOME QUANTITATIVE METHODS:Rating Scales The teacher responds to incorrect responses in a non-punitive manner. The teacher provides learners opportunities for self or peer correction.
KINDS OF QUALITATIVE REFLECTION 1. Feedback Collection – one-minute paper (at the end of each lesson) 2. Teaching Feedback Questionnaire -- Peer observation – Observe and be observed 3. Written Accounts of Experiences – Self-reports – Autobiographies (reaction sheets) – Journal writing – Collaborative diary keeping – Recording lessons
HERE IS A RETROSPECTIVE REPORTOF MY CLASS CLASS: II B.Sc., LANGUAGE ITEM: Expressing One‟s Opinions and Point of View
Pedagogical Bases of the Lesson Lecture Demonstration Discussion – structured (by teacher Discussion unstructured Tutorial Simulation or games Role play Projects Real-life experience
Different Stages within a LessonSTAGE PRESENTA- PRACTICE PRODUCTI- TION ONTeacher‟s controls and monitors facilitatesrole informs and corrects and guidesLearners‟ understand/for manipulate use produceroles mulate rules of the language/com about the language in municate in the language different language in the situations life-like manner
Here is a Retrospective Report …. Now Time to Reflect IF YOU WERE “I”, HOW COULD YOU REFLECT ON THE RETROSPECTIVE REPORT?
USES LIMITATIONS No special training is Fewer details get recorded. required. No special arrangements Events cannot be recalled in needed. detail. Do not interfere with normal teaching. Self-reporting entails some can be accommodated degree of subjectivity. into one‟s teaching schedule It is open-ended. One cannot go back to events to check.
The criteria used by UGC to assessfor CAS includes:1.What is your contribution to teaching in terms of new methods, design of syllabi, or others?2. Whether class room teaching is clear to the students?3. Whether the tasks and activities fit the goals?
Those reading your portfolio seekevidence you have:1.a scholarly approach to teaching2.obtained student and peer feedback of your teaching and that you have acted on the results3. reflected on how your teaching has influenced student learning4. made an impact on student learning
Any questions to help me start off? IN MY TEACHING CONTEXT In your discipline, what content area do you regard as strongest? Are there content areas in which you need to improve your knowledge? Which teaching approach has been most beneficial for students? Why? Give examples of alternatives teaching approaches you have used? What do you regard as the least effective teaching activity you undertake?
What details you need to include in thereport?Your reflections may include Two sections: A summary containing the statements of your teaching activities reflection and impact Appendices containing the evidence to support the summary
NOW IT’S YOUR TURN TO REFLECTAND SHARE Pl. GIVE SOME REFLECTION ABOUT YOUR CLASS NOTE: Pl. don‟t reflect on the whole class Take one defining moment which calls for reflection. Then share DURATION: 5M
The Value of Reflection Now Ponder over the RELIABILITY and the VALIDITY of reflective practices in ELT.
YES, CERTAINLY … Reflective Teachers : 1. Are better able to structure situations and problems 2. Use a questioning approach when evaluating their experience (why did this happen?) 3. Are clear about what they want to learn and improve 4. Can describe and analyze experience (s) and interaction well
Final Words “If we are to become more effective teachers, we need to become more reflective teachers. To be reflective we need to articulate our theories of learning, critically examine them and replace those parts which, we suspect or, better still, can show do not work”. J.Webb
Contd…. Reflection helps a teacher to critique, challenge and ultimately transform the practice.
AN INVITATION A TWO-DAY NATIONAL SEMINAR ON METHODS, MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES OF ELT DATE:24-25, JULY, 2010 AND ALL INDIA TEACHERS‟ CONFERENCE IN JANUARY,2010 VENUE:JKC COLLEGE, GUNTUR PRASADARAO.JKCCOLLEGE@GMAIL.COM