Le recours aux digital methodsdans l’analyse de l’information en ligne. Apports et limites. Franck Rebillard Université Sorbonne Nouvelle Paris 3 Présentation au Social Media Club Quelle valorisation des social data ? – Mardi 15 mai 2012
Mise en contexte Digitized Methods / Digital Methods (Rogers, 2010)« A series of volumes and handbooks has now appeared where theresearchers continue to develop quite a classic social scientificarmature, which includes interviews, surveys, observation, and others.What I would like to point out in particular is these could be categorizedor conceptualized as digitized methods. That is, taking methods —existing methods— and trying to move them online. » (p. 242)« What I’d like to try to do —and I think that many of us, in a sense, aredoing this already— is introduce a new era in Internet-relatedresearch where we no longer need to go off-line, or to digitizemethod, in order to study the online. Rather, in studying the online,we make and ground findings about society and culture with theInternet. Thus, the Internet is a research site where one canground findings about reality. With this particular idea, I haveintroduced the term digital groundedness, or onlinegroundedness, where claims about society are grounded in theonline. » (p. 243)ROGERS R., 2010, « Internet Research : The Question of Method », Journal of InformationTechnology and Politics, 7 (2/3), pp. 241-260, [http://www.digitalmethods.net/]
Exemple d’application à l’information en ligne (1) The Dynamics of the News Cycle (Leskovec et al., 2009)•« The Meme-tracker technology (http://memetracker.org), [...] analyzes1.6 million articles and posts each day from a mix of mainstream newssites, new media sites and blogs. The Meme-tracker algorithm operatesby extracting all quotations that appear in these sources. [...] it thenfinds any variants of the original quote that convey the same idea, aswell as similar ideas or phrases that may have come from other peopleor been delivered at other times. These elements -- the original quoteand its variants -- are clustered into a “meme” or a concept. »
Exemple d’application à l’information en ligne (1) The Dynamics of the News Cycle (Leskovec et al., 2009 / Graphique extrait du site http://memetracker.org/ )
Exemple d’application à l’information en ligne (2) Trends in Social Media (Asur et al., 2011)•« Twitter provides a Search API for extracting tweets containingparticular keywords. To obtain the dataset of trends for this study,we repeatedly used the API in two stages. First, we collected thetrending topics by doing an API query every 20 minutes. Second,for each trending topic, we used the Search API to collect all thetweets mentioning this topic over the past 20 minutes. For eachtweet, we collected the author, the text of the tweet and the time itwas posted. Using this procedure for data collection, we obtained16.32 million tweets on 3361 different topics over a course of 40days in Sep-Oct 2010. »
Exemple d’application à l’information en ligne (2) Trends in Social Media (Asur et al., 2011, p. 10)
Re-mise en contexte La « nouvelle frontière » de la « nouvelle science des réseaux »« Indeed, the sudden emergence of large and reliable networkmaps drove the development of network theory during the pastdecade. If data of similar detail capturing the dynamics ofprocesses taking place on networks were to emerge in thecoming years, our imagination will be the only limitation toprogress.If I dare to make a prediction for the next decade, it is this:Thanks to the proliferation of the many electronic devices that weuse on a daily basis, from cell phones to Global PositioningSystems and the Internet, that capture everything from ourcommunications to our whereabouts, the complex system thatwe are most likely to tackle first in a truly quantitative fashionmay not be the cell or the Internet but rather society itself. »(Barabasi, 2009).
Conclusion Composer avec la « nouvelle science des réseaux »Profiter des apports des digital methods :-Corpus numériques de grande envergure, quasi-exhaustifs-Topologie de l’internet et visualisation graphique-Traitements automatisés sur de vastes jeux de donnéesUtiliser ce premier balisage pour ensuite :-Procéder à des analyses qualitatives de contenu-Observer les acteurs et leurs pratiques communicationnelles