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Increased Mercury Release from Dental Amalgam
Restorations after Exposure to Electromagnetic
The Fifth Congress of the Par...
The Fifth Congress of the Paris Appeal
Environmental idiopathic intolerance:
What role for EMFs and multiple
Ghazal Mortaz...
Electricity is an
essential part of
modern life.
It is estimated that by
the middle of this
century, the global usecentury...
Electromagnetic fields (EMF) are produced by the motion
of electrons.
All electrical or electronic devices such as wireles...
EMF Ocean!
We all live in an ocean of
electromagnetic fields!
Ghazal Mortazavi (DDs) and SMJ
Mortazavi (Ph.D) 5
Ghazal Mortazavi (DDs) and SMJ
Mortazavi (Ph.D) 6
Ghazal Mortazavi (DDs) and SMJ
Mortazavi (Ph.D) 7
A very basic question that should be
answered:
Why is Exposure to Different
Ghazal Mortazavi (DDs) and SMJ Mortazavi (Ph.D...
9
Very Frequent Use by the Whole Population
Wide Geographical Distribution of Users
In Africa, No land-line but mobile pho...
Current Controversies!
The effect of RF-EMF on biological systems is still
controversial.
Ghazal Mortazavi (DDs) and SMJ
M...
Amalgam Mercury Issue
It was previously believed
that dental amalgam, which
contains about fifty
precents mercury, is iner...
Dental Amalgam Safety Concern
Since 150 years ago,
amalgam has been used
in dentistry as an
excellent and versatile
Howeve...
Now there is a growing public concern!
Ghazal Mortazavi (DDs) and SMJ
Mortazavi (Ph.D) 13
Historical Changes of Mercury%
After some historical
changes in the mercury-
to-amalgam ratio,
modern amalgams aremodern a...
According to ADA:
“Sometimes described as “silver-
colored” fillings, dental amalgam
Ghazal Mortazavi (DDs) and SMJ Mortaz...
Ghazal Mortazavi (DDs) and SMJ Mortazavi (Ph.D)
16
Are low levels of mercury safe?
Recent findings indicate that
mercury, even at low doses, may
cause toxicity
As dental ama...
• Concerns regarding the rapidly
growing exposure to EMF sources and
increased mercury release from dental
The rationale f...
MRI and the Release of Mercury
Our first report on the
role of exposure to
magnetic resonance
imaging (MRI) orimaging (MRI...
MRI & Release of Mercury
Ghazal Mortazavi (DDs) and SMJ
Mortazavi (Ph.D) 20
Mobile Phone Use and the Release of
Mercury
Ghazal Mortazavi (DDs) and SMJ
Mortazavi (Ph.D) 21
Rationale for Our Recent Study
Nowadays, MRI systems
utilize:utilize:
Stronger static magnetic fields
Faster and stronger ...
Methods in our recent study
To overcome the limitations of our
previous study, we have recently
studied the effects of str...
ResultsResults
Ghazal Mortazavi (DDs) and SMJ
Mortazavi (Ph.D) 24
Ghazal Mortazavi (DDs) and SMJ
Mortazavi (Ph.D) 25
Ghazal Mortazavi (DDs) and SMJ
Mortazavi (Ph.D) 26
No Effect Reports in the Literature
We have also
shown that a few
published papers
which reported nowhich reported no
incr...
Ghazal Mortazavi (DDs) and SMJ
Mortazavi (Ph.D) 28
Mortazavi, G and Mortazavi,
SM (2015) Should pregnant
women with dental amalgam
fillings limit their exposure to
electroma...
Ghazal Mortazavi (DDs) and SMJ
Mortazavi (Ph.D) 30
Ghazal Mortazavi (DDs) and SMJ
Mortazavi (Ph.D) 31
Mortazavi, G and Mortazavi, SMJ (in press) Amalgam contact hypersensiti...
Figure
Human exposure to electromagnetic
fields generated by mobile phones,
MRI or X-rays can lead to increased
release of...
Autism
Introducing a Hypothesis
Ghazal Mortazavi (DDs) and SMJ Mortazavi (Ph.D)
33
Autism Issue
There are some evidence indicating that perinatal
exposure to mercury is significantly associated with an
inc...
Autism Issue:
On the other hand, a strong positive correlation
between maternal and cord blood mercury levels is
found in ...
Autism Issue:
Maternal exposure to electromagnetic fields in
mothers with dental amalgam fillings may cause
elevated level...
Autism
Issue:
Considering the strong
association between
exposure to electromagnetic
fields and increased mercury
release ...
Ghazal Mortazavi (DDs) and SMJ
Mortazavi (Ph.D) 38
Reference: Mortazavi, G, Haghani, M, Rastegarian, N, Zarei, S, and Mort...
What can we do?
Ghazal Mortazavi (DDs) and SMJ Mortazavi (Ph.D)
39
Can we move to mercury free
dentistry?
Ghazal Mortazavi (DDs) and SMJ Mortazavi (Ph.D) 40
Kathmandu– Academician, dental p...
Are There Alternatives to Using
Dental Amalgam Fillings?
Resin composite
Glass ionomer Every restorative material hasGlass...
According to ADA:
“Ultimately, the best dental filling
is no dental filling!”
Ghazal Mortazavi (DDs) and SMJ Mortazavi (Ph...
REFERENCES
[1] S. M. J. Mortazavi, M. Motamedifar, G. Namdari, M. Taheri, A. R. Mortazavi, and N. Shokrpour, "Non-
Linear ...
[8] S. M. J. Mortazavi, J. Ahmadi, and M. Shariati, "Prevalence of subjective poor health symptoms associated with
exposur...
Thank you!
Ghazal Mortazavi (DDs) and SMJ Mortazavi (Ph.D)
45
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The 5th congress of the Paris appeal - Exposure to electromagnetic fields, mercury release and adverse health effects - may 18 2015 [compatibility mode]

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Over the past decades, the use of common sources of electromagnetic fields such as Wi-Fi routers and mobile phones has been increased enormously all over the world. There is ongoing concern that exposure to electromagnetic fields can lead to adverse health effects. It has recently been shown that even low doses of mercury may cause toxicity. Therefore, efforts are initiated to phase down or eliminate the use of mercury amalgam in dental restorations. Increased release of mercury from dental amalgam restorations after exposure to electromagnetic fields such as those generated by MRI and mobile phones has been reported by our team and other researchers. We have recently shown that some of the papers which reported no increased release of mercury after MRI, may have some methodological errors. Although it was previously believed that the amount of mercury released from dental amalgam cannot be hazardous, new findings indicate that mercury, even at low doses, may cause toxicity. Based on recent epidemiological findings, it can be claimed that the safety of mercury released from dental amalgam fillings is questionable. Therefore, as some individuals tend to be
hypersensitive to the toxic effects of mercury, regulatory authorities should re-assess the safety of exposure to electromagnetic fields in individuals with amalgam restorations. On the other hand, we have reported that increased mercury release after exposure to electromagnetic fields may be risky for the pregnant women. It is worth mentioning that as a strong positive correlation between maternal and cord blood mercury levels has been found in some studies, our findings regarding the effect of exposure to electromagnetic fields on the release of mercury from dental amalgam fillings lead us to this conclusion that pregnant women with dental amalgam fillings should limit their exposure to electromagnetic fields to prevent toxic effects of mercury in their foetuses. Based on these findings, as infants and children are more vulnerable to mercury exposures, and as some individuals are routinely exposed to different sources of electromagnetic fields, we possibly need a paradigm shift in evaluating the health effects of amalgam fillings.

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The 5th congress of the Paris appeal - Exposure to electromagnetic fields, mercury release and adverse health effects - may 18 2015 [compatibility mode]

  1. 1. Increased Mercury Release from Dental Amalgam Restorations after Exposure to Electromagnetic The Fifth Congress of the Paris Appeal May 18th 2015 Royal Academy Of Medecine, Belgium Restorations after Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields as a Potential Hazard for Hypersensitive People and Pregnant Women Ghazal Mortazavi (DDs) and SMJ Mortazavi (Ph.D) 1 SMJ Mortazavi, Ph.D Professor of Medical Physics & INIRPRC Director Shiraz University of Medical Sciences mmortazavi@sums.ac.ir Ghazal Mortazavi, Ph.D Dentist Bushehr University of Medical Sciences qaz.mortazavi@gmail.com
  2. 2. The Fifth Congress of the Paris Appeal Environmental idiopathic intolerance: What role for EMFs and multiple Ghazal Mortazavi (DDs) and SMJ Mortazavi (Ph.D) 2 chemicals ? Electrohypersensitivity (EHS) and multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS)
  3. 3. Electricity is an essential part of modern life. It is estimated that by the middle of this century, the global usecentury, the global use of electricity will be multiplied by a factor of 2.5 to 3.0. Ghazal Mortazavi (DDs) and SMJ Mortazavi (Ph.D) 3
  4. 4. Electromagnetic fields (EMF) are produced by the motion of electrons. All electrical or electronic devices such as wireless technologies (e.g. Wi-Fi, mobile phones and cordless phones), laptop computers, microwave ovens and powerphones), laptop computers, microwave ovens and power lines produce electromagnetic fields. Ghazal Mortazavi (DDs) and SMJ Mortazavi (Ph.D) 4
  5. 5. EMF Ocean! We all live in an ocean of electromagnetic fields! Ghazal Mortazavi (DDs) and SMJ Mortazavi (Ph.D) 5
  6. 6. Ghazal Mortazavi (DDs) and SMJ Mortazavi (Ph.D) 6
  7. 7. Ghazal Mortazavi (DDs) and SMJ Mortazavi (Ph.D) 7
  8. 8. A very basic question that should be answered: Why is Exposure to Different Ghazal Mortazavi (DDs) and SMJ Mortazavi (Ph.D) 8 Why is Exposure to Different Sources of EMFs so Important?
  9. 9. 9 Very Frequent Use by the Whole Population Wide Geographical Distribution of Users In Africa, No land-line but mobile phones are used Poor Knowledge about the Effects Inescapable Exposures Ghazal Mortazavi (DDs) and SMJ Mortazavi (Ph.D) Very Wide Sources Baby Watch, Wireless Technologies Hidden Sources Wi-Fi Signals coming from our neighbours Continuous 24 h/d, 7 days/wk exposures Old Standards Challenging Serious Biological Effects The issue of exposure to Children
  10. 10. Current Controversies! The effect of RF-EMF on biological systems is still controversial. Ghazal Mortazavi (DDs) and SMJ Mortazavi (Ph.D) 10
  11. 11. Amalgam Mercury Issue It was previously believed that dental amalgam, which contains about fifty precents mercury, is inert and cannot release mercuryand cannot release mercury after restoration. However, in 2009, the US FDA acknowledged that dental amalgam releases low levels of elemental mercury vapor. Ghazal Mortazavi (DDs) and SMJ Mortazavi (Ph.D) 11
  12. 12. Dental Amalgam Safety Concern Since 150 years ago, amalgam has been used in dentistry as an excellent and versatile However, nowadays, the popularity of amalgam is decreasing due to rapidly growing concerns about itsexcellent and versatile dental restorative material due to its properties such as low cost, ease of application, strength, durability, and bacteriostatic effects. growing concerns about its detrimental health effects, environmental pollution, and aesthetics. Ghazal Mortazavi (DDs) and SMJ Mortazavi (Ph.D) 12
  13. 13. Now there is a growing public concern! Ghazal Mortazavi (DDs) and SMJ Mortazavi (Ph.D) 13
  14. 14. Historical Changes of Mercury% After some historical changes in the mercury- to-amalgam ratio, modern amalgams aremodern amalgams are now produced from precapsulated alloy consisting of 42-45% mercury by weight. Ghazal Mortazavi (DDs) and SMJ Mortazavi (Ph.D) 14
  15. 15. According to ADA: “Sometimes described as “silver- colored” fillings, dental amalgam Ghazal Mortazavi (DDs) and SMJ Mortazavi (Ph.D) 15 colored” fillings, dental amalgam has been used by dentists for more than 100 years!” “Because of their durability, these silver-colored fillings are often the best choice for large cavities or those that occur in the back teeth where a lot of force is needed to chew.”
  16. 16. Ghazal Mortazavi (DDs) and SMJ Mortazavi (Ph.D) 16
  17. 17. Are low levels of mercury safe? Recent findings indicate that mercury, even at low doses, may cause toxicity As dental amalgam fillings releaseAs dental amalgam fillings release low levels of elemental mercury vapor, today, there is a debate over : If these levels are safe and Whether the safety threshold is the same for different subpopulations. Ghazal Mortazavi (DDs) and SMJ Mortazavi (Ph.D) 17
  18. 18. • Concerns regarding the rapidly growing exposure to EMF sources and increased mercury release from dental The rationale for our previous studies Ghazal Mortazavi (DDs) and SMJ Mortazavi (Ph.D) 18 increased mercury release from dental amalgam after exposure to electromagnetic fields, especially in children, people who are routinely exposed to electromagnetic fields and hypersensitive subpopulations, prompted us to perform more studies.
  19. 19. MRI and the Release of Mercury Our first report on the role of exposure to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) orimaging (MRI) or microwave radiation emitted by mobile phones in enhancing the release of mercury from dental amalgam restoration was published in 2008. Ghazal Mortazavi (DDs) and SMJ Mortazavi (Ph.D) 19
  20. 20. MRI & Release of Mercury Ghazal Mortazavi (DDs) and SMJ Mortazavi (Ph.D) 20
  21. 21. Mobile Phone Use and the Release of Mercury Ghazal Mortazavi (DDs) and SMJ Mortazavi (Ph.D) 21
  22. 22. Rationale for Our Recent Study Nowadays, MRI systems utilize:utilize: Stronger static magnetic fields Faster and stronger gradient magnetic fields More powerful radiofrequency (RF) transmission coils SMJ Mortazavi
  23. 23. Methods in our recent study To overcome the limitations of our previous study, we have recently studied the effects of stronger magnetic fields (1.5 T in our recent study vs. 0.25 T in our previous report) and provided further support for the adverse effect of MRI in increasing the release of mercury from dental amalgam fillings. Ghazal Mortazavi (DDs) and SMJ Mortazavi (Ph.D) 23
  24. 24. ResultsResults Ghazal Mortazavi (DDs) and SMJ Mortazavi (Ph.D) 24
  25. 25. Ghazal Mortazavi (DDs) and SMJ Mortazavi (Ph.D) 25
  26. 26. Ghazal Mortazavi (DDs) and SMJ Mortazavi (Ph.D) 26
  27. 27. No Effect Reports in the Literature We have also shown that a few published papers which reported nowhich reported no increased release of mercury after MRI, may have severe methodological flaws. Ghazal Mortazavi (DDs) and SMJ Mortazavi (Ph.D) 27
  28. 28. Ghazal Mortazavi (DDs) and SMJ Mortazavi (Ph.D) 28
  29. 29. Mortazavi, G and Mortazavi, SM (2015) Should pregnant women with dental amalgam fillings limit their exposure to electromagnetic fields to Ghazal Mortazavi (DDs) and SMJ Mortazavi (Ph.D) 29 electromagnetic fields to prevent the toxic effects of mercury in their foetuses? Technol Health Care.
  30. 30. Ghazal Mortazavi (DDs) and SMJ Mortazavi (Ph.D) 30
  31. 31. Ghazal Mortazavi (DDs) and SMJ Mortazavi (Ph.D) 31 Mortazavi, G and Mortazavi, SMJ (in press) Amalgam contact hypersensitivity lesion: An unusual presentation- report of a rare case. Annals of medical and health sciences research.
  32. 32. Figure Human exposure to electromagnetic fields generated by mobile phones, MRI or X-rays can lead to increased release of mercury from dental amalgam fillings. Ghazal Mortazavi (DDs) and SMJ Mortazavi (Ph.D) 32 Ghazal Mortazavi, Hossein Mozdarani, Samaneh Jarideh, and SMJ Mortazavi . How Limiting is the Increased Mercury Release Due to Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields in Using Dental Amalgam in Restorative Dentistry? IJRR. In press.
  33. 33. Autism Introducing a Hypothesis Ghazal Mortazavi (DDs) and SMJ Mortazavi (Ph.D) 33
  34. 34. Autism Issue There are some evidence indicating that perinatal exposure to mercury is significantly associated with an increased risk of developmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and attention- deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Furthermore, mercury can decrease the levels of neurotransmitters dopamine, serotonin, noreprenephrine, and acetylcholine in the brain and cause neurological problems. Ghazal Mortazavi (DDs) and SMJ Mortazavi (Ph.D) 34
  35. 35. Autism Issue: On the other hand, a strong positive correlation between maternal and cord blood mercury levels is found in some studies. Ghazal Mortazavi (DDs) and SMJ Mortazavi (Ph.D) 35
  36. 36. Autism Issue: Maternal exposure to electromagnetic fields in mothers with dental amalgam fillings may cause elevated levels of mercury and trigger the increase inelevated levels of mercury and trigger the increase in autism rates. Further studies are needed to have a better understanding of the possible role of the increased mercury level after exposure to electromagnetic fields and the rate of autism spectrum disorders in the offspring. Ghazal Mortazavi (DDs) and SMJ Mortazavi (Ph.D) 36
  37. 37. Autism Issue: Considering the strong association between exposure to electromagnetic fields and increased mercury release from dental amalgam Ghazal Mortazavi (DDs) and SMJ Mortazavi (Ph.D) 37 release from dental amalgam fillings, it can be hypothesized that maternal exposure to electromagnetic fields in mothers with dental amalgam fillings may cause elevated levels of mercury and possibly trigger the increase in autism rates
  38. 38. Ghazal Mortazavi (DDs) and SMJ Mortazavi (Ph.D) 38 Reference: Mortazavi, G, Haghani, M, Rastegarian, N, Zarei, S, and Mortazavi, S (2015) Increased Release of Mercury from Dental Amalgam Fillings due to Maternal Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields as a Possible Mechanism for the High Rates of Autism in the Offspring: Introducing a Hypothesis. Journal of Biomedical Physics and Engineering.
  39. 39. What can we do? Ghazal Mortazavi (DDs) and SMJ Mortazavi (Ph.D) 39
  40. 40. Can we move to mercury free dentistry? Ghazal Mortazavi (DDs) and SMJ Mortazavi (Ph.D) 40 Kathmandu– Academician, dental professionals and environmental experts emphasizes the protection of human health and environmental pollution and urge the government to take initiative step to introduce national regulation on mercury-free dentistry, mercury free health care services and an alternative dental curriculum.
  41. 41. Are There Alternatives to Using Dental Amalgam Fillings? Resin composite Glass ionomer Every restorative material hasGlass ionomer Resin ionomer Porcelain Gold alloys Ghazal Mortazavi (DDs) and SMJ Mortazavi (Ph.D) 41 Every restorative material has advantages and disadvantages!
  42. 42. According to ADA: “Ultimately, the best dental filling is no dental filling!” Ghazal Mortazavi (DDs) and SMJ Mortazavi (Ph.D) 42 is no dental filling!” “Prevention is the best medicine!”
  43. 43. REFERENCES [1] S. M. J. Mortazavi, M. Motamedifar, G. Namdari, M. Taheri, A. R. Mortazavi, and N. Shokrpour, "Non- Linear Adaptive Phenomena which Decrease the Risk of infection after Pre-Exposure to Radiofrequency Radiation," Dose-Response, in press. [2] S. M. J. Mortazavi, S. Taeb, and N. Dehghan, "Alterations of Visual Reaction Time and Short Term Memory in Military Radar Personnel," Iranian J Publ Health, vol. 42, pp. 428-435, 2013. [3] S. M. J. Mortazavi, M. S. Rouintan, S. Taeb, N. Dehghan, A. A. Ghaffarpanah, Z. Sadeghi, et al., "Human short-term exposure to electromagnetic fields emitted by mobile phones decreases computer-assisted visual reaction time," Acta Neurologica Belgica, vol. 112, pp. 171-175, 2012. [4] S. M. J. Mortazavi, M. A. Mosleh-Shirazi, A. R. Tavassoli, M. Taheri, A. R. Mehdizadeh, S. A. S. Namazi, et al., "Increased Radioresistance to Lethal Doses of Gamma Rays in Mice and Rats after Exposure toNamazi, et al., "Increased Radioresistance to Lethal Doses of Gamma Rays in Mice and Rats after Exposure to Microwave Radiation Emitted by a GSM Mobile Phone Simulator," Dose Response, vol. 11 pp. 281-292, 2013. [5] S. Mortazavi, M. Mosleh-Shirazi, A. Tavassoli, M. Taheri, Z. Bagheri, R. Ghalandari, et al., "A comparative study on the increased radioresistance to lethal doses of gamma rays after exposure to microwave radiation and oral intake of flaxseed oil," Iranian Journal of Radiation Research, vol. 9, pp. 9-14, 2011. [6] S. M. J. Mortazavi, A. Habib, A. H. Ganj-Karimi, R. Samimi-Doost, A. Pour-Abedi, and A. Babaie, "Alterations in TSH and Thyroid Hormones Following Mobile Phone Use," OMJ, vol. 24, pp. 274-278 2009. [7] S. M. J. Mortazavi, E. Daiee, A. Yazdi, K. Khiabani, A. Kavousi, R. Vazirinejad, et al., "Mercury release from dental amalgam restorations after magnetic resonance imaging and following mobile phone use," Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, vol. 11, pp. 1142-1146, 2008. Ghazal Mortazavi (DDs) and SMJ Mortazavi (Ph.D) 43
  44. 44. [8] S. M. J. Mortazavi, J. Ahmadi, and M. Shariati, "Prevalence of subjective poor health symptoms associated with exposure to electromagnetic fields among University students," Bioelectromagnetics, vol. 28, pp. 326-330, 2007. [9] S. M. J. Mortazavi, "Safety Issue of Mobile Phone Base Stations " J Biomed Phys Eng, vol. 3, pp. 1-2, 2013. [10] S. M. J. Mortazavi, "Adaptive responses after exposure to cosmic and natural terrestrial radiation," Indian Journal of Radiation Research, pp. 104-112, 2004. [11] S. M. J. Mortazavi, A. R. Tavasoli, F. Ranjbari, and P. Moamaei, "Effects of Laptop Computers' Electromagnetic Field on Sperm Quality," Journal of Reproduction and Infertility, vol. 11, pp. 251-258, 2011. [12] S. M. Mortazavi, S. Vazife-Doost, M. Yaghooti, S. Mehdizadeh, and A. Rajaie-Far, "Occupational exposure of dentists to electromagnetic fields produced by magnetostrictive cavitrons alters the serum cortisol level," J Nat Sci Biol Med, vol. 3, pp. 60- 4, Jan 2012. [13] S. M. Mortazavi, E. Daiee, A. Yazdi, K. Khiabani, A. Kavousi, R. Vazirinejad, et al., "Mercury release from dental amalgam restorations after magnetic resonance imaging and following mobile phone use," Pak J Biol Sci, vol. 11, pp. 1142-6, Apr 15 2008. [14] S. M. J. Mortazavi, M. Neghab, S. M. H. Anooshe, N. Bahaeddini, G. Mortazavi, and P. Neghab, "High Magnetic Flux[14] S. M. J. Mortazavi, M. Neghab, S. M. H. Anooshe, N. Bahaeddini, G. Mortazavi, and P. Neghab, "High Magnetic Flux MRI Accelerates Release of Mercury from Dental Amalgam Fillings," THEIJOEM, 2014. [15] S. M. J. Mortazavi, M. Neghab, S. M. H. Anoosheh, N. Bahaeddini, G. Mortazavi, P. Neghab, et al., "High-field MRI and Mercury release from dental amalgam fillings," International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, vol. 5, pp. 101-105, 2014. [16] S. M. J. Mortazavi and G. Mortazavi, "Effects of X-rays and magnetic resonance imaging on mercury release from dental amalgam into artificial saliva," Oral Radiology, pp. 1-2, 2014/09/30 2014. [17] Mortazavi, G and Mortazavi, SMJ (in press) Amalgam contact hypersensitivity lesion: An unusual presentation-report of a rare case. Annals of medical and health sciences research. [18] Mortazavi, G, Jarideh, S, Mozdarani, H, and Mortazavi, SMJ (in press) Is Increased Mercury Release Due to Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields a Limiting Factor for Using Dental Amalgam? . IJRR. [19] Mortazavi, G, Haghani, M, Rastegarian, N, Zarei, S, and Mortazavi, S (2015) Increased Release of Mercury from Dental Amalgam Fillings due to Maternal Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields as a Possible Mechanism for the High Rates of Autism in the Offspring: Introducing a Hypothesis. Journal of Biomedical Physics and Engineering. Ghazal Mortazavi (DDs) and SMJ Mortazavi (Ph.D) 44
  45. 45. Thank you! Ghazal Mortazavi (DDs) and SMJ Mortazavi (Ph.D) 45

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