The Sudanese Medical Association (SMA)            UK & Ireland    THE CONFERENCE REPORT              Zuhair Ali, Emam El-H...
Suggested citation:Ali Z, El-Higaya E, Ibrahim N, Elmusharaf K, Shadad A, Elshafei M, Ahmed M, Editors.Migration of Sudane...
Table of ContentsTABLE OF CONTENTS ..........................................................................................
INTRODUCTIONIt is my great pleasure to introduce this report summarising the activities of the 1st SudaneseMedical Associa...
I hope that you will find the contents of this report useful and interesting.Thank you.Dr. Mohamed Ali AhmedChair, Confere...
ABBREVIATIONSBST         Basic Surgical Training.COSECSA     College of Surgeons of East, Central and Southern AfricaCME  ...
EXECUTIVE SUMMARYThe Sudanese Medical Association UK & Ireland held its first conference in Ireland inSalthill Hotel, Galw...
The conference has learned that the last few years have witnessed increasing numbers ofyoung male and female Sudanese doct...
The initiatives discussed in this session included Sudan Online Health Library, a pilotcollaboration project of short term...
THE CONFERENCE SESSIONS                       1. THE OPENNING SESSIONDr. Mohamed Ahmed: the chair of the organising commit...
His Excellency Mr. Bahar IdrissAbugarda:       the Sudanese FederalMinister of Health gave a briefdescription of the curre...
2. DYNAMICS OF DOCTORS MIGRATIONMrs Nuha Ibrahim started the second session by presenting her study of pull and push facto...
The migration of Sudanese doctors to Ireland started in 1970s with few doctors who came forsurgical training and surged in...
Territory size shows the proportion of all physicians (doctors) that work in that territory (asper Dr. Odumas presentation...
Prof. Ruairi Brugha, the head of Epidemiology and Public health department in RCSImedical school, described threefold incr...
3. MODELS OF NOVEL INTIATIVESThe third session gave examples of initiatives and collaboration projects between Ireland and...
Some of the conference participants at one of the sessionsDr. Arif Mutwali, consultant nephrologist in Letterkenny General...
Prof. Zein Karrar started his presentation with a historical account of the establishment ofSudan Medical Council (SMC) in...
Prof. Karrar described the new regulation organising specialist practice at three levels:specialist, senior specialist and...
The award for Excellence in Healthcare Management for the joint project by Cork University Maternity Hospital,Omdurman Mat...
4. PARELLEL WORKSHOPS                      Workshop 1: Return of migrant doctors to SudanWorkshop membership: Prof. Ruairi...
Workshop 2: Innovative Initiatives in Health provision & Medical Education in                                    SudanWork...
•    Links should allow for a dynamic process to outline the purposes of the               collaboration and identify pote...
Finally, the participants made the following recommendations to address these drawbacks:         •   Regulation and govern...
A- starting from the entry level of the post internship medical council assessment   scheme (PRES) which have three compon...
experience in the specialty. It was recommended that these tiers should be widely         communicated to doctors practici...
with their families at home. Other pull factors -which is not specific to Ireland- include: betterjob opportunities, highe...
5. CONDUCTING RESEARCH IN A               CHALLENGING IRISH HEALTH SYSTEMThe fifth session provided an opportunity to pres...
Dr. Mohammed Bashir: presented his research investigating the effects of smoking onglycaemic control, lipids, BP, albuminu...
POST CONFERENCE ACTIVITIESBusiness meeting between the Sudan delegates, SMA executives and the conference organizing commi...
The meeting at the RCSI                                  The meeting at the RCSI From left to right: Dr. Khalifa Elmushara...
Sudan delegates at the Royal College of Surgeons Ireland (RCSI) Dublin     Sudan delegates visiting St. James’s Hospital, ...
The meeting at St. Jamess Hospital Dublin     From left to right: Prof. Zein Karrar, president of Sudan Medical Council, P...
Annex32             SMA UK & Ireland conference- Galway June 2012      Migration of Sudanese Doctors: Dynamics & Opportuni...
The conference organising committee     Dr. Abobakr Shadad                   Dr. Khalifa Elmusharaf     Mrs. Nuha Ibrahim ...
Conference Programme  9:00 to 10:00                                                  Registration                         ...
Session “3” 14:00 to 15:30                                      Models of Novel Initiatives                        Chair: ...
Session “5” 17:15 to 18:00 pm                            Conducting Research in Challenging Irish Health System           ...
Speakers’ biographies     His Excellency Mr. Bahar Idriss Abugarda     Sudan Federal Minister of Health     Prof. Gerry Lo...
Prof Ruairi Brugha     MB, BCh, BAO, MD, FFPHMI, MSc, DCH, Dip Obs, Dip Humanities. He is     the Head of Epidemiology and...
Prof. Kathy Murphy     RGN,BA,MSc,PhD,RNT,Dip N ED. Prof. Murphy is the Head of the school of     Nursing and Midwifery, N...
Dr. Mahir Hamad     FRCP (London), FRCP (Glasgow), FRCPI. He is a Consultant Physician and     Clinical Director for Acute...
Dr. Emam El-Higaya     MBBS, DCPsych, MPH. Dr. El-Higaya is a graduate of Gezira Medical School     in Sudan. He has been ...
Dr. Narayanan Subramanian     MBBS, MRCPsych(Lon), MSc Addictions(Lon), Dip.H.Mgt, Dip.Cl.Psych.     He is the Vice Chairm...
Ms. Lorna Hurley     Lorna Hurley, RGN, BSc (Hon), MSc. Lorna is the Community Diabetes     Facilitator for Co Galway. She...
Dr. Mohamed Eltom     Dr. Mohamed Abdelrahman Eltom, MBBS, MRCOG, MRCPI. He is a     registrar in Obstetrics & Gynaecology...
Dr. Safa I A Abdalla     She graduated from University of Khartoum with MBBS in 1999, and MD in     Community Medicine in ...
SMA UK & Ireland.  Galway conference report 2012
SMA UK & Ireland.  Galway conference report 2012
SMA UK & Ireland.  Galway conference report 2012
SMA UK & Ireland.  Galway conference report 2012
SMA UK & Ireland.  Galway conference report 2012
SMA UK & Ireland.  Galway conference report 2012
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  • useful report - thank you. I hope there will be future reports on implementing the international codes of practice on recruitment.
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SMA UK & Ireland. Galway conference report 2012

  1. 1. The Sudanese Medical Association (SMA) UK & Ireland THE CONFERENCE REPORT Zuhair Ali, Emam El-Higaya, Nuha Ibrahim, Khalifa Elmusharaf, Abobakr Shadad, Mohammed Elshafei & Mohamed Ahmed
  2. 2. Suggested citation:Ali Z, El-Higaya E, Ibrahim N, Elmusharaf K, Shadad A, Elshafei M, Ahmed M, Editors.Migration of Sudanese Doctors: Dynamics & Opportunities, Conference Report. The SudaneseMedical Association (SMA) UK and Ireland. 9th June 2012, Galway, Ireland. © Sudanese Medical Association (SMA) UK and Ireland – 2012All rights reserved. Requests for permission to reproduce or translate SMA UK & Ireland publications(whether for sale or for non-commercial distribution) should be addressed to SMA UK & Ireland, at thebelow address.The mention of specific names, organisations, companies or of certain manufacturers’ products doesnot imply that they are endorsed or recommended by SMA UK & Ireland in preference to others of asimilar nature that are not mentioned. Errors and omissions are expected. The names of proprietaryproducts are distinguished by initial capital letters.All reasonable precautions have been taken by SMA UK & Ireland to verify the information containedin this publication. However, the published material is being distributed without warranty of any kind,either expressed or implied. The responsibility for the interpretation and use of the material lies withthe reader. In no event shall SMA UK & Ireland be liable for damages arising from its use.Information concerning this publication can be obtained from:Sudanese Medical Association (SMA) UK and IrelandNo.9 Ros Caoin, Roscam. Galway, IrelandOrP O Box 80. Morden Surrey. SM4 9AS. UKCopies of this publication can be ordered from:www.sma-ukandireland.org/info@sma-ukandireland.org
  3. 3. Table of ContentsTABLE OF CONTENTS .................................................................................................................... 1INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................................... 2ABBREVIATIONS........................................................................................................................... 4EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ................................................................................................................. 5THE CONFERENCE SESSIONS ......................................................................................................... 81. THE OPENNING SESSION ........................................................................................................ 82. DYNAMICS OF DOCTORS MIGRATION ...................................................................................... 103. MODELS OF NOVEL INTIATIVES ............................................................................................... 144. PARELLEL WORKSHOPS ........................................................................................................... 195. CONDUCTING RESEARCH IN A CHALLENGING IRISH HEALTH SYSTEM......................................... 26POST CONFERENCE ACTIVITIES ................................................................................................... 28ANNEX....................................................................................................................................... 32THE CONFERENCE ORGANISING COMMITTEE .......................................................................................... 33CONFERENCE PROGRAMME .............................................................................................................. 34SPEAKERS’ BIOGRAPHIES .................................................................................................................. 37 1 SMA UK & Ireland conference- Galway June 2012 Migration of Sudanese Doctors: Dynamics & Opportunities
  4. 4. INTRODUCTIONIt is my great pleasure to introduce this report summarising the activities of the 1st SudaneseMedical Association conference in Ireland: Migration of Sudanese Doctors: Dynamics &Opportunities.The conference was a reflection of the increasing awareness of the ongoing high level world-wide discussions about health care workers migration and its impact on the human resourcesfor health and on the health service delivery in general.The conference focused on the migration of Sudanese doctors with emphasis on the push andthe pull factors behind their migration. At present there are more than 600 Sudanese doctorsregistered with the Irish Medical Council. This number, without any doubt, is on the rise. In2000, there were less than 80 Sudanese doctors in Ireland.The first session of the conference analysed the phenomenon of Sudanese doctors migrationto Ireland in details and explored the historical dimensions of this phenomenon as well as thecurrent trends. The conference also examined the whole area of doctors’ migration in Irelandwith reference to the ethical and practical implications as migration of doctors represents abrain drain and creates a critical shortage of health workers in low-income countries such asSudan.Having said that, there are great opportunities created by doctors’ migration including bettertraining, up-skilling and transmission of knowledge. The conference dedicated specialsessions that focused specifically on the opportunities for cooperation created by doctors’migration. A number of outreach initiatives by Sudanese Irish doctors were presented at theconference and their details are included in this report.For Ireland, this conference addressed the countrys over-reliance on foreign doctors. In 2008,Ireland ranked second in the OECD (following New Zealand) for recruiting doctors fromoverseas. According to 2006 figures, 54% of Irelands Non-Consultant Hospital Doctor(NCHD) posts were filled by non-Irish nationals.The conference also included five parallel workshops which gave participants the opportunityto participate in discussions about thematic topics of special interest to them. Details of theseworkshops are included in this report. The last session of the conference incorporated shortpresentations of distinguished research projects conducted by Sudanese-Irish doctors, alongwith lessons learnt and recommendations by these doctors. A summary of these presentationsis included in this report.This conference aimed at providing a platform for senior health policy makers and academicsin Sudan and Ireland to get together and share their experiences and discuss avenues forcollaboration and cooperation. I believe this objective has been achieved to a great extent asvery successful meetings were held, as part of the post conference activities, between the highlevel Sudanese delegates and key Irish academics and health policy makers. The outcomes ofthese meetings will be announced in the near future. 2 SMA UK & Ireland conference- Galway June 2012 Migration of Sudanese Doctors: Dynamics & Opportunities
  5. 5. I hope that you will find the contents of this report useful and interesting.Thank you.Dr. Mohamed Ali AhmedChair, Conference Organising Committee,Galway, Ireland. “Trí na chéile a thógt na chaisléain” “Only by working together, we can build castles” "An Irish Proverb" 3 SMA UK & Ireland conference- Galway June 2012 Migration of Sudanese Doctors: Dynamics & Opportunities
  6. 6. ABBREVIATIONSBST Basic Surgical Training.COSECSA College of Surgeons of East, Central and Southern AfricaCME Continuing Medical EducationCMPS Council for Medical Postgraduate StudiesEU European UnionFMOH Federal Ministry of Health in SudanFRCS Fellowship of Royal College of SurgeonsGPT General Professional TrainingIELTS International English Language Testing SystemIMC Irish Medical CouncilMRCPI Membership of Royal College of Physicians of IrelandNCHD Non-Consultant Hospital DoctorOECD Organisation for Economic Co-operation and DevelopmentRCSI Royal College of Surgeons in IrelandSDMLE The Sudan Medical Licensing ExaminationSHO Senior House OfficerSMA Sudan Medical AssociationSMC Sudan Medical CouncilSNF Sudan National FormularySNMSB Sudan National Medical Specialisation BoardSpR Specialist RegistrarT2DM Type2 Diabetes MellitusTRAS Temporary Registration Assessment SchemeUNCTAD United Nations Conference on Trade and DevelopmentWHO World Health Organisation 4 SMA UK & Ireland conference- Galway June 2012 Migration of Sudanese Doctors: Dynamics & Opportunities
  7. 7. EXECUTIVE SUMMARYThe Sudanese Medical Association UK & Ireland held its first conference in Ireland inSalthill Hotel, Galway on Saturday the 9th of June 2012. More than 100 delegates participatedin the conference sessions. Participants were Sudanese doctors working in Ireland and UK,Irish health policy makers and health workers as well as researchers and academics withinterest in health and migration issues.Five key delegates represented the Sudanese health system lead by his Excellency, SudanFederal Minister of Health, His Excellency Mr Bahar Idriss Abugarda with two of theMinistry senior health policy makers; Dr. Hassan Abdul Aziz and Dr. Elsheikh Badr. Thepresidents of two important Sudanese regulatory bodies and medical institutions also attendedthe conference; the president of Sudan Medical Council; Prof. Zein Karrar and the presidentof Sudan Medical specialisation Board; Prof. Osman Taha.The First Session commenced with opening remarks and welcome by Dr. Mohamed AliAhmed, the chair of the organising committee who welcomed the delegates and called fordeveloping and enhancing Sudanese Irish relations in health and medical training domainsthrough the establishment of long term institutional commitments that benefit both sides. Dr.Ahmed emphasised that this relationship could become a good example of a North-Southpartnership aiming for a win/win situation for both countries.Dr. Abobakr Shadad then reflected on the main theme of this conference; the migration ofSudanese doctors and emphasised on the unique public diplomacy between Sudan and Irelandrepresented by the role of Sudanese doctors in Ireland. Then the previous and currentpresidents of the SMA; Dr. Faisal Mihaimeed and Dr. Mahir Hamad gave two short talksabout the SMA vision & mission, brief account of the previous achievements and the futureprojects. They emphasised on the non-political nature of the organisation and that it does notclaim any trade union representation role. They invited the delegates to attend the upcomingSMA conference in Sudan in December 2012.Sudan Federal Minister of Health, His Excellency Mr Bahar Idriss Abugarda, then gave abrief overview of the current challenges facing the health system in Sudan and theachievements in health care indicators in the period 2006-2010. He then outlined theMinistrys plans and ambitions for the future. The Minister thanked Ireland for hostingSudanese doctors and called for future collaboration between the two countries in improvinghealth services delivery and health/ medical education and training.The Second Session discussed many issues relating to the Sudanese doctors migration toIreland and also looked at the phenomenon of health workers migration as an Internationaltrend as well as the implications and challenges from an Irish perspective. 5 SMA UK & Ireland conference- Galway June 2012 Migration of Sudanese Doctors: Dynamics & Opportunities
  8. 8. The conference has learned that the last few years have witnessed increasing numbers ofyoung male and female Sudanese doctors coming to Ireland for postgraduate training andlong term employment with no clear plans to go back home.The push factors in Sudan include limited and poorly funded postgraduate medical training inSudan as well as poor economic situations. Also the ambitious nature of Sudanese doctorsand desire for better training opportunities abroad, played a major role. The Irish pull factorsinclude internationally recognised postgraduate medical training, employment opportunitieswith good income in a friendly country. Another very important pull factor is the largenumber of Sudanese doctors already in Ireland which encourage and attract more and moreyoung Sudanese doctors to migrate to Ireland.The conference has also learnt that there has been a huge surge in production of doctors inSudan, this created a bottle neck at postgraduate specialisation level associated with a severelack of nurses and other healthcare professionals. This deficiency is not an exception withinthe African context as the whole African continent has only 3% of global health workforcewhile facing 24% of worlds’ burden of disease. Regional attractive destinations to themigration of large numbers of Sudanese doctors include Saudi Arabia and other Persian Gulfstates in addition to the emerging destination of post-conflict Libya.Local retention strategies in Sudan remain behind the strength of local pushing and regionalpulling factors. The optimal efforts should target Diaspora mobilisation activities throughinitiatives by migrant Sudanese doctors such as outreach campaigns, workshops in health andclinical sciences, relief efforts and the contribution in health services delivery in general.The conference has also learnt that Ireland witnessed a three folds increase of foreign traineddoctors working in Irish hospitals; from 13.4% in 2000 to 33.4% of all doctors registeredwith IMC in 2010, with 6 fold increase in the numbers of Sudanese doctors from 63 to 403 inthe same period.However, following the financial crisis, Ireland started to lose large numbers of its owngraduates who migrate to countries as USA, Canada and Australia looking for better careerprogress pathways. The negative effect on incomes will be added to other difficulties alreadyfacing non-EU doctors such as limited access to specialist training, unfavourable immigrationstatus for spouses and fluctuating visa policies and naturalisation prolonged processing times.The Global Code recently adopted by WHO would urge recipient countries such as Ireland toparticipate in the promotion of health services and medical training in sending countries suchas Sudan. These two countries can set a model example of collaboration that supporttechnology and skills transfer through training bodies in both countries.In the Third Session, good examples of health collaboration between Sudan and Ireland werehighlighted. As part of this session, the FMOHs Academy of Health Sciences in Sudan"FMOH" and the National University of Ireland Galway "NUIG" signed a Memorandum ofUnderstanding aiming to collaborate in provision of training for nurses and midwives inSudan. 6 SMA UK & Ireland conference- Galway June 2012 Migration of Sudanese Doctors: Dynamics & Opportunities
  9. 9. The initiatives discussed in this session included Sudan Online Health Library, a pilotcollaboration project of short term training of Sudanese nurses in Ireland, theRCSI/COSECSA project, and the provision of safe and well refurbished dialysis machines toSudan following nephrologists-led initiative. Potential areas of collaboration were alsoexplored in this session such as the inclusion of Sudan in the RCSI/COSECSA project andthe Irish contribution in improving maternal health in Sudan in view of the expertise and theexcellent records of maternal health care in Ireland.The Fourth Session (the 5 parallel workshops) provided an opportunity for the conferencedelegates to participate in discussions about topics of interest to them.The first workshop identified six factors that negatively affect the decision to return to Sudan;poor work environment, children education, insufficient income, lack of career pathways andpoor professional development opportunities in Sudan, in addition to concerns about majorchanges in life style.The second workshop explored the attractiveness of Sudanese private health sector toexpatriate Sudanese doctors. The group admitted that private health sector in Sudan providesbetter income, better work environment and highly trained allied health workers. Theworkshop also identified lack of academic incentives, lack of job security, long workinghours and the limited access to the majority of Sudanese population as major drawbacks ofprivate health sector in Sudan.The third workshop identified better use of Information Technology (IT), online facilities andmobile phone-based services as the way to go for future medical training initiatives in Sudan.The workshop also emphasised on the need for more group-based (team work) initiativesrather that the individually based ones with a limited impact.The fourth workshop suggested the facilitation of initial registration through improvingcommunications between the Medical Councils in Sudan and Ireland. The workshop alsorecommended exploring the organisation of the first part of PRES exam in Sudan. Theworkshop also recommended that Sudanese doctors practicing in Ireland should be informedof the new three tier registration levels in the specialist register in Sudan Medical council.The fifth workshop concluded that reasonable medical registration process in Ireland, the useof English language, Internationally recognised medical training, the location of Irelandcompared to countries such as USA, Canada and Australia and the presence of wellestablished Sudanese medical community in Ireland; all of these factors made Ireland afavourable destination for many migrant Sudanese doctors.The Fifth Session provided an opportunity to present and discuss examples of high qualityresearch work conducted by Sudanese doctors in Irish medical institutions with a view tohighlight the skills and other requirements of research as well as the challenges facing clinicalresearchers. A summary of these presentations is included in this report. 7 SMA UK & Ireland conference- Galway June 2012 Migration of Sudanese Doctors: Dynamics & Opportunities
  10. 10. THE CONFERENCE SESSIONS 1. THE OPENNING SESSIONDr. Mohamed Ahmed: the chair of the organising committee started this session by openingremarks in which he welcomed the high level delegates from Sudan, representatives fromIrish institutions and conference participants. Dr. Ahmed expressed gratitude to theorganising committee, speakers and the sponsoring companies and institutions.Dr. Abubakr shaddad: in his presentation (From Khartoum to Galway), the story of hundredsor thousands of young, enthusiastic Sudanese doctors crossed the boundaries from South toNorth, since the 70s of the last century up till now. What made them favour this beautifulcountry? Dr. Shadad explored this phenomenon and reflected on the unique public diplomacybetween Sudan and Ireland that has great potentials to bring benefits to the people of the twocountries. Dr. Shadad quoted an Irish proverb that encourages collective work andcollaboration as essential element to achieve goals and improve outcomes.Dr. Faisal Mihaimeed: the founding president of Sudan Medical Association (SMA)presented a historical overview SMA which was founded in 2010 as a non-governmental,non-political organisation that involves all healthcare professionals. Dr. Mihaimeed explainedthat SMA aims to be an agent of change and voice of reason to bring healthcare professionalstogether in working partnership with a vision to improve health care service in Sudan.He stressed the scientific nature of the association and its openness to work for the benefit ofthe Sudan, UK and Ireland without any political affiliation or assumptions. The associationmembership expanded to over 1000 health care professionals from wide range of specialtiesincluding doctors, dentists, pharmacists, nurses, lab technicians, radiographers, chiropodists,etc. He gave a brief account of the previous achievements and meetings held both in UK andSudan and he invited delegates to attend theupcoming conference in Sudan mid December 2012.Dr. Mahir Hamad: The current president of the SMApresented some of the SMA achievements andprojects such as postgraduate outreach training in thestates of Khartoum, Gezira and River Nile as well asundergraduate outreach training projects. He alsopresented the SMA initiative towards doctors in earlytraining (DET) project which is UK based includingworkshops for specialty applicants, interview skillsand training in conflict resolution. Dr. Mahir Hamad, president of the SMA addressing the conference 8 SMA UK & Ireland conference- Galway June 2012 Migration of Sudanese Doctors: Dynamics & Opportunities
  11. 11. His Excellency Mr. Bahar IdrissAbugarda: the Sudanese FederalMinister of Health gave a briefdescription of the current challenges inSudans health system and theachievements in improving healthindicators in the period between 2006 -2010. The Minister welcomed allinitiatives aimed to support healthsystem and medical training in Sudanfrom the migrant Sudanese doctors andtheir hosting countries such as Ireland.He concluded by thanking Ireland forhosting Sudanese doctors and theirfamilies and called for strongercollaboration in health matters betweenSudan and Ireland. His Excellency Sudans Federal Minister of Health Mr. Bahar Abugarda addressing the Conference.From right to left: Dr. Mohamed Ahmed, HE Mr. Bahar Abugarda (Sudan Federal Minister of Health), Dr.Abobakr Shadad and Dr. Mahir Hamad (President of SMA). 9 SMA UK & Ireland conference- Galway June 2012 Migration of Sudanese Doctors: Dynamics & Opportunities
  12. 12. 2. DYNAMICS OF DOCTORS MIGRATIONMrs Nuha Ibrahim started the second session by presenting her study of pull and push factorsfor Sudanese doctors migration to Ireland. The aim of this research was to investigate themigration of the Sudanese doctors to Ireland: what are the factors that contributed to theirdecisions to leave Sudan and come to Ireland, their perception about working in Ireland andwhat are their future plans?She identified two main factors, among others, for the male dominated (93.8%) migrantSudanese doctors to Ireland: the need for better training and professional development (45%)in addition to financial attractions (33.3%) as most of these doctors (80.4%) continued tosupport extended family members in Sudan. Other push factors included limited employmentopportunities in speciality of choice in Sudan, lack of equipments, hospital managementdifficulties and factors relating to the political situation.Most of the participating doctors were at the registrar level (65% with only 4.6 in specialisttraining; SpR) followed by SHO level (23.1%) and only 11 % of the 120 participants were atthe consultant level. Around 90 % felt that they do not feel that they have the same chance asIrish doctors to get specialist training. This is the area of their least satisfaction as only 30 %were satisfied with training opportunities, compared to low percentages of dissatisfactionwith lifestyle, working conditions and salary.Nearly half of these doctors (45.6%) had migrated to another country before Ireland,predominantly Saudi Arabia (79%). Most of these doctors stated that Ireland is not their finaldestination (79.6%), and 89 % expressed their intention to go back to Sudan. Despite only42% were originally from Khartoum area 66.7% of the participants said they plan to work inKhartoum when they go back.Dr Emam El-Higaya gave a brief historical overview of modern medical education in Sudanthat is backdated to 1924 with the establishment of Kitchener school of medicine (KSM)which graduated its first batch in 1928. In 1937, Sudan started to send graduates to UK forshort postgraduate experience with the first Sudanese graduates obtained their MRCP andFRCS in 1948 and 1949, respectively. At that time, trainees were typically general dutydoctors who qualified some 10-15 years prior to obtaining government scholarship foroverseas training. This long gap following qualification created difficulties for trainees tofinish their qualifications. This was evident as only three candidates were able to obtain theirFRCS between 1948 and 1960. The first FRCS (Ireland) was obtained in 1973.In the last two decades, Sudan became a "doctors exporting country" after exponentialexpansion in undergraduate medical education. The number of medical schools increasedfrom less than 5 in 1990 to over 30 medical schools. 10 SMA UK & Ireland conference- Galway June 2012 Migration of Sudanese Doctors: Dynamics & Opportunities
  13. 13. The migration of Sudanese doctors to Ireland started in 1970s with few doctors who came forsurgical training and surged in the last decade, from a total of 64 doctors in 2000 to 582doctors qualified in Sudan and registered with the Irish Medical Council (IMC) in June 2012representing 9 % of foreign doctors registered with the IMC. The vast majority (74%) are inthe general division (n=465), 105 (17%) in trainee specialist division and only 57 (9%) in thespecialist division.Dr. Elshiekh Badr the President of the Academy of Health Sciences (AHS) reiterated the twomain push factors for migrant Sudanese doctors described by Mrs Nuha Ibrahim being theneed for training and specialisation and the search for better pay.He gave a brief overview of the current health human resources situation in Sudan with theexpanding numbers of doctors versus the limited expansion in nursing and other allied healthprofessionals that lead to the foundation of the AHS. He highlighted the expanding healthservices in Saudi Arabia as a major attracting destination to Sudanese doctors with minimalmutual formal governmental agreements and the increasing role of private recruitmentagencies.He suggested that, a more structured model of health workers’ migration with mutualagreements and less intervention from recruitment agencies, is needed. He explained thatLibya is now a new destination for doctors in the post-conflict era. He gave a brief overviewof bilateral and regional arrangements, the Diaspora mobilisation activities and healthinitiatives including temporary visits with contribution to medical education, health services,relief efforts and the role of private sector in the permanent return of some well qualifieddoctors to Sudan.Dr. Ogenna Oduma gave an account of the expanding needs for health human resourcesestimated globally to exceed 4 million with particular reference to the severe deficiencies insub-Saharan Africa with the challenges of communicable and peri-natal diseases.Dr. Oduma explained that disease burden and the crises of human resources for health withvery low doctors and nurses are the main challenges facing health services in Africa. Africahas only 3% of global health workforce and at the same time faces 24% of world’s burden ofdisease. This results in unrealistic workload in already unsatisfactory working environmentwith poor distribution of limited resources including manpower. This is even morecomplicated by the lack of updated information, human resources managers andorganisational leadership.An example of the gap of human resources between sub-Saharan Africa and OECD averagesper 100000 population doctors and nurses ratios are 15.5 & 73.4 versus 311 and 737.5;respectively. Most of the Sub-Saharan countries have less than the WHO recommended ratioof 20 doctors per 100.000 with 10 countries with ratios less than 5. Dr. Oduma concluded hertalk by presenting the estimated saving in training cost made by high-income countries ofUS$ 184,000 for each professional aged between 25 and 35 years as estimated by UNConference on Trade and Development (UNCTA). 11 SMA UK & Ireland conference- Galway June 2012 Migration of Sudanese Doctors: Dynamics & Opportunities
  14. 14. Territory size shows the proportion of all physicians (doctors) that work in that territory (asper Dr. Odumas presentation).http://www.worldmapper.org/images/largepng/219.pngDr. Narayanan Subramanian outlined reasons for migration of doctors from Ireland. Hedescribed the challenges facing non EU doctors in Ireland predominantly working as NonConsultant Hospital Doctors (NCHDs). He explained that the limited access to formallyrecognised higher specialist training (SpR) is one of the main reasons. He showed figuresindicating that only 20% of SpR posts are non EU compared to 57% of Senior House officers(SHOs) and 76% of registrars. Some of these non EU NCHDs remain to work as registrarsfor 10-15 years.Dr. Subramanian added that these doctors will eventually migrate particularly after the failureto create an associate specialist grade. He also highlighted other financial and social issuesthat would encourage non EU NCHDs to migrate to other destinations such as UK, Australia,New Zealand, Canada and USA.He described immigration regulation difficulties facing this group of doctors in the past yearsregarding their residence permit status, unfavourable visa status for spouses and prolongedwaiting time for naturalisation that can range from 7-10 years. He presented a case scenariothat describes typical challenges facing most of non EU NCHDs.According to Dr. Subramanian, Ireland is facing outward migration of its own graduatedhealth professionals and overseas doctors when their levels of learning and performance startto plateau. 12 SMA UK & Ireland conference- Galway June 2012 Migration of Sudanese Doctors: Dynamics & Opportunities
  15. 15. Prof. Ruairi Brugha, the head of Epidemiology and Public health department in RCSImedical school, described threefold increase in foreign trained doctors in Ireland from 13.4%in 2000 to 33.4% of all doctors registered with IMC in 2010.Prof. Brugha showed figures indicating a 6 fold increase in numbers of Sudanese doctors (63in 2000 to 403 in 2010). He outlined the dramatic increase in the last decade for thepercentage of foreign-trained doctors that made Ireland the second higher country in terms offoreign doctors after New Zealand (38%) and more than UK, USA and Australia.Prof. Brugha discussed the ethical implicationsof the Global Code recently adopted as avoluntary document by WHO and suggestedthat Sudan as a sending country and Ireland asa recipient country can set a model example ofcollaboration that support technology andskills transfer through training bodies in bothcountries.He concluded by giving examples of elementsof Ireland-Sudan partnership incorporatingagreed training and capacity buildinginitiatives as part of bilateral agreements inhealth between the two countries. Prof. Ruairi Brugha from RCSI addressing the conference . Dr. Donal Reddan, Vice President of the RCPI addressing the conference. 13 SMA UK & Ireland conference- Galway June 2012 Migration of Sudanese Doctors: Dynamics & Opportunities
  16. 16. 3. MODELS OF NOVEL INTIATIVESThe third session gave examples of initiatives and collaboration projects between Ireland andSudan mediated by migrant Sudanese doctors. As part of this session, the Academy of HealthSciences "AHS", Sudan FMOH and the National University of Ireland Galway "NUIG"signed a Memorandum of Understanding aiming for provision of training for nurses andmidwives in Sudan. The signature of the MOU between AHS and NUIG for nurses and midwives training.Dr. Abobakr Shadad gave an account of the Sudan Health Library project aiming to provideonline access to up to date medical educational resources as BMJ and Oxford handbookseries free of charge for educational institutions in Sudan. It targets the medical and nursingstudents in Sudan, allied health students and health researchers. Three forms of individualsponsorship were presented through “memorial folders”. Conference participants wereencouraged to sponsor educational folders in their specialities.Helen Burke described the initiative that involved training of two Sudanese diabetic nurses inthe diabetes day centre (DDC) in Galway. She expressed her satisfaction with the trainingthey had received during the 4 week placement, during which a short-term skill focuseddiabetes training, foot care, retinopathy prevention, and antenatal and paediatric diabeticclinics were provided.The course preparation involved visa sponsorship, Human Resources paperwork,accommodation arrangements and the development of the short course educationalprogramme according to international guidelines. 14 SMA UK & Ireland conference- Galway June 2012 Migration of Sudanese Doctors: Dynamics & Opportunities
  17. 17. Some of the conference participants at one of the sessionsDr. Arif Mutwali, consultant nephrologist in Letterkenny General Hospital described theburden of renal diseases globally and in Sudan particularly. He highlighted his participationin nephrology training in Sudan during short visits accompanied by other Sudanesenephrologists from UK and Ireland. Dr. Mutwali presented his innovative project ofdelivering 80 refurbished dialysis machines to Renal Units in Sudan, 40 of which havealready arrived there. The cost of these 80 refurbished machines is estimated around 540,000US Dollars (US$ 6750 per machine) and they will serve 864 dialysis patients annually.On behalf of the Sudanese dialysis patients, Dr. Mutwali thanked the four Irish hospitalswhich donated these machines;Letterkenny, Cavan, Sligo andTullamore General Hospitals. Dr.Mutwali also thanked all those whoparticipated in covering the cost ofshipping these machines to Sudan.This initiative was highlyappreciated by the conferencedelegates with requests made to theparticipating Sudanese health policymakers to facilitate similar initiativesonce the quality and safety of suchmedical equipments was assured. Dr. Arif Mutwali, Consultant Nephrologist, Letterkenny General Hospital 15 SMA UK & Ireland conference- Galway June 2012 Migration of Sudanese Doctors: Dynamics & Opportunities
  18. 18. Prof. Zein Karrar started his presentation with a historical account of the establishment ofSudan Medical Council (SMC) in 1968. He outlined that the main aim of the SMC is todeliver and safeguard the highest standards of medical education, medical practice andmedical ethics in Sudan for the interests of patients, the public and the profession.Prof. Karrar gave an overview of the progress made in the medical council since he tookoffice in 2009. This progress involved undergraduate accreditation procedures andsupervisory visits to medical schools, pharmacy colleges and dental colleges.He emphasised on the development of Sudan Doctors Medical licensing Exam (SDMLE) in2000 as a requirement for permanent registration and its subsequent transformation in 2007into a computer based exam that is held in an equipped hall accommodating up to 140candidates.From left to right: Dr. Mahir Hamad (president of SMA), Prof. Osman Taha (president of SNMSB), Prof. Gerry Loftus, Dean of School of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences, National University of Ireland Galway and Prof. Zein Karrar (president Sudan Medical Council).Prof. Karrar also highlighted the new edition of the Sudan National Formulary (SNF) in2010, the update of the medical register that is extended to include over 22087 doctors, 4574pharmacists and 2007 dentists in 2010. 16 SMA UK & Ireland conference- Galway June 2012 Migration of Sudanese Doctors: Dynamics & Opportunities
  19. 19. Prof. Karrar described the new regulation organising specialist practice at three levels:specialist, senior specialist and consultant levels with a minimum experience of 3, 5 and 8years of practice in the specialty, respectively. The candidate must provide evidence of goodperformance, competence and Continuing Medical Education (CME) to proceed to the nexttier of the above mentioned levels. The computer-based examination hall in SMC Some publications of Sudan Medical CouncilDr. Mohamed Eltom started his talk by giving a background about Sudan and its 34.2 millionpopulation coming from different ethnicities and living in the sixteenth largest country in theworld.He described the high maternal mortality rate in Sudan and emphasised that Sudan is nowconsidered one of eleven countries responsible for two thirds of global maternal deaths withan adjusted maternal mortality ratio of 750/100.000 live-births in 2008.The highest maternal mortality ratios of 1000-1600/100.000 were reported in the states ofSouth Darfur, Kassala and West Darfur. Most of these deaths are predominantly caused bypreventable conditions such as perinatal haemorrhage, obstructed labour, sepsis,hypertension-induced complications, malaria and anaemia.Dr. Eltom emphasised the need for training of midwives and birth attendants in rural areas.He proposed some potential solutions such as awareness campaigns, improvement of familyplanning and the provision of emergency obstetric care in all health facilities.Dr. Eltom quoted the successful example of collaboration between Cork and OmdurmanMaternity Hospitals in reducing hospital maternal mortality in the latter through an initiativelead by Irish and Sudanese medical staff from Ireland. 17 SMA UK & Ireland conference- Galway June 2012 Migration of Sudanese Doctors: Dynamics & Opportunities
  20. 20. The award for Excellence in Healthcare Management for the joint project by Cork University Maternity Hospital,Omdurman Maternity Hospital, Khartoum, and UCC at the Irish Healthcare Awards 2009 were from L to R: Dr Tony Ryan;Dr Elzein; Dr Murwan Omer; and Aisling Gannon, then of sponsors BeauchampsIrish Medical Times at: http://www.imt.ie/features-opinion/2011/07/excellence-at-home-and-abroad.htmlMr. Eric O’Flynn presented the last talk in this session covering the experience of thecollaboration programme between the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland and the Collegeof Surgeons of East, Central and Southern Africa RCSI/COSECSA.This programme provides mutually recognised surgical training in 9 African countriesthrough an online platform of e-learning.This programme addresses the severe shortage of surgeons in the region with only 1390surgeons serving a population of 265 million. At present, the COSECSA programme has 144trainees in 28 active training locations and offers Membership and Fellowship programmes in7 specialities: General Surgery, Orthopaedics, Paediatrics, Urology, Neurosurgery, PlasticSurgery and ENT. A total of 61 specialist surgeons completed the training programme since2004.The programme provides full access to RCSI library and other online resources for trainers inaddition to communication skills courses and a full structured basic surgical academic course.The inclusion of Sudan and South Sudan in the programme was extensively discussed in thissession. 18 SMA UK & Ireland conference- Galway June 2012 Migration of Sudanese Doctors: Dynamics & Opportunities
  21. 21. 4. PARELLEL WORKSHOPS Workshop 1: Return of migrant doctors to SudanWorkshop membership: Prof. Ruairi Brugha, Dr Abdelbagi Ismail, Dr Babiker Ismail, DrElsheikh Badr, Dr Hassan Abdelaziz, Dr. Yasir Ahmed, Dr Hatim Kheir, Dr Mahjoub Toar,Dr Mohamed Elshafi, Dr Mujahid Jowdat, Dr Moutaz Abdelrahman, Dr. Sara Mohamed, DrSamah Abdelsalam Elhag.Sudanese doctors abroad have high intentions to return to Sudan. In reality, this is nothappening. The workshop aimed to identify reasons for this “intention-behaviour gap”.The workshop facilitator initially surveyed workshop members who are working outsideSudan about whether they are considering going back to Sudan. Eighty five percent (85%) ofthis group expressed high intentions to go back to Sudan.The participants were able to identify six important reasons that might make them decideNOT to return to Sudan, and listed these reasons in a descending order: • Poor work environment, lack of well-trained staff and poor resources in health facilities. • Better quality of education for their children in Ireland and Western countries in general, added to the huge gap in quality of education between private and public schools in Sudan. There is a considerable higher financial cost in Sudan, especially in private schools. • Less gross income in Sudan compared with the current income in Ireland, especially for those who are planning to return to work in the public health sector in Sudan. • Lack of clear career pathways for some specialities (e.g. General Practice, Emergency Medicine, Haematology). • Lack of structured Continuing Professional Development (CPD) opportunities in Sudan. • Huge differences in quality of life, especially for children who were raised abroad.The workshop participants recommended further quantitative and qualitative research onmigration of Sudanese skilled workers, particularly doctors. The workshop emphasised thatimproving work conditions in Sudan public health sector can play a major role in retainingSudanese medical graduates and also in attracting highly skilled migrant doctors to return toSudan. 19 SMA UK & Ireland conference- Galway June 2012 Migration of Sudanese Doctors: Dynamics & Opportunities
  22. 22. Workshop 2: Innovative Initiatives in Health provision & Medical Education in SudanWorkshop membership: Dr. Abobakr Shadad, Ms. Brynne Gilmore, Dr. DiarmuidODonovan, Mr Eric OFlynn, Dr Faisal Mihaimeed, Dr. Imad Brema, Dr. KhalifaElmusharaf, Dr. Mohammed Bashir, Dr. Mona Abbas, Mrs. Nuha Ibrahim, Dr. SafaAbdullah.The purpose of this workshop was to discuss and recommend practical ways of movingfrom individual-based to more innovative, group-based and sustainable initiatives tosupport Sudans health service, medical educational/training and research.This workshop outlined a number of recommendations that could yield more effective andsustainable collaborations between health and academic bodies in Ireland/UK and Sudan: • Establishing institutional links should follow a systematic approach or framework within which all initiatives should operate. • Collaboration between the two sides should be based on mutual benefits, for example collaboration in service development in the area of Non-Communicable Diseases such as Diabetes where institutions in countries like Ireland have considerable and long-term experience that will benefit Sudan. On the other hand, this collaboration will allow good research opportunities for Irish institutions. • The engagement of all interested stakeholders in UK/Ireland and Sudan will allow better identification of areas of collaboration and cooperation. 20 SMA UK & Ireland conference- Galway June 2012 Migration of Sudanese Doctors: Dynamics & Opportunities
  23. 23. • Links should allow for a dynamic process to outline the purposes of the collaboration and identify potential areas of cooperation and mutual interests. • There should be a built-in mechanism of monitoring and evaluation of this collaboration, and flexibility to revise purposes and plans at any stage to respond to emerging issues and newly identified needs. • Promoting ownership of projects by the participating institutions. • Equal opportunities and fair merit-based selection of candidates for training opportunities. • Minimal expenditure in areas such as travel and equipment, and emphasising the utilisation of local resources. • Utilisation of IT, social networks, internet and mobile phone-based services which are becoming widely accessible in countries like Sudan. Workshop 3: The attractiveness of Sudans Private Health SectorWorkshop membership: Dr. Arif Mutwali, Dr. Babiker Elawad, Dr. Bakri Elymani, Dr.Mahir Hamad, Dr. Rabab Ahmed, Dr. Reem Saied, Dr. Saleem Babiker, Dr. Victor Adenaike,Dr. Mohamed Elkomi, Dr. Nasir Khaleel, Dr. Mogtaba Osman.The task of this workshop was to explore if there is any potential for the private healthsector in Sudan to attract skilled migrant Sudanese doctors.All workshop participants stated that private sector (private hospitals or private practice) inSudan will be their likely choice if they returned back to Sudan. In view of the currentsituation of the public health sector in Sudan, they agreed that private sector will be moreattractive option compared to the public sector, which was attributed by the participants to thefollowing reasons: • Better income • Better work environment and working conditions. • Better qualified and trained staff, especially allied health professionals.However, the following drawbacks of working in Sudan private health sector were identified: • Lack of access to private hospitals for low socioeconomic classes in Sudan. • Limited academic incentives or gains while working in private health setting. • Long working hours. • Lack of job security. 21 SMA UK & Ireland conference- Galway June 2012 Migration of Sudanese Doctors: Dynamics & Opportunities
  24. 24. Finally, the participants made the following recommendations to address these drawbacks: • Regulation and governance of private health sector by Sudan academic and health regulatory stakeholders. • The expansion of health insurance coverage to include wider range of Sudans population and particularly the poor and people with limited income. • The need for health statistics and data of service provision by private health sectors with a view to integrate such data into the existing health information databases. Workshop 4: Irish Perspective: Training & RetainingWorkshop membership: Prof. Zein Karrar, Prof. Osman Taha, Dr. Eltayeb El-Khabeer, Dr.Alaa Yousif, Dr. Adil Sharafa, Ms. Ashton Porter, Ms. Jane Ryan, Dr. Ahmed Mukhtar, Dr.Mohamed Abdalla, Dr. Zuhair Eissa.Irish health system relies heavily on foreign doctors in delivering healthcare services. Isit fair for the Irish health system to invest in training foreign doctors who willeventually move to work elsewhere?This workshop was attended by two key delegates from Sudan; Prof. Zein Karrar, the currentpresident of Sudan Medical Council (SMC) and Prof Osman Taha the current president ofSudan National Medical Dpecialisation Board (SNMSB), the main and solitary postgraduatetraining body for medical specialties. The workshop discussed three levels of training: 22 SMA UK & Ireland conference- Galway June 2012 Migration of Sudanese Doctors: Dynamics & Opportunities
  25. 25. A- starting from the entry level of the post internship medical council assessment scheme (PRES) which have three components, a computer based theoretical exam held in overseas centres e.g. Cairo, Egypt, an English component IELTS which is held in many centres worldwide including the British Council in Khartoum, and an OSCE component which is held only in Ireland in a relatively unpredictable timing schedule. The panel suggested to pursue the possibility of hosting the first part of PRES in Khartoum and to share experience with the Sudan Licensing Medical Examination SDMLE. It is also suggested to develop a hotline communication with the Irish Medical Council (IMC) to facilitate correspondence, especially with visa facilitation letters for those attending the last OSCE component which is often announced in a tight timeframe.B- The panel discussed the recognition of the two years of pre-membership level of training as Basic Surgical training (BST) or General Professional Training (GPT) for the medical specialties, which can count towards the four years Sudanese board training, the shortage of time didn’t allow this discussion to come to conclusion. It is however, recommended this would be further pursued with the SNMSB. Prof. Osman Taha addressing the conferenceC- The third level of training discussed was the specialist training higher specialty training, which is a direct pathway to obtain a certificate of completion of specialist training (CCST). This is unfortunately accessible to only 5-10% of Sudanese doctors as presented in the statistics of the conference presentations. This is a direct pathway to get trainees into the specialist register of the IMC. This is also accessible by some trainees through longer pathways with retrospective recognition of long term accumulation of competencies. The SMC president informed the panel of the three tiers of specialist registration adopted in the last few years. Those who are registered in the specialist register in Ireland will be directly registered as consultants. This corresponds to at least 8 years of local experience in the specialty with necessary qualifications. Two other levels were described; the senior specialist level with a minimum of 5 years specialty cumulative documented experience and a specialist level with 3-4 basic years 23 SMA UK & Ireland conference- Galway June 2012 Migration of Sudanese Doctors: Dynamics & Opportunities
  26. 26. experience in the specialty. It was recommended that these tiers should be widely communicated to doctors practicing in Ireland to tailor their training objectives and pathways if they are not in an already recognised pathway of specialist training. D- The workshop concluded the discussion highlighting that it would be important for Irish health policy makers to consider the above mentioned three levels of training to maximise the retention of migrant doctors. Workshop 5: Ireland as a destination for migrant doctorsWorkshop membership: Dr. Ahmed Kharief, Dr. Ali Zaki, Prof. Martin Cormican, Dr.Mohamed Ali, Dr. Mohamed Ismaeil, Dr. Omer Mohamed, Dr. Udama Ndubisi, Dr. NourySalih, Dr. Habib El-Rahman, Dr. Narayanan Subramanian, Dr. Shahir Shakir, Dr. SuhaAbdalla, Dr. Inam Ul-Haq.The key objective of the workshop was to identify why overseas doctors choose Irelandas destination for migration.The workshop participants were in agreement that doctors migration is influenced by acombination of push and pull factors, in addition to different policies, regulations andlegislations. These factors are dynamic, and the complex interplay between these factorsleads to a threshold decision to migrate to Ireland or elsewhere. The participants have focusedtheir discussions on identifying the main pull factors that made Ireland one of the attractivedestinations for overseas doctors.Many doctors came to Ireland based on recommendations from friends or relatives who wereliving in Ireland. The presence of positive social networks and well established overseasmedical community in Ireland was highlighted by participants as an important pull factor.Many doctors found the IMC registration process taking shorter time in Ireland compared toother countries such as the US, same applies for the application process for the visa for PRESlevel 2 exam, or to obtain visa for their spouses when they find employment.Since English language has been the language of medical education in Sudan, opportunitiesfor employment in Ireland has been considerably higher for Sudanese doctors as comparedwith employment opportunities in non-English speaking countries. The IMC recognisesSudanese Medical Qualifications, and some doctors who completed postgraduatequalifications in Sudan were exempted from PRES.Some participants commented that Ireland is not that far away from Sudan compared tocountries such as North America or Australasia, particularly for those with very close ties 24 SMA UK & Ireland conference- Galway June 2012 Migration of Sudanese Doctors: Dynamics & Opportunities
  27. 27. with their families at home. Other pull factors -which is not specific to Ireland- include: betterjob opportunities, higher pay, better work environment, prospects for career development andtraining opportunities, and the high living standards. Dr. Sean Dinneen from NUIG addressing the conference Prof. Peter Cantillon from NUIG during one of the conference sessions 25 SMA UK & Ireland conference- Galway June 2012 Migration of Sudanese Doctors: Dynamics & Opportunities
  28. 28. 5. CONDUCTING RESEARCH IN A CHALLENGING IRISH HEALTH SYSTEMThe fifth session provided an opportunity to present and discuss examples of quality researchwork conducted by Sudanese doctors in Irish medical institutions with a view to highlight theskills and other requirements of research as well as the challenges facing clinical researchers.Dr. Safaa Abdallah presented her research work on evaluating mortality rates and otherclinical and sociodemographic parameters among the Irish travelling community as adisadvantaged group of the Irish population.The figures presented by Dr. Safa showed very high mortality rates among male and femalemembers of the travelling community which are different from the rest of the Irishpopulation. These inequalities result from complex pathways that involve direct and indirecteffects of health determinants ranging from socioeconomic status, employment, livingconditions, environmental factors, education and behavioural factors such as smoking anddietary habits. Dr. Safa concluded that these inequalities should be considered when planningany prevention strategies in keeping with the holistic inter-sectorial approach.Dr. Imad Brema presented his research investigating the role of novel adipocytokine visfatinin insulin resistance. He provided a brief overview of the worldwide pandemic of obesity andthe parallel increase in the incidence of type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) that increased from151 to 221 million between 2000 to 2010. It is predicted to reach 300 million in 2025.It is well documented that exercise improves insulin sensitivity in middle aged subjects withT2DM. Plasma Visfatin levels have been found to drop significantly post-exercise amongobese controls and young subjects with T2DM. Dr. Brema concluded that Visfatin is apromising marker or mediator of aerobic fitness and cardiometabolic risk; however; furthermechanistic large studies are needed to clarify this role. Dr. Ali Zaki, Prof. Ruairi Brugha and Dr. Narayanan Subramanian chairing one of the sessions 26 SMA UK & Ireland conference- Galway June 2012 Migration of Sudanese Doctors: Dynamics & Opportunities
  29. 29. Dr. Mohammed Bashir: presented his research investigating the effects of smoking onglycaemic control, lipids, BP, albuminuria, GFR, and region-specific urinary biomarkers inpatients with type T2DM.In his first retrospective case control study that compared 400 smokers with T2DM with 200non-smokers matched for gender, age, Body Mass Index (BMI) and duration of DM, hefound statistically significant difference in control of glycaemic and lipid laboratory values asexpressed in higher readings of HbA1c, total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL with lowerHDL among the smoker group.In his second study, Dr. Bashir compared 279 smokers with 200 controls and showed astatistically significant higher risk of micro-albuminuria and higher rate of renal functiondeterioration as expressed in e-GFR estimates in the smoker group.Dr. Safaa Abdallah, Dr. Imad Brema and Dr. Mohammed Bashir all agreed that conductingresearch in a clinical setting requires good knowledge of research techniques andmethodology, basic understanding of statistics, availability of databases and assisting staff.They also agreed that the main challenges facing doctors doing research in Ireland are thehuge clinical workload, short-staffed health services, lack of protected time, and the lack ofsupportive research tools in most Irish hospitals.The three doctors informed the conference that completing research allowed them to becomebetter clinicians with improved skills in utilising and applying evidence-based medicine.They also agreed that with their research experience they became more competitive forquality medical/clinical jobs. One of the conference sessions. 27 SMA UK & Ireland conference- Galway June 2012 Migration of Sudanese Doctors: Dynamics & Opportunities
  30. 30. POST CONFERENCE ACTIVITIESBusiness meeting between the Sudan delegates, SMA executives and the conference organizing committee Sudan delegates at the RCSI 28 SMA UK & Ireland conference- Galway June 2012 Migration of Sudanese Doctors: Dynamics & Opportunities
  31. 31. The meeting at the RCSI The meeting at the RCSI From left to right: Dr. Khalifa Elmusharaf, Dr. Mohamed Ahmed and Dr. Abdulmoneim Khalifa29 SMA UK & Ireland conference- Galway June 2012 Migration of Sudanese Doctors: Dynamics & Opportunities
  32. 32. Sudan delegates at the Royal College of Surgeons Ireland (RCSI) Dublin Sudan delegates visiting St. James’s Hospital, the biggest hospital in Ireland Sudan delegates at St James’s Hospital, Dublin30 SMA UK & Ireland conference- Galway June 2012 Migration of Sudanese Doctors: Dynamics & Opportunities
  33. 33. The meeting at St. Jamess Hospital Dublin From left to right: Prof. Zein Karrar, president of Sudan Medical Council, Prof. Kieran Murphy, president of the Medical Council Ireland and Dr. Abobakr Shadad. The conference organizing committee31 SMA UK & Ireland conference- Galway June 2012 Migration of Sudanese Doctors: Dynamics & Opportunities
  34. 34. Annex32 SMA UK & Ireland conference- Galway June 2012 Migration of Sudanese Doctors: Dynamics & Opportunities
  35. 35. The conference organising committee Dr. Abobakr Shadad Dr. Khalifa Elmusharaf Mrs. Nuha Ibrahim Dr. Emam El-Higaya Dr. Mohamed Elshafi Dr. Zuhair Eissa Dr. Mohamed Ali Ahmed33 SMA UK & Ireland conference- Galway June 2012 Migration of Sudanese Doctors: Dynamics & Opportunities
  36. 36. Conference Programme 9:00 to 10:00 Registration Session “1” 10:00 to 11:00 am Opening Session Chair: Dr. Mahir Hamad Co Chair: Dr. Abobakr Shadad TIME Speaker Title 10:00 to 10:30 Mohamed Ahmed Welcome and Opening Remarks Faisal Mihaimeed From Metropole London to Salthill Galway & beyond, the vision & mission Mahir Hamad SMA: The Present and The Future Abobakr Shadad From Khartoum to Galway 10:30 to 10:45 Sudan FMOH Health services in Sudan: Challenges and Future Plans Mr. Bahar Abugarda 10:45 to 11:00 Discussion11:00 to 11:30 TEA & COFFEE BREAK Session “2” 11:30 to 13:00 Dynamics of Doctors Migration Chair: Dr. Ali Zaki. Co Chair: Prof. Ruairi Brugha 11:30to 12:30 Presenting Author Title Nuha Ibrahim The Migration of Sudanese Doctors to Ireland: Push and Pull Factors Emam El-Higaya Historical and current trends of Sudanese medical migration to Ireland Elsheikh Badr Migration of health professionals in Sudan: issues, challenges and prospects Ogennea Udumma Human Resources for Health: Crisis in Africa Narayanan Migration of doctors: An Irish perspective Subramanian Trends in foreign trained doctors migrating to Ireland – ethical implications and Prof. Ruairi Brugha responses 12:30 to 13:00 Discussion with invited comments from Prof. Osman Taha 13:00 to 14:00 Lunch 34 SMA UK & Ireland conference- Galway June 2012 Migration of Sudanese Doctors: Dynamics & Opportunities
  37. 37. Session “3” 14:00 to 15:30 Models of Novel Initiatives Chair: Dr. Sean Dinneen Co Chair: Dr. Faisal Mihaimeed14:00 to 15:10 Presenting Author Title Sudan Health Library: an innovative approach to support Abobakr Shadad learning in health sciences Helen Burke / Diabetes Care –Crossing Boundaries Sean Dinneen Arif Mutwali Initiatives in Nephrology Services in Sudan Prof. Zein Elabdeen Karrar Sudan Medical Council: Updates and Recent Initiatives Mohamed Eltom Maternal Health in Sudan: The Need for Initiatives Innovation in surgical Training in Africa: RCSI and COSECSA Eric OFlynn project15:10 to 15:30 Discussion with invited comments from Prof. Kathy Murphy (Maternal Health) and Prof. Osman Taha (COSECSA) Session “4” 15:30 to 17:15 pm Parallel Workshops and coffee break Chair Dr. Diarmuid O’Donovan Co Chair: Dr. Mohamed Ahmed15:30 to 15:35 Emam El-Higaya Introduction and grouping15:35 to 16:20 Workshop title Description Sudanese doctors abroad have high intentions to return to Return of migrant Sudan, however, this is not happening. Why do you think this is doctors to Sudan the case? There have been many initiatives by individuals or small groups Innovative health to support health service and medical education in Sudan. How service/ educational can we move towards more innovative, group-based and Initiatives sustainable health service delivery, educational/ training and research initiatives? In view of the current situation of the public health services in The attractiveness of Sudan, is there any potential for the private health sector (private Sudan Private Health hospitals or private practice) to attract migrant Sudanese Sector doctors? Irish health system relies heavily on foreign doctors in delivering Irish Perspective: healthcare services. Is it fair for the Irish health system to invest Training and retaining in training foreign doctors who will eventually move to work elsewhere? Ireland as a destination Why did you choose Ireland for post-graduate training? Why for migrant doctors Ireland not elsewhere?16:20 to 16:50 Groups Feedback in plenary session16:50 to 17:15 Discussion 35 SMA UK & Ireland conference- Galway June 2012 Migration of Sudanese Doctors: Dynamics & Opportunities
  38. 38. Session “5” 17:15 to 18:00 pm Conducting Research in Challenging Irish Health System Chair: Prof. Martin Cormican Co Chair: Dr. Mohamed Ahmed17:15 to 17:50 Presenting Author Title Safa I. A. Abdalla Mortality among Irish Travellers; a population based study Imad Brema Early Onset Type 2 Diabetes: Does Exercise Help? Effects of smoking on metabolic control and novel urinary biomarker in Mohammed Bashir patients with type 2 diabetes.17:50 to 18: 00 Discussion Closing Remarks Reception and Sudanese Music18:00 to 20:00 The conference will bring to a close with Sudanese music and Mediterranean snacks 36 SMA UK & Ireland conference- Galway June 2012 Migration of Sudanese Doctors: Dynamics & Opportunities
  39. 39. Speakers’ biographies His Excellency Mr. Bahar Idriss Abugarda Sudan Federal Minister of Health Prof. Gerry Loftus M.B.,B.CH.,B.A.O.,D.C.H.,M.R.C.P.I. He is the Dean of the College of Medicine, Nursing and Health Science at NUI Galway. Gerard Loftus has been Professor of Paediatrics at NUI Galway since 1988. He was an undergraduate at UCD and undertook postgraduate training in paediatrics in Dublin and London, including research in Paediatric respiratory disease. The topic of his MD thesis was Asthma in Pre-School Children. His areas of clinical and research interest are diabetes and respiratory disease, particularly Asthma. He has over 40 scientific articles published in peer reviewed journals, 70 abstracts, 1 book and several review articles. Current research interests include the influence of atmospheric pollution on acute asthma in children. Professor Loftus has served on Comhairle na nOspideal, The National Task Force on Medical Staffing, and as chair of the Postgraduate Medical and Dental Board, the Health Services Expert Advisory Group on Children, and the National Steering group on implementation of Newborn Screening for Cystic Fibrosis. He is a member of Governing Authority, and is serving his third term as Dean of the College of Medicine, Nursing and Health Science at NUI Galway. Prof. Zein Elabdeen Karrar Prof. Karrar is the president of Sudan Medical Council (January 2009 – to date). He graduated from Medical school, University of Khartoum in 1971. He obtained DCH London, DTCH Liverpool, FRCP London in 1989, and F.R.C.P.C.H U.K in 1998. He is a professor of Paediatrics and Child Health at University of Khartoum since1995. He worked as the dean of Graduate College University of Khartoum from June 2000 to April 2008, and as the director of Educational Centre for Health Professions University of Khartoum from 1994 to 2000. He also was the head of Department of Paediatrics and Child Health University of Khartoum from April 1991 to February 1994. Prof. Karrar has more than 50 publications in international, regional and local journals, and published three booklets, and supervises many PhD and MD thesis37 SMA UK & Ireland conference- Galway June 2012 Migration of Sudanese Doctors: Dynamics & Opportunities
  40. 40. Prof Ruairi Brugha MB, BCh, BAO, MD, FFPHMI, MSc, DCH, Dip Obs, Dip Humanities. He is the Head of Epidemiology and Public Health Medicine in the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland (RCSI). He qualified as a doctor in 1980, spent six years working in Africa (Ghana and Zimbabwe) in the 1980s and 1990s, and 10 years at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. In 2005 he took up the post of first full time Head of the Department of Epidemiology and Public Health Medicine at the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. His research interests are in health systems and policy research, globally and in several sub-Saharan African countries. He has been researching and publishing on health worker (nurse and doctor) migration to Ireland since 2006. He was a member of the Global Advisory Council that drafted the Global Code on the International Recruitment of Health Personnel. Prof. Osman Taha M.B.B.S, F.R.C.S.I., D.Sc. (H.C.), F.S.M.S.B. He is the President of Sudan Medical Specialisation Board, January 2009 till date. Prof. Taha graduated from the faculty of medicine, University of Khartoum in 1972. He completed his postgraduate training in general surgery in Ireland where he obtained FRCSI in 1978. He is currently a consultant in general and paediatric surgery, Khartoum Teaching Hospital. He was the Dean Faculty of Medicine University of Gazira1996 - 2005, and the Dean of Graduate Studies 2005 - 2007. He worked as consultant paediatric surgeon, Medani Children Hospital. He has a large number of published papers in both national and international peer reviewed journals. He has co-authored two medical books and supervised many M.D thesiss . He is an external postgraduate examiner in many regional and international training programmes; Arab board, Saudi Board, Egyptian Board and College of Physicians and Surgeons of Pakistan (CPSP). Prof. Martin Cormican Professor of Medical Microbiology at the National University of Ireland Galway is a consultant at the Department of Medical Microbiology, University College Hospital Galway. Professor Cormican worked in general medicine in UK and obtained the MRCP examination in 1989. His MD awarded in 1992 for work on diagnosis of tuberculosis. He obtained his FRCPath in 1993. From 1994 to 1996 he trained as fellow at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics in the USA. He was appointed to a Consultant Immunology post in Galway in 1996 and was appointed Professor of Bacteriology and Consultant Microbiologist in 1999. He is a former WHO Expert Advisor on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing providing training courses in China and has acted as external examiner in Ireland, UK and Sudan. He has published more than 100 papers including publications in many prestigious journals such as British Medical Journal, Lancet, Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Chemotherapy38 SMA UK & Ireland conference- Galway June 2012 Migration of Sudanese Doctors: Dynamics & Opportunities
  41. 41. Prof. Kathy Murphy RGN,BA,MSc,PhD,RNT,Dip N ED. Prof. Murphy is the Head of the school of Nursing and Midwifery, National University of Ireland Galway. She completed nursing clinical training in UK and Ireland. She has a special interest in teaching topics related to Nursing Education, Nursing Research and Nursing of older age patients. Her clinical Interest is focused on older People, Chronic Disease and Dementia. She has research Interests with extensive publications covering a wide array of areas in nursing such as Quality of life of older people, Chronic Disease and Advanced Practice. Prof. Murphy is a member of the National Steering Group for Dementia and the HIQA Long-Stay Care Standards in Ireland. Dr. Mohamed Ali Ahmed Dr. Mohamed Ali Ahmed is a consultant psychiatrist at the Brothers of Charity Services, Galway and honorary research fellow at the department of psychiatry, National University of Ireland, Galway. He graduated from Jordan University in 1996 and completed his basic and higher specialist psychiatric training in Ireland. In addition to the membership (MRCPsych), he obtained master degree in medical sciences (NUIG), diploma in clinical psychiatry (RCSI), higher diploma in clinical teaching (NUIG), diploma in psychopharmacology (CINP) and diploma in health services management (University of Limerick). He is at the final stage of submitting thesis for MD in neuroimaging (NUIG). He has co-authored two MCQ books for the MRCPsych examinations and has published more than ten peer reviewed papers. His interests include medical education and training and his research interests include neuroimaging in schizophrenia and the impact of antipsychotics on regional brain volume and the association of mental illnesses/ psychotropic medications with the metabolic syndrome Dr. Faisal Mihaimeed MBBCh, MSc, FRCS (Glasg), FRCS (Eng), FRCS (Gen), CCST. He is a Consultant General Surgeon with Interest in Breast & Endocrine surgery Newham University Hospital – London & Honorary Consultant Surgeon St Bartholomew’s & Royal London Hospitals (Currently, Barts Health NHS). He graduated from Ain shams University (Egypt) in 1980. He has the following qualifications: FRCS: Royal College of Physicians & Surgeons Glasgow, FRCS Royal college of Surgeons, England; Master in Surgical science – Royal Postgraduate Medical School, University of London; FRCS (Gen): Intercollegiate Fellowship in Surgery of the four Royal Colleges of Surgeons in UK & Ireland, CCST (Certificate of Completion of Specialist Higher Surgical Training, UK. His research interest includes Breast cancer hormone therapy and biological markers & Thyroid / Parathyroid surgery.39 SMA UK & Ireland conference- Galway June 2012 Migration of Sudanese Doctors: Dynamics & Opportunities
  42. 42. Dr. Mahir Hamad FRCP (London), FRCP (Glasgow), FRCPI. He is a Consultant Physician and Clinical Director for Acute Medicine, James Cook University Hospital, and Middlesbrough. He is the President of the Sudanese Medical Association UK & Ireland. Dr Hamad graduated from Ain Shams University (Egypt), worked as junior doctor in Atbara, Saudi Arabia then moved to UK. At the moment he is the clinical director for acute medicine services at James Cook University Hospital. He has written extensive evidenced based guidelines on the management of acute medical emergencies for the trust as well as played a leading role in establishing MRCP teaching (part 1 & part 2) for trainees in the region. His area of interest is thromboembolic disorders, outpatient management of pulmonary embolism and ambulatory care pathways, in which he has numerous publications. He is OSCE and MOSLER Examiner to Newcastle medical school and MRCP Paces Host examiner. Dr. Abobakr Shadad Dr Abobakr Shadad MBBS, MRCPI, MSc, MD. He is a clinical lecturer in Medicine, National University of Ireland, Galway. He is the deputy president of SMA (UK& Ireland). Dr Shadad obtained the Membership of the Royal College of Physicians of Ireland in 2006 and a Master degree in Medical Sciences from the National University of Ireland in 2008. Currently, he works as a lecturer in medicine and senior registrar in endoscopy while writing up MD degree in translational research. His research is focus on exploring the complex nature of intestinal immune system. The research is expected to generate a new knowledge and to provide therapeutics insights for the problem of intestinal radiation injury. Dr Shadad continued to strengthen his academic role by pursuing a higher diploma in Learning &Teaching in third level education with interest in learning technologies and postgraduate student supervision. Dr Shadad was a co-founder of the SMA UK & Ireland. He is current deputy president for SMA UK& Ireland and lead of the academic office and research. Mrs. Nuha Ibrahim Nuha Ibrahim holds a BA in Biology from University of Khartoum, Sudan (2004) and master of Global Health from Centre for Global Health, Trinity College Dublin (2010). She is currently undertaking a PhD in Global Health at Trinity College Dublin. Her research area is the impact of work environment on the performance of health workers in public hospitals in Sudan. Nuha’s academic areas of interest include Health System Strengthening, Nutritional challenges & Food security40 SMA UK & Ireland conference- Galway June 2012 Migration of Sudanese Doctors: Dynamics & Opportunities
  43. 43. Dr. Emam El-Higaya MBBS, DCPsych, MPH. Dr. El-Higaya is a graduate of Gezira Medical School in Sudan. He has been interested since his undergraduate years in mental health, medical education, and public health. Following qualification in medicine and working experience in rural Eastern Sudan, he worked as a PBL tutor in the International University of Africas School of Medicine. Then he joined the Federal Ministry of Health in Sudan and worked as Director of Planning & Monitoring at the Department of International Health, before moving to UK and Sweden for further studies in health policy, health economics, and international health & development. He is currently a Specialist Trainee Registrar in the Western Postgraduate Rotational Training Scheme in Psychiatry. Dr. El-Higaya’s recent interests include evidence-based health policy, financing mental health services in-low income countries and training of under- and postgraduates in psychiatry and mental health. Dr. Elsheikh Badr Dr Elsheikh Badr is a consultant public health physician qualified in Sudan and the UK. He is currently the President of the Academy of Health Sciences, Federal Ministry of Health (FMOH)/Sudan and as well the Focal Person for the National Human Resources for Health Observatory (NHRHO). Previous and current work involvement include participation in national health policies and strategic planning in Sudan, preparation of a national HRH strategy for Sudan, strengthening human resource information system (HRIS) and work on health professions education systems and stakeholder coordination for health. Research work and projects include health worker migration, retention and HRH gender issues. Dr Badr is involved in the regional and global health workforce movement and serves as member of the Health Worker Migration Global Policy Council under the auspices of the Global Health Workforce Alliance (GHWA) and ASPEN Health and Development, USA. Dr Badr is designated an Arab Migration and Population Expert by the Arab League and contributed to development of a regional HRH strategy for the WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region. Dr. Ogenna Uduma Ogenna Uduma is the Coordinator of the International Doctoral School in Global Health, and the Doctoral Training Officer of the Trinity International Development Initiative (TIDI), Trinity College Dublin. She received her PhD in Parasitology and her Master’s in Public Health from the University of Ibadan and University of Pretoria respectively. She has spent the last 12 years as a research scientist and project manager working with health ministries and UNICEF, UNDP, World Bank, WHO Special Programme for Research and Training in Topical Diseases (TDR). She has managed a human resource for health project in Africa for the Centre for Global Health and took up the position of Doctoral Programme Officer with the Trinity International Development Initiative (TIDI) and Coordinator of the International Doctoral School in Global Health at the Centre for Global Health, Trinity College Dublin in 2009. Dr Uduma has published widely on tropical parasitic diseases and human resources for health in sub Saharan Africa and is currently involved in capacity building partnerships in Africa with TDR and EDCTP.41 SMA UK & Ireland conference- Galway June 2012 Migration of Sudanese Doctors: Dynamics & Opportunities
  44. 44. Dr. Narayanan Subramanian MBBS, MRCPsych(Lon), MSc Addictions(Lon), Dip.H.Mgt, Dip.Cl.Psych. He is the Vice Chairman of Overseas Medics of Ireland, a pressure group for overseas doctors in Ireland and also a Senior Registrar in Psychiatry based in Nenagh, Co.Tipperary. Dr Subramanian was actively involved in talks with Irish Nationality & Immigration Service (INIS), a division of the Department of Justice in Ireland on Non EU doctors’ immigration issues, through the Irish Medical Organisation. He is known for his editorials and critical letters regarding NCHD matters on Medical newspapers such as Irish Medical Times and Medical Independent. He manages the blog for overseas medics of Ireland and advices overseas doctors on life, cultural and medical practices in Ireland through this blog. Dr Subramanian completed his medical school from India, was based in England before he moved to Ireland. He has done his Masters in Addiction from the renowned Institute of Psychiatry; King’s College London and has a special interest in Addiction and Psychiatry as Dual diagnostic conditions. Dr Subramanian has written book reviews on Addiction matters and written articles on same. He has also done his diploma in health services management from Dublin and also received his diploma in clinical psychiatry from the conjoint board of RCPI &RCSI. Ms. Helen Burke She is an advanced nurse practitioner in Diabetes. Ms Burke was certified in Diabetes Nursing in 1988 in Whittington Hospital London and proceeded for a degree in Health Services Management 1998 (Honors) University of Limerick she then obtained a master degree in diabetes nursing with honors level from Roehampton University Surrey United Kingdom. Following that she proceeded for a master in Health Science/Advanced Practice 2003 at the National University of Ireland Galway. Ms Burke obtained a certificate in nurse prescribing in 2008 from the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. She has keen interest in research and she was part of major trials undertaken at the Diabetes Day Centre, University Hospital Galway such as DAFNE, DESMOND and BRUCIE Educator. She is heavily involved in teaching undergraduate and post graduate nursing and medical students in diabetes. Dr. Seán F. Dinneen Dr Seán F. Dinneen, MD, MSc, FRCPI, FACP. Senior Lecturer in Medicine in the National University of Ireland, Galway. He is a Consultant in Diabetes and Endocrinology, Galway University Hospitals. He received his medical degree from University College Cork Medical School. He undertook postgraduate training in medicine in Ireland and then went to the United States where he trained in Diabetes and Endocrinology at the Mayo Clinic. After a period on staff at the Mayo Clinic he was appointed as a Community Diabetologist in Addenbrooke’s Hospital, Cambridge. He spent 5 years working in the NHS before returning to Ireland in 2005 to take up a Senior Lecturer post in Medicine in Galway University Hospitals. His professional interests are in delivering programmes of self-management education for people with diabetes, developing optimal models of community-based diabetes care and the diabetic foot.42 SMA UK & Ireland conference- Galway June 2012 Migration of Sudanese Doctors: Dynamics & Opportunities
  45. 45. Ms. Lorna Hurley Lorna Hurley, RGN, BSc (Hon), MSc. Lorna is the Community Diabetes Facilitator for Co Galway. She graduated in General Nursing from Galway University Hospitals, obtained a BSc (Hon) Podiatry at Queens University of Belfast and an MSc Sports Medicine from the University of Glasgow. More recently she completed a diploma in Diabetes Management in Primary Care. In her current role, she aims to support integrated diabetes care delivery across hospital and primary care. She has a particular interest in patient education and is a DESMOND educator, assessor and trainer. Dr. Donal Reddan Dr Donal Reddan is the vice President of the Royal College of Physicians of Ireland. He is a Consultant Nephrologist, General Physician and clinical lecturer at University College Galway Hospitals in Ireland. Dr Reddan earned his medical degree from University College Dublin. After completing general internal medicine training in Dublin at St Vincent’s University Hospital, he completed a further residency in internal medicine at Allegheny General Hospital in Pittsburgh, and fellowship in the Division of Nephrology at Duke University Medical Centre Durham, North Carolina. After attaining American board certification in both internal medicine and nephrology, Dr Reddan went on to earn a Masters in Health Sciences from Duke University and joined the faculty at Duke and the Duke Clinical Research Institute. He currently retains an appointment as adjunct assistant professor at Duke University. Dr Reddan is a Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians of Ireland and is a currently serving Council member of the College. He has published extensively in the area of renal insufficiency and its accompanying cardiovascular risk and on issues relating to contrast nephropathy. Dr. Arif Mutwali Arif Mutwali MB MSc MPH MRCPI. He is Consultant Nephrologists & Physician at the Regional kidney Unit, Letterkenny & Sligo Hospitals HSE North West and Clinical lecturer, Donegal Academy, NUIG. He graduated from Faculty of Medicine, Gezira University, and obtained MSc in epidemiology from Jordan University of Science & Technology and a MSc of Medical Sciences from the National University of Ireland Galway. Dr Mutwali is a member of American society of nephrology and the Irish Society of Nephrology43 SMA UK & Ireland conference- Galway June 2012 Migration of Sudanese Doctors: Dynamics & Opportunities
  46. 46. Dr. Mohamed Eltom Dr. Mohamed Abdelrahman Eltom, MBBS, MRCOG, MRCPI. He is a registrar in Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Portiuncula Hospital, Ireland. Dr. Eltom graduated from the University of Juba School of Medicine in 1994, before completing his basic training in obstetrics & Gynaecology in Ireland Dr. Eltom completed a fellowship programme in Cancer Epidemiology & Genetics at the National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, Maryland, USA in 2002. He completed two research projects in HIV related cancers in the USA and Nigeria both of which are published in peer-reviewed leading American journals (JNCI, AIDS), he also conducted clinical trials among pregnant women infected with HIV in Malawi in collaboration with the Johns Hopkins University School of Public health, Baltimore, USA. In addition to his membership, Dr. Eltom obtained a diploma in women health and a fellowship in Laparoscopic surgery; he is a member of the European Society of Laparoscopic Surgeons. Mr. Eric O’Flynn Eric O’Flynn is the assistant programme director of the RCSI/COSECSA collaboration programme and divides his time between Dublin and east, central and southern Africa. He previously worked in teacher training and worked as a consultant, education manager and director of an education charity in Rwanda. Dr. Diarmuid ODonovan Dr O`Donovan is a senior lecturer in Social & Preventive Medicine at NUI Galway and Director of Public Health in the Health Service Executive (HSE West, Galway). He is a Project Leader in the Health Promotion Research Centre. He qualified in medicine in NUI Galway and in Public Health at the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine. He trained in General Practice and Public Health Medicine in England. He lived and worked in Africa for seven years. His research interests include: Equity in health, Health Policy, Communicable Disease Control and Environmental Health, Reproductive, maternal and child health, Sexually Transmitted Infections and HIV/AIDS, Health and Human Rights, Global Health and Development. He is a member of: Irish Aid Technical Advisory Group on HIV/AIDS and Global Communicable Diseases (member), Irish Forum for Global Health (member, previous chair), European Malaria Vaccine Initiative (member of the Board, current vice-chair Public Health Alliance Ireland (Board member).44 SMA UK & Ireland conference- Galway June 2012 Migration of Sudanese Doctors: Dynamics & Opportunities
  47. 47. Dr. Safa I A Abdalla She graduated from University of Khartoum with MBBS in 1999, and MD in Community Medicine in 2007. She acquired membership of the Faculty of Public Health Medicine of Ireland, RCPI, 2012. She worked as Teaching Assistant and then Assistant Professor in University of Khartoum, Department of Community Medicine. After moving to Ireland took up academic and research positions at UCD School of Public Health and Population Science, and the Institute of Public Health jointly with University College Cork. She Conducted research in Burden of Disease in Sudan, ethnic and socio-economic inequalities in life expectancy and healthy life expectancy in Ireland and injury epidemiology in Sudan and Ireland. Member of the Sudan Public Health Consultancy Group, a partner of the Federal Ministry of Health in Sudan and the Faculty of Public Health UK Dr. Imad Brema Dr Brema graduated from the University of Khartoum in 1998. He started his training in Ireland in July 2003 and obtained his MRCPI in 2005. He worked as a Clinical Research Fellow in Diabetes, Obesity and Insulin Resistance (2005-2007). He then worked in Tallaght Hospital where he was appointed as a clinical tutor for TCD undergraduate medical students and was also appointed as a part-time lecturer to TCD postgraduate MSc students in Clinical Chemistry. Dr Brema presented his research at national and international meetings such as the Irish Endocrine Society (IES) and the American Diabetes Association and has been invited to present at the American Endocrine Society meeting in June 2012. Dr Brema has published in peer-reviewed leading journals such as Diabetes Care, Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism, QJM and IMJ. He has finished and submitted an MD thesis to TCD, University of Dublin. He is also a member of the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons in Glasgow, IES and EASD. Dr Brema is currently a senior registrar in endocrinology in St.Vincent’s University Hospital (UCD). His main research interests are in the areas of type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance. Dr. Mohammed Bashir Dr.Mohammed Bashir, MBBS, MRCPI, MD. He is a Registrar in Endocrinology in Beaumont Hospital, Dublin. He graduated from University Of Khartoum in1999. He completed his general medical training in Ireland, and obtained the membership (MRCPI) in 2006. He obtained his special training in Endocrinology and Diabetes, and completed MD degree at the University College of Dublin in 2011. Dr Bashirs main research interests include insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and diabetic nephropathy. He is currently a Registrar in Endocrinology45 SMA UK & Ireland conference- Galway June 2012 Migration of Sudanese Doctors: Dynamics & Opportunities

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