Aphasia or dysphasia Loss or impairment of the production or comprehension of spoken or written language because of an acquired lesion of the brain.
Dysarthria and anarthria A defect in articulation with intact mental functions and comprehension of spoken and written language and normal syntax (grammatical construction of sentences). pure motor disorder of the muscles of articulation and may be a result of flaccid or spastic paralysis, rigidity, repetitive spasms (stuttering), or ataxia.
Aphonia or dysphoniaAn alteration or loss of voice because of a disorder of the larynx or its innervation Articulation and language are unaffected
Receptive aphasia (Wernickesaphasia), lesion in the receptive language area, notably in Wernickes area. auditory and visual comprehension of language, naming of objects, and repetition of a sentence spoken by the examiner are all defective
Anomic aphasia (isolationsyndrome), Infarcts that isolate the sensory language area from surrounding parietal and temporal cortex characterized by fluent but circumlocutory speech caused by word-finding difficulties. Some authorities doubt the existence of anomic aphasia as a distinct clinical entity because most patients with lesions in the left parietal lobe have difficulty with naming
Transcortical aphasia of thereceptive (or sensory) type Some patients cannot understand words and sentences or produce intelligible speech, but they can correctly repeat what the examiner says. associated with destruction of cortex in the middle temporal gyrus, inferior and posterior to Wernickes receptive language area.
Alexia loss of the ability to read common accompaniment of aphasia caused by temporal or parietal lobe lesions. In most cases, accompanied by agraphia, the inability to write.
Pure alexia without agraphia and with normal comprehension of spoken wordsFrom single lesion lateral to the occipital horn of the left lateral ventricle or combination of two lesions, one in the left occipital lobe and the other in the splenium of the corpus callosum.
Such lesions sever connections between both visual cortices and the unilaterally located language areas
Dyslexia incomplete alexia characterized by an inability to read more than a few lines with understanding. Developmental dyslexia is a common condition in children of normal intelligence who have difficulty learning to read. MRI examination reveals that some such children lack the usual anatomical asymmetry in the size of the planum temporale on the left and right sides.
Expressive aphasia (Brocas aphasia), lesion in Brocas area of the frontal lobe, hesitant and distorted speech with relatively good comprehension. patient with Brocas aphasia can hear that he or she is talking nonsense patient with receptive aphasia talks fluently without being aware of the failure to produce meaningful words.
causes transcortical aphasia of theexpressive (or motor) type cortical lesion anterior to Brocas expressive speech area. The impairment of spontaneous speech is similar to Brocas aphasia, but the patient can accurately repeat words or phrases spoken by someone else.
Global aphasia virtually complete loss of the ability to communicate after destruction of the cortex on both sides of the lateral sulcus. one of the consequences of occlusion of the left middle cerebral artery
Conduction aphasia Interruption of the arcuate fasciculus connecting Wernickes and Brocas areas patient has poor repetition of a sentence spoken by the examiner but relatively good comprehension and spontaneous speech