Radiation and chemical mutagens


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Radiation and chemical mutagens

  1. 1. By Group 5 Lecture XI Page 103 - 107
  2. 2. The Careless Atom (1969), Sheldon Norvick says “… the environment which supports us has only a limited capacity for radiation, and that capacity can only be used once” The cost of each additional increment of radiation to which a population is exposed is a future increase in genetic deformities, cancers, and stillbirths.
  3. 3. Radiation and Chemical Mutagens • Ionization radiation causes mutations, random changes in the structure of DNA, the long polymer that contains the coded genetic information necessary for development and functioning of a human being. When a Cell in which a mutation has occurred is in the germline (the egg and sperm cells) , the mutation may be passed on to the future generations. Increased radiation exposure by individuals is oftentimes seen as the cause of cancer: Exposure to radiation comes from several sources: a. Isotope therapy b. X-ray diagnosis and therapy c. Fallout from testing of nuclear weapons d. Radiation pollution from nuclear reactors e. Radioactive substances and wastes • Most of the dangerous radioactive isotopes are continually released in small quantities into the air and water by nuclear plants. Within the next century, Krypton-85 could raise the level of radiation exposure of the general population to 60% of the maximum permissible level set by National Committee on Radiation Protection and Measurement (NCRPM).
  4. 4. Radiation and Chemical Mutagens
  5. 5. Radiation and Chemical Mutagens • On land , UV-B radiation endangers all living forms. For instance, a person exposed to a high level of UV-B will find his/her immune system deteriorating. She/he becomes more prone to diseases and other disabilities such as skin cancer, eye cataract, blindness. Moreover, ages more rapidly. • Ultraviolet light degrades polymers used in buildings, paints, packaging, and countless other substances, Plastics used outdoors are also most likely to be affected. Tropical countries will be severely affected by the degradation of these building materials which will consequently cost billions of dollars in damage.
  6. 6. Radiation and Chemical Mutagens
  7. 7. Radiation and Chemical Mutagens • Chemical Carcinogens that are mutagens are slow poisons. These substances cause the growth of tumors. Not all carcinogens are synthetic chemicals; some are produced by molds on foods. • The Term chemical carcinogen is generally defined to indicate the induction or enhancement of neoplasia by chemicals. In an Etymological sense, it means the induction of carcinogens. It is widely used to indicate tumorigenesis.
  8. 8. Radiation and Chemical Mutagens CARCINOGENIC CHEMICALS A. Chemicals and groups of chemical carcinogenic to humans: Group A (5 chemicals) a. Afla toxins b. Cadmium and it’s compound c. Chlorambucil d. Nickel and certain nickel compounds e. Tris (1- aziridinyl) phosphine-sulphine Group B (12 Chemicals) a. Acrylonitrite b. Amitrole (aminotriazole) c. Auramine d. Baryllium and certain baryllium compunds e. Carbon tetrachloride f. Dimethylcarbomoxyl chloride g. Dimethylsulfate …..
  9. 9. Radiation and Chemical Mutagens h. Ethyleneoxide i. Iron dextran j. Oxymetholone k. Phenacetin l.Polychlorinated biphynyls To be Continued by next Reporter …….
  10. 10. By nic2x 