Speech and language by DR.ARSHAD

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Speech and language by DR.ARSHAD

  1. 1.  Social interaction and private intellectual life Any disturbance due to brain disease- functional loss more grave than blindness, deafness and paralysis
  2. 2.  Symbolic representation of objects, actions and events Mirror of higher mental activity Means of communication between patient and physician- medium of delicate interpersonal transaction
  3. 3.  Developing and using verbal symbols for our ideas Transmitting those ideas by written or spoken word Facility to use our hands Both language and manual dexterity are functions of dominant hemisphere
  4. 4.  Seen in other animals – by vocalization or gestures It is a feeling or reaction of that moment Earliest modes of emotional expression appear in infancy Emotional expression is well developed in human infants even when cerebrum is immature
  5. 5.  Utterancesused to express joy, anger, fear are retained even after destruction of all language areas in the dominant hemisphere
  6. 6.  Essence of language Means of transferring ideas from one person to another Learned – subject to social and cultural influences of the environment Learnt only after nervous system has attained a certain level of maturity
  7. 7. involves comprehension, formulation and transmission of ideas and feelings using verbal symbols, sounds, gestures their sequential ordering according to accepted rules of grammar
  8. 8. Needs Thinking Analysis Synthesis Creativity
  9. 9.  Derangement of language reflects an abnormality of brain – specifically the dominant hemisphere Speech disorder may have a similar origin, but not necessarily; it may be a result of abnormalities in different parts or extracerebral mechanisms
  10. 10.  Speechrefers to articulation and phonetic aspects of verbal expression
  11. 11. Exophasia = external speech Expression of thought by spoken or written words, comprehension of spoken or written words of others Almost continuous when humans gather
  12. 12. Introphasia = internal speechSilent process of thought and formulation inour minds of unspoken words
  13. 13.  Arcuate fasciculus connects sensory and motor speech areas Short association fibres connect Broca’s area with lower part of motor cortex that innervates muscles of lips, tongue and pharynx
  14. 14.  Perisylvian cortical areas connected to2. Striatum, thalamus3. Corresponding areas in non- dominant hemisphere via corpus callosum and anterior commissure
  15. 15.  Modulative aspects of languageProsody Melody of speech Its intonation, inflection, and its pauses All these have emotional overtones Prosody and gestures accompanying them enhance the meaning of spoken word
  16. 16.  Speech is endowed with richness and vitality Aprosody is seen in lesions involving inferior division of right Middle cerebral artery

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