4 Objectives (1 of 5)• Estimate the potential harm or severity of a hazardous materials/WMD incident.• Use resources to determine the size of and incident.• Describe exposure protection.• Report the size and scope of an incident.
4 Objectives (2 of 5)• Use available resources to determine the concentration of a hazardous material.• Identify skin contact hazards.• Know how to plan an initial response.• Describe the potential for secondary attacks/devices.
4 Objectives (3 of 5)• Select appropriate PPE for hazardous materials/WMD incidents.• Identify purpose, advantages, and limitations of: – Street clothing and work uniforms – Structural firefighting protective clothing – High temperature–protective clothing and equipment – Chemical-protective clothing and equipment
4 Objectives (4 of 5)• Discuss respiratory protection needs.• Discuss the levels of hazardous materials/WMD PPE.
4 Objectives (5 of 5)• Describe physical capabilities required and limitations of personnel working in PPE.• Describe the importance of having a plan in place to decontaminate a victim.
4 Responder’s Priorities at aHazardous Materials/WMD Incident1. Ensure your own safety at scene2. Address potential life safety of those persons affected by the incident
4 Estimating Potential Harm or Severity of Incident (1 of 4)• Threshold limit value (TLV)• Permissible exposure limit (PEL)• Threshold limit value/short-term exposure limit (TLV/STEL)• Threshold limit value/time-weighted average (TLV/TWA)
4 Estimating Potential Harm or Severity of Incident (2 of 4)• Threshold limit value/ceiling (TLV/C)• Threshold limit value/skin• Recommended exposure level (REL)• Immediately dangerous to life and health (IDLH) – Requires use of self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA)
4 Estimating Potential Harm or Severity of Incident (3 of 4)• Emergency Response Guidebook (ERG) – Gives evacuation distances – Gives basic action plans
4 Estimating Potential Harm or Severity of Incident (4 of 4)Instructions and example pages from the Initial Isolation Protective Action Distances table found in the ERG.
4 Exposures (1 of 3)• Isolation of hazard area• Denial of entry• Evacuation• Sheltering-in-place
4 Exposures (2 of 3)• Report size and scope of incident – Thermal imaging cameras “see inside” containers.• Determine concentration and pH (litmus paper) of released hazardous material• Determine skin contact hazards.
4 Exposures (3 of 3)Litmus paper (pH strips) is used to determine the hazardous material’s pH.
4Response Depends on Material State The response to a spill of a solid hazardous material will differfrom the response to a liquid-release or vapor-release incident.
4 Response Objectives• Measurable• Flexible• Time sensitive
4 Secondary Attacks and Devices (1 of 2)• Must be acknowledged in response objectives• Evaluate scene for likely placement areas• Check operating areas before providing patient care.• Avoid touching or moving anything.
4 Secondary Attacks and Devices (2 of 2)• Designate and enforce scene control zones.• Evacuate victims, other responders, and nonessential personnel.
4 Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) (1 of 3)• Selection based on: – Hazardous material involved – Specific hazards present – Physical state of material• Consult OSHA HAZWOPER, 29 CFR 1910.120 for guidance.
4 Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) (2 of 3)• Chemical-protective clothing• Respiratory protection also important• Not a suit of armor
4 Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) (3 of 3)• Specific types: – Street clothing and work uniforms – Structural firefighting protective clothing – High temperature–protective clothing and equipment – Chemical-protective clothing and equipment – Respiratory protection
4Street Clothing and Work Uniforms (1 of 2)• Least amount of protection• Worn only away from contaminated areas
4Street Clothing and Work Uniforms (2 of 2) A Nomex jumpsuit.
4 Structural Firefighting Protective Clothing (1 of 2)• Not chemical-protective• Suitable for support functions
4Structural Firefighting Protective Clothing (2 of 2) Standard structural firefighting gear.
4 High Temperature–Protective Clothing and Equipment (1 of 2)• A level above structural firefighting gear• Affords short-term high-temperature protection• No protection from hazardous materials/WMD
4 High Temperature–Protective Clothing and Equipment (2 of 2)High temperature–protective equipment protects the wearer from high temperatures during a short exposure.
4 Chemical-Protective Clothing and Equipment• No garment protects from everything.• Chemical-resistant materials designed to resist passage of chemicals – Permeation – Penetration – Degradation
4 Vapor-Protective Clothing (1 of 2)• Full body protection• Requires supplied-air respiratory protection devices• Increases possibility of heat-related emergencies
4 Vapor-Protective Clothing (2 of 2)Vapor-protective clothing retains body heat and increases the possibility of heat-related emergencies.
4 Liquid Splash–Protective Clothing (1 of 2)• Protects from chemical splashes• No protection from gases or vapors
4 Liquid Splash–Protective Clothing (2 of 2)Liquid splash–protective clothing must be worn when there is the danger of chemical splashes.
4 Chemical-Protective Clothing Ratings• Level A (highest)• Level B• Level C• Level D (lowest)
4 Level A Ensemble (1 of 2)• Fully encapsulating garment• SCBA or SAR• Vapor-protective chemical-resistant suit• Chemical-resistant gloves• Chemical-resistant safety boots/shoes• Two-way radio
4 Level A Ensemble (2 of 2)Level A ensemble envelops the wearer in a totally encapsulating suit.
4 Level B Ensemble (1 of 2)• Chemical-protective: – Clothing – Boots – Gloves• SCBA or SAR• Two-way radio
4 Level B Ensemble (2 of 2)A Level B ensemble provides a high level of respiratory protection but less skin protection.
4 Level C Ensemble (1 of 2)• Full-face APR• Chemical-resistant: – Clothing – Gloves – Boots/shoes• Two-way radio
4 Level C Ensemble (2 of 2)A Level C ensemble includes chemical-protective clothing and gloves as well as respiratory protection.
4 Level D Ensemble (1 of 2)• Minimal protection• Includes: – Coveralls – Safety boots/shoes – Safety or chemical-splash goggles – Hard hat
4 Level D Ensemble (2 of 2)The Level D ensemble is primarily a work uniform that includes coveralls and provides minimal protection.
4 Respiratory Protection• Physical capability requirements – Medical surveillance once or twice/year – Medical monitoring on the scene• Positive-Pressure Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA)• Supplied-air respirators (SARs)
4 Positive-Pressure Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (1 of 2)• Closed-circuit SCBA• Air-purifying respirators (APRs)• Powered air-purifying respirators (PAPRs)• Commonly provided by SCBA – Prevents both inhalation and ingestion exposures
4 Positive-Pressure Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (2 of 2)SCBA carries its own air supply, a factor that limits the amount of air and time the user has to complete the job.
4 Supplied-Air Respirators (SARs) (1 of 2)• External air source• Connected by hose to face piece• Provides air for about 5 minutes• Length of hose limits movement• Hazardous material may damage hose
4 Supplied-Air Respirators (SARs) (2 of 2)A supplied-air respirator is less bulky than an SCBA but is limited by the length and structural integrity of the air hose.
4 Closed-Circuit Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA)• Commonly called “rebreather”• Exhaled air is: – Scrubbed free of carbon dioxide – Supplemented with oxygen – Rebreathed• Used for long work periods
4 Air-Purifying Respirators (APRs) (1 of 2)• Filter particulates, vapors, and contaminants• Must be sufficient oxygen in atmosphere
4 Air-Purifying Respirators (APRs) (2 of 2)Air-purifying respirators can be used only where there is sufficient oxygen in the atmosphere.
4 Powered Air-Purifying Respirators (PAPRs)• Like APRs, but include small fan• Diminish work of breathing• Reduce fogging in the mask• Provide flow of cool air across face
4 Emergency Decontamination (1 of 2)• Rapid removal of bulk of contaminants• Without formal establishment of decontamination corridor
4 Emergency Decontamination (2 of 2)Emergency decontamination involves the immediate removal of contaminated clothing.
4 Secondary Contamination• Also called cross-contamination• Caused by contact with: – Contaminated victim – Contaminated object• Establishing control zones helps prevent
4 Summary (1 of 3)• Ensure your own safety.• Response priorities based on need to protect lives, property, critical systems, and the environment• Gather information to obtain a clear picture of the incident.
4 Summary (2 of 3)• Immediate protective actions: Denial of entry, evacuation, and sheltering-in-place• Tactical control objectives: Prevent further injury, control/contain spread of release• Response objectives: Measurable, flexible, time sensitive, based on chosen strategy
4 Summary (3 of 3)• Defensive actions: Dike, dam, absorb or adsorb, stop remotely (valve, shut-off), dilute or divert, suppress or disperse• Use risk-benefit analysis during response• PPE required is specific to incident• Respiratory protection is key PPE element