corelating neurohistology with functions By Dr. Arshad


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corelating neurohistology with functions By Dr. Arshad

  1. 1. Neurohistology – correlating structure to function
  2. 4. Facts that matter <ul><li>Neurons are cells specialized for rapid communication. </li></ul><ul><li>Most of the cytoplasm of a neuron is in long processes, the neurites (dendrites and axon, which conduct signals toward and away from the cell body, respectively). </li></ul>
  3. 5. <ul><li>In the central nervous system (CNS), neuronal cell bodies and dendrites occur in gray matter . </li></ul><ul><li>White matter consists largely of axons, most of which have myelin sheaths that serve to increase the velocity of conduction. </li></ul>
  4. 6. <ul><li>A neuronal surface membrane has a resting potential of -70 mV, maintained by the sodium pump. </li></ul><ul><li>This is reversed to +40 mV in an axon during the passage of an action potential. </li></ul>
  5. 7. <ul><li>The fastest signals, known as impulses or action potentials, are carried in the surface membrane of the axon. </li></ul><ul><li>The surface membrane of the perikaryon and dendrites does not conduct impulses. </li></ul>
  6. 8. <ul><li>Neurons communicate with one another at synapses </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical transmitters released by axonal terminals evoke changes in the membrane of the postsynaptic cell, which may be either stimulated or inhibited. </li></ul>
  7. 9. <ul><li>The effect depends on the transmitter and the type of receptor molecule in the postsynaptic membrane. </li></ul>
  8. 10. <ul><li>Much of the cytoplasm of a neuron is removed when the axon is transected. </li></ul><ul><li>The segment that has been isolated from the cell body degenerates together with its myelin sheath, and the fragments are eventually phagocytosed. </li></ul>
  9. 11. <ul><li>In the absence of axonal regeneration, the cell body may later shrink or die. </li></ul><ul><li>Axons severed in the peripheral nervous system can regrow and reinnervate their targets. </li></ul>
  10. 12. <ul><li>Axons transected within the CNS fail to regenerate effectively. </li></ul><ul><li>Synaptic rearrangements, however, can occur in partly denervated regions of gray matter, and some recovery of function occurs as a result of recruitment of alternative neuronal circuitry. </li></ul>
  11. 13. <ul><li>Two classes of cells are present in the central nervous system (CNS) </li></ul><ul><li>Neurons, or nerve cells, are specialized for nerve impulse conduction and for exchanging signals with other neurons. </li></ul><ul><li>Responsible for most of the functional characteristics of nervous tissue </li></ul>
  12. 14. <ul><li>Neuroglial cells , collectively known as the neuroglia or simply as glia , have important ancillary functions. </li></ul><ul><li>The neuroglial cells of the normal CNS are astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, ependymal cells (derived from neural tube ectoderm), and microglia (derived from mesoderm) </li></ul>
  13. 15. <ul><li>Astrocytes occur throughout the brain and spinal cord </li></ul><ul><li>Oligodendrocytes produce myelin and are also found next to the cell bodies of some neurons. </li></ul>
  14. 16. <ul><li>Microglial cells become phagocytes when local injury or inflammation is present. </li></ul><ul><li>The neuroglial cells of the peripheral nervous system are Schwann cells in nerves and satellite cells in ganglia. </li></ul>
  15. 17. Neurons <ul><li>20 billion </li></ul><ul><li>Functionally classified into sensory, motor and interneurons </li></ul>
  16. 18. Sensory neurons <ul><li>Convey impulses from receptors to CNS </li></ul><ul><li>Their processes are included in somatic and visceral afferents </li></ul><ul><li>Somatic afferents convey pain, temperature, touch, pressure, proprioception </li></ul>
  17. 19. <ul><li>Visceral afferents convey pain and other sensations from mucous membrane, glands and blood vessels </li></ul>
  18. 20. Motor neurons <ul><li>Convey impulses from CNS/ganglia to effector cells </li></ul><ul><li>Their processes are included in efferent nerve fibres </li></ul><ul><li>Somatic efferents -> skeletal muscles </li></ul><ul><li>Visceral efferents -> smooth muscle, heart, glands </li></ul>
  19. 21. Interneurons <ul><li>≥ 99% of all neurons </li></ul><ul><li>Form a communicating and integrating network between sensory and motor neurons </li></ul>
  20. 22. Anatomical classification <ul><li>Depends on number of processes </li></ul><ul><li>Multipolar </li></ul><ul><li>Bipolar </li></ul><ul><li>Unipolar </li></ul>
  21. 25. <ul><li>Motor neurons and interneurons are multipolar </li></ul><ul><li>Bipolar neurons are located in retina and CN VIII ganglia </li></ul>
  22. 27. Unipolar neurons <ul><li>Develop as bipolar neurons </li></ul><ul><li>Body expands asymmetrically </li></ul><ul><li>Become unipolar as processes migrate around cell body and fuse into a single process </li></ul><ul><li>Located in dorsal root and cranial nerve ganglia </li></ul>
  23. 28. Synapse
  24. 29. Synapse
  25. 30. Types of synapses
  26. 32. Neurons, neuropil, and the common glial cells of the CNS
  27. 33. Neurons, neuropil, and the common glial cells of the CNS
  28. 34. Supporting cells <ul><li>Glia/neuroglia in CNS </li></ul><ul><li>Schwann cells and supporting cells in PNS </li></ul><ul><li>Schwann cells surround neurites, isolating them from adjacent cells and extracellular matrix </li></ul>
  29. 35. <ul><li>In PNS ganglia, supporting cells are Satellite cells- surround nerve cell bodies [nucleus containing part]- analogous to Schwann cellsS </li></ul>
  30. 36. Functions <ul><li>Physical support for neurites </li></ul><ul><li>Electrical insulation for nerve cell bodies and processes </li></ul><ul><li>Metabolic exchange pathway between vascular system and neuronsS </li></ul>
  31. 45. White versus gray matter,
  32. 47. Nerve injury/regeneration <ul><li>Nerve cells, unlike neuroglial cells, cannot proliferate but can regenerate their axons, located in the PNS </li></ul>