HazMat Ch08

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  • Image: Courtesy of MIEMSS.
  • Image: Photographed by Glen E. Ellman.
  • Image: Photographed by Glen E. Ellman.
  • Image: Photographed by Glen E. Ellman.
  • HazMat Ch08

    1. 1. 8Mission-Specific Competencies: TechnicalDecontamination
    2. 2. 8 Objectives (1 of 5)• Plan a response by selecting a technical decontamination process that will minimize the hazard• Identify and describe the limitations and advantages of each of the technical decontamination methods
    3. 3. 8 Objectives (2 of 5)• Describe the technical decontamination process• Identify the supplies and equipment needed for technical decontamination
    4. 4. 8 Objectives (3 of 5)• Identify precautionary measures, equipment, and procedures for handling anything or anyone brought to the decontamination corridor• Identify role of operations level responder assigned to technical decontamination
    5. 5. 8 Objectives (4 of 5)• Identify procedures for determining whether the items have been fully decontaminated• Identify the importance, steps, and requirements of maintaining records
    6. 6. 8 Objectives (5 of 5)• Identify precautionary measures, equipment, and procedures for processing evidence during technical decontamination
    7. 7. 8 Decontamination (1 of 2)• Physical or chemical process• Reduces and prevents spread of contaminants
    8. 8. 8 Decontamination (2 of 2)• Spread of contaminants is by – People – Animals – The environment – Equipment
    9. 9. 8 Emergency Decontamination• Used in potentially life-threatening situations• Mass decontamination is a way of performing
    10. 10. 8 Gross Decontamination• Takes place within controlled decontamination corridor• Consists of pre-wash before technical decontamination
    11. 11. 8 Technical Decontamination• More thorough process than gross decontamination• Often involves: – Cleaning solutions – Scrub brushes
    12. 12. 8Special Decontamination Situations• It may be necessary to decontaminate: – Search canines – Criminal suspects – Firearms – Specialized equipment – Pieces of evidence
    13. 13. 8Technical Decontamination Details (1 of 2)• More thorough than gross decontamination (its predecessor step)• Decontamination team – May use water or special cleaning solution – Dry decontamination removes and disposes of PPE
    14. 14. 8 Technical Decontamination Details (2 of 2)Technical decontamination is a more thorough cleaning process that often involves the use of brushes and chemical-specific cleaning solutions.
    15. 15. 8 Technical Decontamination Methods (1 of 3)• Physical techniques: – Absorption – Adsorption – Vacuuming – Washing
    16. 16. 8 Technical Decontamination Methods (2 of 3)• Chemical degradation: – Dilution – Disinfection – Evaporation – Neutralization – Solidification – Sterilization
    17. 17. 8 Technical Decontamination Methods (3 of 3)• Isolation and disposal
    18. 18. 8 Absorption (1 of 4)• Spongy material – Natural soil – Sawdust – Synthetic loose absorbent• Mixes with liquid hazardous material
    19. 19. 8 Absorption (2 of 4)Spongy materials are used to absorb liquid hazardous materials.
    20. 20. 8 Absorption (3 of 4)• Effective only on flat surfaces• Absorbent materials must be disposed of after use• Limited application to decontaminating personnel – Shuffle pit to clean boots (next slide)
    21. 21. 8 Absorption (4 of 4)Absorption can be used for decontaminating equipment and property.
    22. 22. 8 Adsorption (1 of 2)• Contaminant adheres to surface of added material – Sand – Activated carbon• Does not combine with it as in absorption
    23. 23. 8 Adsorption (2 of 2)Sand can be used as an adsorbent.
    24. 24. 8 Vacuuming• Removal of dusts, particles, some liquids• Sucks them up into container• Filtering system prevents reentry into atmosphere
    25. 25. 8 Washing• Effective, yet simple• Scrub with brush or sponge, and rinse• Removes solvents from: – PPE – Tools – Equipment
    26. 26. 8 Chemical Degradation• Breaks down chemical substance• Natural or artificial process
    27. 27. 8 Dilution• Generally uses plain water• Fast and economical• Preferred for – Gross decontamination – Technical decontamination – Mass decontamination
    28. 28. 8 Disinfection• Destroys disease-carrying microorganisms• Will not destroy spores (like anthrax)• Requires expert advice
    29. 29. 8 Evaporation• Natural form of chemical degradation• Lets substance evaporate on its own• No intervention by responders• Must be well-thought-out decision
    30. 30. 8 Neutralization• Used to minimize corrosivity of acid or base – Weak base to neutralize acid – Weak acid to neutralize base• Never used for personnel decontamination
    31. 31. 8 Solidification• Causes hazardous liquid to become solid• Usually cement-based products are used• Controls spill, but still must be disposed of
    32. 32. 8 Sterilization• Decontaminates biological agents• Uses heat, chemical means, or radiation• Kills all microorganisms, including spores (anthrax)• Not intended for use on responders
    33. 33. 8 Isolation and Disposal• Remove contaminated items from site• Transport to treatment, storage, or disposal facility• Use for items that cannot be properly decontaminated
    34. 34. 8 Technical Decontamination Process (1 of 5)• Takes place within predesignated corridor• Located within the warm zone• Set up before entry team enters hot zone
    35. 35. 8 Technical Decontamination Process (2 of 5)A decontamination corridor should be established prior to responders entering the hot zone.
    36. 36. 8 Technical Decontamination Process (3 of 5)• PPE worn by decontamination team – No more than one level below what entry team wears – May be same level as entry team
    37. 37. 8 Technical Decontamination Process (4 of 5)• Decontamination corridor may include – Collection devices to capture water used – Portable bug sprayers to apply water – Sponges and long-handled scrub brushes – Buckets – Tarps
    38. 38. 8 Technical Decontamination Process (5 of 5)• No single “right way” to do everything• Try to keep experience unstressful for victims
    39. 39. 8 Performing Technical Decontamination (1 of 3)• Leaving hot zone, place oversuits and tools in drop area• Proceed to gross decontamination• Technical decontamination – One to three wash-and-rinse stations – Only one responder in a station at a time
    40. 40. 8 Performing Technical Decontamination (2 of 3)• After being scrubbed, chemical-protective equipment can be removed – SCBA face piece or respirator stays in place• Remove outer gloves• In different area – Remove helmets, respiratory protection
    41. 41. 8 Performing Technical Decontamination (3 of 3)• Remove inner gloves• Don clean clothes – Disposable cotton coveralls – Hospital gowns – Hospital booties, slippers, flip-flops• Proceed to medical evaluation
    42. 42. 8 Evaluating Effectiveness of Technical Decontamination• Done at end of decontamination line• Based on nature of contaminant• Examples: – pH paper to detect corrosive residue – Photo-ionization detector (PID) – Radiation detector
    43. 43. 8 Reports and Documentation (1 of 2)• Completed by person responsible for decontamination corridor• Part of overall documentation process for incident
    44. 44. 8 Reports and Documentation (2 of 2)• Include: – Names of all persons processed – Information on released substance – Potential health effects – Description of decontamination activities – Breaches of PPE noted
    45. 45. 8 Summary (1 of 2)• Match decontamination to properties of released substance• Gross decontamination takes place before technical decontamination• Establish and use decontamination corridor in warm zone
    46. 46. 8 Summary (2 of 2)• Remove PPE from person; don’t take person out of PPE• After decontamination, personnel should proceed to medical station for evaluation• Use detection techniques to evaluate effectiveness• Document the incident

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