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CSIRO Additive Manufacturing - Aug 14


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Presentation of CSIRO's Metallic Additive manufacturing Capabilities including Arcam Electron Beam Melt and Cold Spray

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CSIRO Additive Manufacturing - Aug 14

  1. 1. High Performance Metal Industry - Metallic Additive Manufacturing Comprehensive Overview Chad Henry | Additive Manufacturing Operations Manager Aug 2014 MANUFACTURING FLAGSHIP
  2. 2. Agenda High Performance Metal Industry (Flagship Program) Continuous Metal Production – TiRO and others Metallic Additive Manufacturing - Roadmaps and Strategies - New Facility, Capabilities, and Engaging with Industry - Low Cost Input Material - Thermal Modelling for (Sciaky) Distortion Control - Additive Manufacturing Network ore to more
  3. 3. from ore to more High Performance Metal Industry Metal Production Metal to Product Manufacturing Special Projects TiRO Alloys Process Novel Alloy Design BMG Prod/Proc Sheet Plates Bars Billets Shaped Billets Wire Extrusions Powder (for AM) Cold Spray Laser Assisted Machining Additive Manufacturing Lab 22 Modelling and Simulation Online / In Situ Measurement Thermally Assisted Machining Victorian Productivity Network SIEF Aero-engine Project DMTC 1.9 Ti + XYZ alloys Universal Powder Bed for R&D
  4. 4. Additive Manufacturing is... layer-by-layer processing to make 3D objects directly from CAD files, as opposed to using subtractive methods like traditional CNC machining. Resource efficient and Sustainable energy efficient reduces waste
  5. 5. Lab 22 – Arcam High Speed Video - Contour
  6. 6. Lab 22 – Arcam High Speed Video – Fill Rastering
  7. 7. Metallic Additive Manufacturing Roadmap Wire Powder Database for Production •Ti 6Al 4V Low Cost Feedstock Distortion Control Management In Situ Inspection Methods Microstructure Manipulation Additional Material Data •Titanium, Steel or ? Novel Titanium Materials (Bed or Spray) Properties and Databases for Production Ex Situ Powder Bed Powder Manipulation In Situ Modelling & Management In Chamber Inspection Methods Microstructure Manipulation Novel Metallic Alloys Additional Materials Decrease final Component Cost Increase the Application Space
  8. 8. Meltless Additive Manufacturing Cold Spray Additive Manufacturing Repair Coatings Near Net Shape Ti Pipe Seamless Continuous Ti Bike Frame Ti Coupler Composite Dies Defects Repair Corrosion Resistant Electroplating Replacement Design Modification Wear Resistant Biofowling Composite Coatings Bulk Billet Forging Pre forms Reclamation Materials  Metals & Alloys: Ti, Ni, Fe, Cu, Al, Sn  Ceramics + Metals: Al + TiB2  Polymers
  9. 9. CSIRO Additive Manufacturing ... The 2+1 Strategy Modelling and Simulation Feedstock and Powder New Material Development Distortion Management Novel Sources Physical Modification The AX - Powder Flow Industry Engagement AM Network Build, Consult, SIEF Derived from Casting and Welding Derived from Cold Spray, TiRO, and Alloys Processing
  10. 10. New and Improved Facilities for Metallic AM • CSIRO has an open house policy to Industry and for R&D • De-risk to aid in Industry Adoption and Growth • Access our capital equipment • Access our trained operators • Trial and Learn Metallic AM • AĐĐess us foƌ assistaŶĐe oŶ DeǀelopiŶg BusiŶess Cases aŶd Positiǀe ROI’s • Access us for assistance on design (or re-designing) to take advantage of 3DP (d) Design Freedoms • Access us for assistance on material science solutions • Learn first-hand • Technologies (next slides) • Powder Beds – E-Beam and Laser • Powder Spray – 3D Deposition, Cold Spray, and Laser Cladding • Sand Printing – For Metallic Castings P.S. – It needs a name. Contact me if you have a clever one that you are willing to share.
  11. 11. E-Beam AM Equipment Arcam Model A1 - Electron Beam Melting (EBM) - Powder Bed - Vacuum - Elevated Temp - Low Distortion - Excellent Properties - Model A1 - 200mm x 200mm x 180mm - Materials - Ti and Ti Alloys - CoCr - Nickel Alloys (Inconel) - Steel Alloys - Others??? - CSRIO Level 3 Training
  12. 12. Concept Laser M2 cusing • Laser fusion powder bed • 250 x 250 x 280 (mm) chamber build volume • 400W beam power • Very good part roughness Ra 9-12mm, Rz 35- 40mm (Ti-64) • <55cm3/h build rate (Ti-64) • Inert gas environment • Standard LaserCUSING materials include: Stainless steel 1.4404 / CL 20ES Aluminium alloy AlSi12 / CL 30AL Aluminium alloy AlSi10Mg / CL 31AL Titanium alloy Ti6Al4V / CL 40TI Titanium alloy Ti6Al4V ELI / CL 41TI ELI Hot-forming steel 1.2709 / CL 50WS Rust-free hot-forming steel CL 91RW Nickel-based alloy Inconel 718 / CL 100NB Cobalt/chrome alloy remanium star CL • Moderate residual stress • Prototyping, design, customising, light-weighting
  13. 13. Optomec LENS MR-7 • IPG Fiďƌe Laseƌ ͞ďloǁŶ poǁdeƌ͟ • 300 x 300 x 300 (mm) chamber build volume • 500W beam power • Two powder feeder (layered composition profiles) • Part roughness Ra 20-50mm (Rz 150-300mm) • 22cm3/h build rate (Ti-64) (much higher build rates for other LENS variants • High purity inert gas (O2 ≤ ϭϬ ppŵ) • High residual stress • Optomec materials: *Non-standard Materials used in R&D Titanium Nickel Tool Steel CP Ti, Ti 6-4, Ti 6-2-4-2 Ti 6-2-4-6*, Ti 48-2-2*, Ti 22AI-23Nb* IN625,IN718,IN690*, Hastelloy X*, Waspalloy, MarM247*, Rene 142* H13, S7, A-2* Stainless Steel Refractories Composites 13-8, 17-4, 304, 316, 410,420, 15-5PH*, AM355*, 309*, 416* W*, Mo*, N* TiC*, WC, CrC* Cobalt Aluminum Copper Stellite 21 4047 GRCop-84*, Cu-Ni* • Repair, prototyping, design, customising, light-weighting, alloy design, composite materials
  14. 14. Cold Spray Technologies Plasma Giken PCS-1000 CGT Kinetiks 4000
  15. 15. Voxeljet
  16. 16. 9 Metal Additive Manufacturing Landscape Today National Aeronautics and Space Administration Langley Research Center
  17. 17. Must Understand ... One Size Does Not Fit All Product Requirements  Manufacturing Processes Material Build Volume Rate Design and Unitization Unique Shapes/Details (free) Surface Finish Inspection Laser vs. E-Beam vs. Solid State Powder Bed vs. Powder Spray vs. Wire Fed All for ... Production Prototyping (form, fit, function) Tooling Rapid Design Shop Aids Ti Ni Al
  18. 18. Titanium Technologies and Lab 22 Achievements • Since Sept of 2012, Lab 22 has 3D printed over 700 pieces in titanium from over 150 files for 52 entities in 130 total Arcam EBM builds. That is an average of 1.5 builds per week. Of these, 54% have been for industry, 21% have been for R&D, and 25% have been for marketing, media, and education. In 2012 we hosted 134 visitors, in 2013 it was 216, and at the end of the first quarter of 2014 it was over 100 (total >450). • MPs - Adam Bandt, Julie Bishop, Anna Burke, Greg Combet • EVP of the Lockheed Martin F-35 Joint Strike Fighter Program, Tom Burbage • Lab 22 Chosen to be a Preferred Service Provider for Arcam EBM • AM Fish Anchors Implemented (upcoming slide) • AM Bicycle with Flying Machine (upcoming slide) • AM Mining Drill Bit Holders • AM Bugs (upcoming slide) • AM Orthotic Horse Shoes • AM Design Optimisation via student projects (upcoming slide) • AM of Aero Engine Demonstration with SIEF (upcoming slide) • AM Network (upcoming slide)
  19. 19. Rapid Design Iteration Manufacture all of the design candidates at once in a single build. Inexpensive physical testing was employed to make decisions.
  20. 20. Making the Business Case with Flying Machine Three Conditions Together Made the Product Marketable  Design Change for Every Customer Possible  Off-The-Shelf Tubing  The Novelty
  21. 21. Topology and Design Optimisation Same Performance ... Less Weight Iteration 1 Iteration 6 Iteration 9 Iteration 13 Iteration 16 Iteration 20 Iteration 25 Iteration 29
  22. 22. SIEF Aero-engine AM Project with Monash University
  23. 23. I like big bugs ...
  24. 24. Sciaky DM Process (and CSIRO Modeling and Simulation) 13-00975-EOT
  25. 25. Sciaky DM Process and CSIRO Modeling and Simulation  Electron Beam Freeform Fabrication (EBFFF) is an additive manufacturing (AM) process that works efficiently with a variety of weldable alloys.  Residual stress and shape distortion are inherent features of AM, particularly at high deposition rates, as a result of the large thermal gradients.  Fabricated parts are stress-relief heat treated both during and after deposition to help relieve stresses, which adds to cycle time and the overall cost.  CSIRO has established and implemented modelling techniques to predict distortion and stresses during and after deposition by EBFFF as a first step towards developing an active distortion management system.  The model can be employed in a predictive mode to investigate the effects of various tool paths and process parameters on the (post-manufacturing) part distortion and residual stress. 13-00975-EOT
  26. 26. FEA Model of a T-shaped part - Substrate plate: 600 mm long, 12.5 mm thick, 100 mm wide - Deposit: 51 mm tall, 11.8 mm wide, single bead - Process parameters: • Speed: 12.7 mm/s • EB power: 4.3 kW for preheat and 8.6 kW for deposit • 18 layers per side; each layer is 2.83 mm high • Substrate and wire have initial temperature of 30°C Model of the part 12.5 T-shaped part built by EBFFF 13-00975-EOT
  27. 27. Neutron Diffraction Used to Improve Results Prediction 200 MPa - 135.2 MPa - 94 MPa Residual Stress by ND (ANSTO) 235 MPa  The predictive tool has been recently refined further by using an updated material model.  The predicted stress distribution is in excellent agreement with residual stress measurements by neutron diffraction at ANSTO. 13-00975-EOT
  28. 28. One-sided Part Model 1923 300 Temperature (°K) – during build von Mises stress (MPa) – during build 800 0 von Mises stress (MPa) – cooling to below 90°C von Mises stress (MPa) – released from clamps 800 0 800 0 13-00975-EOT
  29. 29. Significance of the Predictive Tool  Cost saving ‒ The predictive tool can perform virtual EBFFF. We can run a series of Design of Experiments (DoE) without having to consume materials and cost ‒ The tool can predict the expected distortion when deposition is made on a pre-bent plate or when insulated clamps are used ‒ Combinatorial effects such as the effect of combining a substrate preheat with half the building speed and insulated clamps can be predicted.  Provides insight into the evolution of thermal and stress distribution during and post build  Identifies critical moments when defects such as cracks and/or excessive distortion may occur  The application of the predictive tool can be extended to large deposition (wire or blown powder) and other AM processes Selected DoE Results -96.6 -39.4 -27.7 0 -20 -40 -60 -80 -100 -120 Change in Distortion (%) Option 1 Option 1 + Option 2 + Option 3 Option 3 13-00975-EOT
  30. 30. Operational Cost Considerations of Additive Manufacturing – Why work on materials? 2000 1500 1000 500 $ $ 0 Today Future 2000 1500 1000 500 0 50% of the cost in operation is labour 20% is depreciation (i.e. Cost of the unit) If the equipment cost comes down and labour gets more productive Powder becomes the mostly costly component of AM
  31. 31. Where is ͞Cheap͟ TitaŶiuŵ Powder??? Armstrong Process – Cristal FFC Process – Metalysis TiRO Alloys CSIR New Zealand Hydride DeHydride ADMA China
  32. 32. Powder, Particles and Aggregate Size Size Range Flow Density Alter Either or Both: - Improve the Inexpensive Powder - Alter the AM Equipment Operating Parameters
  33. 33. CSIRO Powder Manipulation 50 25 >1000 600 – 1000 400 – 600 250 – 400 150 – 250 100 – 150 75 – 100 45 – 75 25 – 45 < 25 E-Beam AM Laser AM, Cold Spray Weight pct Particle Size in mm Before After
  34. 34. Universal Powder Bed External laboratory bench-top unit to allow for studies of how low cost input material actually behaves without being encumbered by a full AM system. Powder hopper 25 kg of Ti each Powder table Rake regulator Optical Camera Heat shield Rake Build tank
  35. 35. Cold Spray Technology CSIRO has developed a new solid-state additive manufacturing process using Cold Spray Technology to produce bulk 3D forms and coatings from powder feed stock that is both metallic and non-metallic.
  36. 36. Process and applications • During cold spray, powder particles (typically 10 to 50 μm) are accelerated to high velocities (200 to 1200 m.s-1) by a supersonic compressed gas jet at temperatures well below their melting point. As the particles impact the surface they undergo large plastic deformations, consolidating to produce localised forge bonding, at spray rates up to several 100 g/min. • The deposition efficiency is also very high, above 95% in most cases. • The technology is more efficient, cost effective and environmentally friendly and can be applied to the aerospace, biomedical, oil and gas, power generation, motor sport, petrochemical and electronics industries. • Our 3D simulation outcomes has proved to be highly cost effective for optimization of the cold spray parameters.
  37. 37. Research at CSIRO Preforms, Billet and Pipe Coatings on polymer and metal 3D manufacturing of bulk billet and preforms Repair and modification techniques for lightweight aerospace alloys Improved biocompatible coatings for medical implants Thick metallic coatings for thermally sensitive substrates Ballistic protection composite coating for defence and space application Anti-fouling coatings for marine application
  38. 38. Advantages of Cold Spray  Solid-state deposition - no melting therefore no solidification defects  No vacuum required for oxygen sensitive materials such as Ti  Environmentally friendly process  Cost effective - capital and operation Cold Sprayed CP Ti Conventional CP Ti
  39. 39. Cold Spray for Pre-forms
  40. 40. Continuous Billet Production CSIRO has the capability to produce 45 kg/hr of product via cold spray
  41. 41. The Additive Manufacturing Network The hub for all things additive. MISSION – Coordinate additive manufacturing for Australia. The Additive Manufacturing Network is ... - Public with participation from academia, industry, and government welcome. - To be self governed once established. - Well poised to be a self supporting national asset. GOAL – Market globally Australian additive manufacturing capability, for both technology R&D and production for profit in industry. - Publish who has what equipment and corresponding capabilities. - Create confidence in global customers investigating Australian potential. - Collaborate efficiently for new Australian business, creating greater total revenues in which to participate. - Connect those with a need to those with a solution. Per the mission statement: co·or·di·nate (verb) - The act of harmoniously combining and interacting items to function effectively. GOAL – Facilitate communication within Australia on additive manufacturing. - Use a network infrastructure, including focused working groups, to conduct regular face-to-face and web meetings. - UŶdeƌstaŶd otheƌs’ ƌoadŵaps aŶd stƌategies. - Coordinate and be efficient on resolving issues. - Achieve a comprehensive and non-redundant R&D project portfolio within the country. - Accelerate the deployment of technologies to industry. Status - A survey of industry was taken and interest existed. - Kickoff Meeting - Inaugural Committee of 10. - Now Partnered with (i.e. handed over) to AMTIL. For further information, please contact: Chad Henry CSIRO Additive Manufacturing Operations Manager Titanium Technologies Stream Leader Gate 7 Normanby Road, Clayton 3168 VIC Australia +61 3 9545 7844 (office)
  42. 42. Thank you CSIRO Manufacturing Flagship High Performance Metal Industry ore to more Chad Henry Additive Manufacturing Operations Manager +61 (03) 9545 7844 FUTURE MANUFACTURING FLAGSHIP