Chapter 12 Emotional Behaviors
What is Emotion? <ul><li>An emotional state has three aspects: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>...
What is Emotion? <ul><li>The “readiness for action” component of emotions is a product of the autonomic nervous system. </...
Fig. 12-1, p. 355
What is Emotion? <ul><li>According to the James-Lange theory: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People with a weak autonomic or skelet...
What is Emotion? <ul><li>Research indicates the following: </li></ul><ul><li>Paralyzed people report feeling emotion to th...
What is Emotion? <ul><li>Creating certain body actions may also slightly influence emotion. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>smiling ...
Fig. 12-3, p. 357
What is Emotion? <ul><li>Emotional experiences arouse many areas of the brain. </li></ul><ul><li>The  limbic system  inclu...
Fig. 12-3, p. 357
What is Emotion? <ul><li>Emotions tend not to be localized in specific parts of the cortex. </li></ul><ul><li>A single emo...
What is Emotion? <ul><li>Localization in the brain seems to exist for the emotion of disgust. </li></ul><ul><li>The insula...
What is Emotion? <ul><li>The two hemispheres of the brain play different roles in emotion. </li></ul><ul><li>Activation of...
What is Emotion? <ul><li>The  Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS)  is associated with increased activity of the frontal and...
What is Emotion? <ul><li>Differences in frontal cortex activity relates to personality. </li></ul><ul><li>People with grea...
What is Emotion? <ul><li>The right hemisphere seems to be more responsive to emotional stimuli than the left. </li></ul><u...
What is Emotion? <ul><li>One major function of emotion is to help us make decisions. </li></ul><ul><li>The consequences of...
Attack and Escape Behaviors <ul><li>Pain, threat or other unpleasant stimuli usually trigger an attack behavior. </li></ul...
Fig. 12-5, p. 361
Attack and Escape Behaviors <ul><li>Twins studies suggest genetic contribution to the likelihood of violent behavior. </li...
Attack and Escape Behaviors <ul><li>Smoking habits of the mother have been identified as an important correlational prenat...
Fig. 12-6, p. 362
Attack and Escape Behaviors <ul><li>Environmental factors can combine with genetic factors to influence behavior. </li></u...
Attack and Escape Behaviors <ul><li>On average, males engage in more  aggressive and violent behaviors than do females. </...
Fig. 12-7, p. 363
Attack and Escape Behaviors <ul><li>Testosterone alters the way people respond to stimuli. </li></ul><ul><li>Increased tes...
Attack and Escape Behaviors <ul><li>Electrical stimulation of certain areas of the brain can evoke aggressive behaviors. <...
Attack and Escape Behaviors <ul><li>Intermittent explosive disorder  is a condition marked by occasional outbursts of viol...
Attack and Escape Behaviors <ul><li>Studies also suggest a connection between aggressive behavior and low serotonin releas...
Attack and Escape Behaviors <ul><li>5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA)  is a serotonin metabolite found in the blood, cer...
Attack and Escape Behaviors <ul><li>Monkeys with high levels of 5-HIAA were more likely to survive. </li></ul><ul><li>Evol...
Attack and Escape Behaviors <ul><li>In human studies, low serotonin turnover has been linked to:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pe...
Fig. 12-9, p. 365
Attack and Escape Behaviors <ul><li>Genes control the production of tryptophan hydroxylase.  </li></ul><ul><li>Tryptophan ...
Attack and Escape Behaviors <ul><li>Genes also control the production of the enzyme monoamine oxidase. </li></ul><ul><li>M...
Attack and Escape Behaviors <ul><li>The role of serotonin is very complicated and should not be thought of as the “anti-ag...
Attack and Escape Behaviors <ul><li>“Fear” is associated with a strong tendency to escape from an immediate threat. </li><...
Attack and Escape Behaviors <ul><li>The  startle reflex  is the extremely fast response to unexpected loud noises. </li></...
Attack and Escape Behaviors <ul><li>Stimuli previously associated with the startle response enhances the startle response....
Fig. 12-10, p. 367
Attack and Escape Behaviors <ul><li>Output from the amygdala to the hypothalamus controls autonomic fear responses. </li><...
Attack and Escape Behaviors <ul><li>Damage to the amygdala interferes with: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the learning of fear res...
Attack and Escape Behaviors <ul><li>In the early 1900s, studies of monkeys with Kluver-Bucy syndrome illustrated the effec...
Attack and Escape Behaviors <ul><li>fMRI studies of humans suggest the amygdala responds strongly to emotional stimuli and...
Attack and Escape Behaviors <ul><li>In humans, damage to the amygdala does not result in the loss of emotion. </li></ul><u...
Attack and Escape Behaviors <ul><li>Amygdala damage also affects the ability to recognize emotions specifically in photogr...
Fig. 12-14, p. 370
Attack and Escape Behaviors <ul><li>Genetic variations in amygdala arousal may thus underlie some of the variations of anx...
Attack and Escape Behaviors <ul><li>Drugs intended to control anxiety alter activity at amygdala synapses. </li></ul><ul><...
Attack and Escape Behaviors <ul><li>Barbituates  were a drug widely used to control anxiety in the past, but have high ove...
Fig. 12-16, p. 372
Attack and Escape Behaviors <ul><li>Diazepam-binding inhibitor (DBI)  is a naturally occurring protein which attaches to t...
Attack and Escape Behaviors <ul><li>Ethyl alcohol has behavioral effects similar to benzodiazepines. </li></ul><ul><li>Alc...
Stress and Health <ul><li>Behavioral medicine emphasizes the effects of diet, smoking, exercise, stressful experiences, an...
Stress and Health <ul><li>Hans Selye (1979) defined  stress  as the non-specific response of the body to any demand made u...
Stress and Health <ul><ul><li>The General Adaptation Syndrome: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alarm stage - characterized by i...
Stress and Health <ul><li>Sapolsky (1998) argues that the nature of today’s crises are more prolonged. </li></ul><ul><ul><...
Stress and Health <ul><li>Stress activates two systems in the body: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The autonomic nervous system - “...
Stress and Health <ul><li>The HPA axis becomes the dominant response to prolonged stressors. </li></ul><ul><li>Activation ...
Fig. 12-18, p. 377
Stress and Health <ul><li>Prolonged increased cortisol levels impair the immune system. </li></ul><ul><li>The  immune syst...
Stress and Health <ul><ul><li>T cells  – attack intruders directly and help other T cells or B cells to multiply. </li></u...
Fig. 12-19, p. 378
Stress and Health <ul><li>During an infection, leukocytes and other cells produce small proteins called  cytokines. </li><...
Stress and Health <ul><li>Psychoneuroimmunology  is the study of the relationship between the nervous system and the immun...
Stress and Health <ul><li>In response to a stressful experience, the nervous system activates the immune system. </li></ul...
Stress and Health <ul><li>Prolonged stress response is damaging to the body. </li></ul><ul><li>Prolonged increase of corti...
Stress and Health <ul><li>Prolonged stress can also be harmful to the hippocampus and can affect memory. </li></ul><ul><li...
Stress and Health <ul><li>Posttraumatic stress disorder  (PTSD) occurs in some people after terrifying experiences and inc...
Stress and Health <ul><li>Studies have revealed most PTSD victims have a smaller than average hippocampus. </li></ul><ul><...
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  • Chapter12 Power Point Lecture

    1. 1. Chapter 12 Emotional Behaviors
    2. 2. What is Emotion? <ul><li>An emotional state has three aspects: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Readiness for action </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feeling </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. What is Emotion? <ul><li>The “readiness for action” component of emotions is a product of the autonomic nervous system. </li></ul><ul><li>The James-Lange theory of emotion suggests that the autonomic arousal and skeletal action occurs first in an emotion. </li></ul><ul><li>The emotion that is felt is the label that we give the arousal of the organs and muscles. </li></ul>
    4. 4. Fig. 12-1, p. 355
    5. 5. What is Emotion? <ul><li>According to the James-Lange theory: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People with a weak autonomic or skeletal response should feel less emotion. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing one’s response should enhance an emotion. </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. What is Emotion? <ul><li>Research indicates the following: </li></ul><ul><li>Paralyzed people report feeling emotion to the same degree as prior to their injury </li></ul><ul><li>People with “pure autonomic failure” report feeling emotion less intensely. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pure autonomic failure - output from the autonomic nervous system almost entirely fails. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Thus research is contradictory and suggests other factors are involved in the perception of emotion. </li></ul>
    7. 7. What is Emotion? <ul><li>Creating certain body actions may also slightly influence emotion. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>smiling slightly increases happiness. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inducing a frown leads to the rating of stimuli as slightly less pleasant. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Indicates that perception of the body's actions do contribute to emotional feeling </li></ul><ul><li>Does not imply that feedback from the body is sufficient to distinguish emotions. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Also requires the cognitive aspect. </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Fig. 12-3, p. 357
    9. 9. What is Emotion? <ul><li>Emotional experiences arouse many areas of the brain. </li></ul><ul><li>The limbic system includes the forebrain areas surrounding the thalamus and has traditionally been regarded as critical for emotion. </li></ul><ul><li>PET and fMRI studies also suggest many other areas of the cerebral cortex, especially the frontal and temporal lobes, are activated during an emotional experience. </li></ul>
    10. 10. Fig. 12-3, p. 357
    11. 11. What is Emotion? <ul><li>Emotions tend not to be localized in specific parts of the cortex. </li></ul><ul><li>A single emotion increases activity in various parts of the brain. </li></ul><ul><li>Inactivation of the medial frontal cortex appears to impair the ability to recognize angry expression. </li></ul>
    12. 12. What is Emotion? <ul><li>Localization in the brain seems to exist for the emotion of disgust. </li></ul><ul><li>The insular cortex is strongly activated during exposure to stimuli perceived as “disgusting”. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Also the primary taste cortex. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also reacts to frightening stimuli as well. </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. What is Emotion? <ul><li>The two hemispheres of the brain play different roles in emotion. </li></ul><ul><li>Activation of the frontal and temporal areas of the left hemisphere is associated with “approach” and the Behavioral Activation System . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Marked by low to moderate arousal. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Characterizes either happiness or anger. </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. What is Emotion? <ul><li>The Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS) is associated with increased activity of the frontal and temporal lobe of the right hemisphere. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increases attention and arousal. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inhibits action. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stimulates emotions such as fear and disgust. </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. What is Emotion? <ul><li>Differences in frontal cortex activity relates to personality. </li></ul><ul><li>People with greater activity in the left hemisphere tend to be happier, more out-going and friendlier. </li></ul><ul><li>People with greater left hemisphere activity tend to be socially withdrawn, less satisfied with life, and prone to unpleasant emotions. </li></ul>
    16. 16. What is Emotion? <ul><li>The right hemisphere seems to be more responsive to emotional stimuli than the left. </li></ul><ul><li>Damage to the right temporal cortex causes problems in the ability to identify emotions of others. </li></ul>
    17. 17. What is Emotion? <ul><li>One major function of emotion is to help us make decisions. </li></ul><ul><li>The consequences of our decisions have emotional components. </li></ul><ul><li>Emotions are an important component to moral decisions. </li></ul><ul><li>Failure to anticipate the unpleasantness of an event can lead to bad decision making. </li></ul>
    18. 18. Attack and Escape Behaviors <ul><li>Pain, threat or other unpleasant stimuli usually trigger an attack behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Attack behaviors are associated with increased activity in the corticomedial area of the amygdala. </li></ul><ul><li>After experiencing a provocation, people are more likely to attack for a period of time afterwards. </li></ul><ul><li>An initial attack behavior increases the probability of a second attack behavior. </li></ul>
    19. 19. Fig. 12-5, p. 361
    20. 20. Attack and Escape Behaviors <ul><li>Twins studies suggest genetic contribution to the likelihood of violent behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>During childhood and adolescence, Dizygotic twins resemble each other in delinquent behaviors just as much as monozygotic twins. </li></ul><ul><li>Monozygotic twins resembled each other much more in delinquent behaviors occurring in adulthood. </li></ul>
    21. 21. Attack and Escape Behaviors <ul><li>Smoking habits of the mother have been identified as an important correlational prenatal factor as influencing violent behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>The effect is particularly strong if the mother smoked and also had complications during pregnancy. </li></ul>
    22. 22. Fig. 12-6, p. 362
    23. 23. Attack and Escape Behaviors <ul><li>Environmental factors can combine with genetic factors to influence behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Adopted children have the highest probability of violent behavior if the biological parent has a criminal record and there is discord in the adopted family household. </li></ul><ul><li>A biological predisposition alone, or a troubled adoptive family by itself, produces only moderate effects. </li></ul>
    24. 24. Attack and Escape Behaviors <ul><li>On average, males engage in more aggressive and violent behaviors than do females. </li></ul><ul><li>Male aggressive behavior is influenced by the hormone testosterone. </li></ul><ul><li>Research shows that men with the highest rates of violent behavior also have slightly higher testosterone levels. </li></ul>
    25. 25. Fig. 12-7, p. 363
    26. 26. Attack and Escape Behaviors <ul><li>Testosterone alters the way people respond to stimuli. </li></ul><ul><li>Increased testosterone levels show: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increases in heart rate. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The tendency to attend longer and more vigorously to situations related to conflict and aggression. </li></ul></ul>
    27. 27. Attack and Escape Behaviors <ul><li>Electrical stimulation of certain areas of the brain can evoke aggressive behaviors. </li></ul><ul><li>The exact area of the stimulation affects the type of response: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ranging from attack to facial movements or growls in animals. </li></ul></ul>
    28. 28. Attack and Escape Behaviors <ul><li>Intermittent explosive disorder is a condition marked by occasional outbursts of violent behavior with little or no provocation. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sometimes linked to temporal lobe epilepsy. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Symptom include hallucinations, lip smacking, repetitive acts and occasional emotional outbursts. </li></ul>
    29. 29. Attack and Escape Behaviors <ul><li>Studies also suggest a connection between aggressive behavior and low serotonin release. </li></ul><ul><li>Turnover is the amount of release and resynthesis of a neurotransmitter by presynaptic neurons. </li></ul><ul><li>Valzelli’s (1973) study with mice found that isolating male mice for 4 weeks increased aggressive behavior and decreased serotonin turnover. </li></ul>
    30. 30. Attack and Escape Behaviors <ul><li>5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) is a serotonin metabolite found in the blood, cerebrospinal fluid, and urine that allows researchers to infer turnover rate. </li></ul><ul><li>High levels of 5-HIAA imply much serotonin release and turnover. </li></ul><ul><li>Research with monkeys has demonstrated that low levels of 5-HIAA increases the probability of attack on larger monkeys and few survived past age 6. </li></ul>
    31. 31. Attack and Escape Behaviors <ul><li>Monkeys with high levels of 5-HIAA were more likely to survive. </li></ul><ul><li>Evolution seems to select for an intermediate amount of anxiety and aggression. </li></ul><ul><li>Evolution might also select for high aggressive behaviors. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>may die young, but are more likely to achieve a dominant position within the troop. </li></ul></ul>
    32. 32. Attack and Escape Behaviors <ul><li>In human studies, low serotonin turnover has been linked to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People with a history of violent behavior and violent crime. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People who attempt suicide by violent means. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recurrent violent behaviors and subsequent suicide attempts. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A simple blood tests does not enable the reliable identification of such people. </li></ul>
    33. 33. Fig. 12-9, p. 365
    34. 34. Attack and Escape Behaviors <ul><li>Genes control the production of tryptophan hydroxylase. </li></ul><ul><li>Tryptophan hydroxylase is the enzyme that converts tryptophan into serotonin. </li></ul><ul><li>People with less active form of this enzyme are more likely than others to report frequent anger and aggression. </li></ul>
    35. 35. Attack and Escape Behaviors <ul><li>Genes also control the production of the enzyme monoamine oxidase. </li></ul><ul><li>Monoamine oxidase breaks down serotonin into inactive chemicals. </li></ul><ul><li>Thus, low production of this enzyme in conjunction with mistreatment in childhood increases the probability of violence and antisocial behavior. </li></ul>
    36. 36. Attack and Escape Behaviors <ul><li>The role of serotonin is very complicated and should not be thought of as the “anti-aggression” transmitter. </li></ul><ul><li>During aggression, the brain, in fact, releases serotonin. </li></ul>
    37. 37. Attack and Escape Behaviors <ul><li>“Fear” is associated with a strong tendency to escape from an immediate threat. </li></ul><ul><li>“Anxiety” is a general sense that something dangerous might occur. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not necessarily associated with the desire to flee. </li></ul></ul>
    38. 38. Attack and Escape Behaviors <ul><li>The startle reflex is the extremely fast response to unexpected loud noises. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>found in young infants and thus unlearned. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Auditory information stimulates an area of the pons that commands the tensing of the neck and other muscles. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information reaches the pons within 3 to 8 milliseconds after a loud noise. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The startle response occurs within two-tenths of a second. </li></ul>
    39. 39. Attack and Escape Behaviors <ul><li>Stimuli previously associated with the startle response enhances the startle response. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cells in the amygdala, especially the basal lateral and central nuclei, are responsible. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cells in the amygdala receive information from pain, vision, and hearing circuits. </li></ul><ul><li>Axons extend to areas in the midbrain that relay information to the nucleus in the pons. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The relay enhances the startle reflex. </li></ul></ul>
    40. 40. Fig. 12-10, p. 367
    41. 41. Attack and Escape Behaviors <ul><li>Output from the amygdala to the hypothalamus controls autonomic fear responses. </li></ul><ul><li>Axons extending from the amygdala to the prefrontal cortex regulate approach and avoidance responses. </li></ul>
    42. 42. Attack and Escape Behaviors <ul><li>Damage to the amygdala interferes with: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the learning of fear responses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>retention of fear responses previously learned </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>interpreting or understanding stimuli with emotional consequences </li></ul></ul>
    43. 43. Attack and Escape Behaviors <ul><li>In the early 1900s, studies of monkeys with Kluver-Bucy syndrome illustrated the effects of amygdala damage. </li></ul><ul><li>Monkeys with this syndrome are calm and placid and display less than normal fear of snakes and larger, more dominant monkeys. </li></ul><ul><li>Also alters social behaviors in that they have decreased ability to interpret threat gestures. </li></ul><ul><li>Amygdala damage can also lead to an increase in the approach motive. </li></ul>
    44. 44. Attack and Escape Behaviors <ul><li>fMRI studies of humans suggest the amygdala responds strongly to emotional stimuli and facial expressions. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not necessarily associated with just fear. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Activity is strongest when the meaning is unclear and requires some processing. </li></ul><ul><li>With some exceptions, looking at happy faces activates the amygdala only weakly. </li></ul><ul><li>Amygdala also responds to stimuli not consciously perceived. </li></ul>
    45. 45. Attack and Escape Behaviors <ul><li>In humans, damage to the amygdala does not result in the loss of emotion. </li></ul><ul><li>Damage to the amygdala impairs the processing of emotional information when the signals are subtle or complicated. </li></ul><ul><li>Amygdala damage affects the ability to judge “trustworthiness” in people. </li></ul><ul><li>People with amygdala damage focus on emotional stimuli the same as irrelevant stimuli or details. </li></ul>
    46. 46. Attack and Escape Behaviors <ul><li>Amygdala damage also affects the ability to recognize emotions specifically in photographs or pictures. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Effect is particularly strong for fear or disgust. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Amygdala damage does not affect the ability to recognize fear in real life. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attention to certain aspects of the face (eyes versus mouth) may account for the difference. </li></ul></ul>
    47. 47. Fig. 12-14, p. 370
    48. 48. Attack and Escape Behaviors <ul><li>Genetic variations in amygdala arousal may thus underlie some of the variations of anxiety in the population and related disorders. </li></ul><ul><li>Arousal of the amygdala relates to the tendency to experience some negative emotions. </li></ul><ul><li>Excessive fear and anxiety disorders are associated with hyperactivity in the amygdala </li></ul>
    49. 49. Attack and Escape Behaviors <ul><li>Drugs intended to control anxiety alter activity at amygdala synapses. </li></ul><ul><li>The main excitatory neuromodulator in the amygdala is CCK, and the main inhibitory transmitter is GABA. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Injections of CCK-stimulating drugs into the amygdala enhance the startle response. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drugs that increase GABA activity trigger panic. </li></ul></ul>
    50. 50. Attack and Escape Behaviors <ul><li>Barbituates were a drug widely used to control anxiety in the past, but have high overdose potential. </li></ul><ul><li>Benzodiazepines are the most commonly used anti-anxiety drugs. </li></ul><ul><li>Benzodiazepines bind to the GABA A receptor complex , and facilitate the effects of GABA. </li></ul><ul><li>Benzodiazepines exert their effects in the amygdala, hypothalamus, midbrain, and other areas. </li></ul>
    51. 51. Fig. 12-16, p. 372
    52. 52. Attack and Escape Behaviors <ul><li>Diazepam-binding inhibitor (DBI) is a naturally occurring protein which attaches to the same sites as benzodiazepines and blocks their effects. </li></ul><ul><li>Endozepines are neuromodulators that include DBI and other related proteins that work to increase levels of fear and anxiety. </li></ul>
    53. 53. Attack and Escape Behaviors <ul><li>Ethyl alcohol has behavioral effects similar to benzodiazepines. </li></ul><ul><li>Alcohol, benzodiazepines, and barbituates all exhibit cross-tolerance. </li></ul><ul><li>Cross-tolerance is tolerance that develops to one drug when a similar drug is taken. </li></ul><ul><li>Alcohol enhances GABA effects. </li></ul><ul><li>An experimental drug Ro-15-4513 blocks the effect of alcohol on the GABA A receptors complex. </li></ul>
    54. 54. Stress and Health <ul><li>Behavioral medicine emphasizes the effects of diet, smoking, exercise, stressful experiences, and other behaviors on health. </li></ul><ul><li>Emotions and other experiences influence illness and pattern of recovery. </li></ul>
    55. 55. Stress and Health <ul><li>Hans Selye (1979) defined stress as the non-specific response of the body to any demand made upon it. </li></ul><ul><li>Threats on the body activate a general response to stress called the general adaptation syndrome . </li></ul>
    56. 56. Stress and Health <ul><ul><li>The General Adaptation Syndrome: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alarm stage - characterized by increased sympathetic nervous system activity. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resistance stage - sympathetic response declines, the adrenal cortex releases cortisol and other hormones that enable the body to maintain prolonged alertness. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exhaustion stage - occurs after prolonged stress and is characterized by inactivity and decreased immune system. </li></ul></ul>
    57. 57. Stress and Health <ul><li>Sapolsky (1998) argues that the nature of today’s crises are more prolonged. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accounts for widespread stress-related illnesses and psychiatric problems in industrial societies. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Long-term, inescapable issues activate the general adaptation syndrome which is harmful to our health over time. </li></ul>
    58. 58. Stress and Health <ul><li>Stress activates two systems in the body: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The autonomic nervous system - “fight or flight” response that prepares the body for brief emergency responses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The HPA axis - the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and adrenal cortex. </li></ul></ul>
    59. 59. Stress and Health <ul><li>The HPA axis becomes the dominant response to prolonged stressors. </li></ul><ul><li>Activation of the hypothalamus induces the pituitary gland to secrete adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) . </li></ul><ul><li>ACTH stimulates the adrenal cortex to secrete cortisol. </li></ul><ul><li>Cortisol enhances metabolic activity and elevates blood levels of sugars and other nutrients to mobilize energies. </li></ul>
    60. 60. Fig. 12-18, p. 377
    61. 61. Stress and Health <ul><li>Prolonged increased cortisol levels impair the immune system. </li></ul><ul><li>The immune system consists of cells that protect the body against viruses and bacteria. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leukocytes – white blood cells. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B-cells – leukocytes that mature in the bone marrow and secrete antibodies. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Antibodies – Y-shaped proteins that attach to particular kinds of antigens. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Antigens – surface proteins that are antibody-generator molecules. </li></ul></ul>
    62. 62. Stress and Health <ul><ul><li>T cells – attack intruders directly and help other T cells or B cells to multiply. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural killer cells – leukocytes that attack tumor cells and cells that are infected with viruses. </li></ul></ul>
    63. 63. Fig. 12-19, p. 378
    64. 64. Stress and Health <ul><li>During an infection, leukocytes and other cells produce small proteins called cytokines. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Combat infection and communicate with the brain to inform of illness. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cytokines in the brain produce symptoms of illness. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fever, sleepiness, lack of energy etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sleep and inactivity are the bodies way of conserving energy to fight illness. </li></ul></ul>
    65. 65. Stress and Health <ul><li>Psychoneuroimmunology is the study of the relationship between the nervous system and the immune system. </li></ul><ul><li>Deals with the way in which experiences, especially stressful ones, alter the immune system. </li></ul><ul><li>Also deals with how the immune system influences the central nervous system. </li></ul>
    66. 66. Stress and Health <ul><li>In response to a stressful experience, the nervous system activates the immune system. </li></ul><ul><li>Immune system increases production of natural killer cells, leukocytes and cytokines. </li></ul><ul><li>The cytokines can trigger symptom of illness as a reaction to the stress itself. </li></ul>
    67. 67. Stress and Health <ul><li>Prolonged stress response is damaging to the body. </li></ul><ul><li>Prolonged increase of cortisol detracts from the synthesis of proteins of the immune system. </li></ul><ul><li>Prolonged stress of longer than a month significantly increases the likelihood of illness. </li></ul>
    68. 68. Stress and Health <ul><li>Prolonged stress can also be harmful to the hippocampus and can affect memory. </li></ul><ul><li>Cortical enhances metabolic activity in the body. </li></ul><ul><li>When metabolic activity is high in the hippocampus, the neurons are more sensitive to damage by toxins or over-stimulation. </li></ul><ul><li>Stress also impairs the adaptability and the production of new hippocampal neurons. </li></ul>
    69. 69. Stress and Health <ul><li>Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) occurs in some people after terrifying experiences and includes the following symptoms: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Frequent distressing recollections. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nightmares. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoidance of reminders of the event. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exaggerated arousal in response to noises and other stimuli. </li></ul></ul>
    70. 70. Stress and Health <ul><li>Studies have revealed most PTSD victims have a smaller than average hippocampus. </li></ul><ul><li>PTSD victims show lower than normal cortisol levels after the trauma. </li></ul><ul><li>People with low cortisol levels may be ill-equipped to combat stress and more prone to the damaging effects of stress. </li></ul>

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