Artificial intelligence

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Artificial intelligence

  1. 1. Introduction History Sunawar Khan Ahsan Types Of AI (Artificial Intelligence) Applications of AI (Artificial Intelligence) Languages of AI (Artificial Intelligence) Fields/Applications/Robots Merits & DemeritsFuture of AI (Artificial Intelligence) Mr.Khan
  2. 2. What Is AI?? What Is AI?? Definition  Definition: Sunawar Khan Ahsan“The branch of computer “Artificial intelligence (AI) is a science concerned branch of computer science that deals with intelligent with making behavior, learning, and computers behave like adaptation in machines” humans.” (Webopedia) ( Wikipedia )
  3. 3. Sunawar Khan Ahsan
  4. 4.  The original story, published by MaryShelley, in 1818, describes the attemptof a true scientist , Victor , to create Sunawar Khan Ahsanlife. 8
  5. 5.  Joseph Fabers Amazing Talking Machine (1830-40s). A speech synthesizer variously Sunawar Khan Ahsan known as the Euphonia and the Amazing Talking Machine. Bypumping air with the bellows ... and manipulating a series of plates, chambers, and other apparatus (including an artificial tongue ... ), The operator could make it speak any European language
  6. 6. In the 1940s and 50s, a handful of scientists from a variety of fields began to discuss the possibility of Sunawar Khan Ahsan creating an artificial brain. The field of artificial intelligence research was founded as an academic discipline in 1956.
  7. 7. Sunawar Khan AhsanThe IBM 702: a computer used by the first generation of AI researchers
  8. 8. Sunawar Khan Ahsan(THE TALKING MACHINE)
  9. 9. The Roots1834 Charles Babbage’s Analytical Engine Sunawar Khan AhsanAda writes of the engine, “The Analytical Engine can do whatever we know how to order it to perform.”
  10. 10. The Roots of Modern Technology1642 Pascal built an adding machine1694 Leibnitz reckoning machine Sunawar Khan Ahsan Pascaline
  11. 11. Turings test 1950In1950 Alan Turing published a landmark paper in which he speculated about the Sunawar Khan Ahsan possibility of creating machines with true intelligence.Alan Turing
  12. 12. AI 1951In 1951, using the Ferranti Mark1 machine of the University ofManchester, Sunawar Khan AhsanChristopher Strachey wrote a checkersprogram and Dietrich Prinz wrote one forchess.
  13. 13. The Dartmouth Conference of 1956was organized by John McCarthy and two senior scientists: Sunawar Khan AhsanIn1956 Dartmouth conference was the moment that AI gained its name,mission, first success and majorplayers, and is the birth of AI.John McCarthy
  14. 14. The years after the Dartmouth conference were an era of discovery, of sprinting across new ground. Sunawar Khan AhsanThe programs that were developed during this time were solving algebra word problems, proving theorems in geometry and learning to speak English
  15. 15. In the 70s, AI was subject to financial setbacks.AI researchers had failed to Sunawar Khan Ahsan appreciate the difficulty of the problems they faced.Problem;Limited computer power: There was not enough memory or processing speed.
  16. 16. BOOM 1980–1987 Inthe 1980s a form of AI program called "expert systems" was adopted by corporations around the world and knowledge became the focus of Sunawar Khan Ahsan mainstream AI research. In those same years, the Japanese government aggressively funded AI with its fifth generation computer project. Once again, AI had achieved success.
  17. 17.  The first indication of a change in weather was the sudden collapse of the market for specialized AI hardware in 1987. Desktop computers Sunawar Khan Ahsan from Apple and IBM had been gaining speed and power. in 1987 they became more powerful than the more expensive Lisp machines made by Symbolics .
  18. 18.  The field of AI, now more than a half a century old, finally achieved some of its oldest goals. Sunawar Khan Ahsan It began to be used successfully throughout the technology industry. For Ray Kurzweil, the issue is computer power and, using Moores Law, he predicts that machines with human-level intelligence will appear by 2029
  19. 19. THE ADVENT OF THE COMPUTER1945 ENIAC Sunawar Khan Ahsan “The first electronic digital computer” 23
  20. 20. 1997 – First official Rob-Cup soccer match Sunawar Khan Ahsan Picture from 2003 competition
  21. 21. There are two general types Sunawar Khan Ahsan Weak AI Strong AI
  22. 22.  Weak AI refers to AI that only simulates human thoughts and actions Sunawar Khan Ahsan Actions, decisions and ideas are programmed into it All the current forms of AI are weak AI.
  23. 23.  Strong AI refers to AI that matches or exceeds human intelligence Sunawar Khan Ahsan Also called “True AI”, as they are truly intelligent Example: The robots from the movies transformers, matrix, terminator, I- robot, etc.
  24. 24. Computer Linguistics Science Sunawar Khan Ahsan ArtificialPhilosophy Psychology Intelligence Mathematics Biology
  25. 25. Transformers These robots canconvert themselves into cars I-Robot This robot works like humans
  26. 26.  Handwriting RecognitionExpert SystemsOptical Character RecognitionNeural Networks Sunawar Khan AhsanMachine TranslationSpeech RecognitionComputer Algebra SystemsMachine Vision
  27. 27.  Handwriting recognition is the ability of a computer to receive and interpret intelligible handwritten input from sources such as paper documents, photographs, Sunawar Khan Ahsan touch-screens and other devices. The image of the written text may be sensed "off line" from a piece of paper by optical scanning Alternatively, the movements of the pen tip may be sensed "on line", for example by a pen-based computer screen surface
  28. 28.  An expert system is software that uses a knowledge base of human expertise for problem solving, or clarify uncertainties where normally one or Sunawar Khan Ahsan more human experts would need to be consulted
  29. 29.  Optical character recognition, usually abbreviated to OCR, is the mechanical or electronic translation of scanned images of handwritten, typewritten or printed text into machine-encoded text. It is widely Sunawar Khan Ahsan used to convert books and documents into electronic files, to computerize a record-keeping system in an office, or to publish the text on a website.
  30. 30.  Speech recognition (also known as automatic speech recognition or computer speech recognition) converts Sunawar Khan Ahsan spoken words to text. The term "voice recognition" is sometimes used to refer to recognition systems that must be trained to a particular speaker—as is the case for most desktop recognition software. Recognizing the speaker can simplify the task of translating speech
  31. 31.  Robotics is a branch of science and engineering dealing with the study of Sunawar Khan Ahsan robots. It is involved with a robots design, manufacture, application, and structural disposition. Robotics is related to electronics, mechanics, and software
  32. 32. Space ExplorationHealthcareDomestic Sunawar Khan AhsanMilitary defenseManufacturingRecreational/ Social UseAgricultureOther intelligent machines
  33. 33. 700,000 robots were in the industrialworld in 1995 and over 500,000 were usedin Japan. About 120,000 in Western Sunawar Khan AhsanEurope and 60,000 in the United Statesand many were doing tasks too dangerousor unpleasant for humans!!!!!
  34. 34. Space Exploration Two important devices exist which are proven space robots Sunawar Khan Ahsan Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) Remote Manipulator System (RMS)
  35. 35. This picture shows a Historic Space Handshakebetween Shuttle and Space Station Sunawar Khan Ahsan (Robots - Image Courtesy of CSA)
  36. 36. Sunawar Khan Ahsan 42
  37. 37. Healthcare Robots are used sometimes foroperations. A human could never drill a Sunawar Khan Ahsanhole exactly one 100th of a inch wideand long. e.g. Tug robot (delivery robot), RoboDocRobotic Wheelchair can facilitate patient locomotion
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  39. 39.  Domestic Use These robots perform Sunawar Khan Ahsan domestic chores and perform simple tasks like grass cutting, vacuum cleaning, plant watering, etc. e.g. Scooba, Robomower 45
  40. 40. Military Defense The U.S. military is currently Sunawar Khan Ahsanusing robots to diffuse bombs and totransport goods in danger zones. Thesevehicles (AGVs) use sensors andcoordinates to guide themselves throughstreets and rough terrain to supplyammunition and food stuff to soldiers. 46 e.g. iRobot Packbot, Transbotics
  41. 41. Sunawar Khan Ahsan
  42. 42. ManufacturingProbably the industrywhich uses robots the Sunawar Khan Ahsanmost. Robots are usefulin repetitive tasks andalso work for longerdurations withoutbreaks.e.g. Robots in car 48production assemblyline
  43. 43. AgricultureRobots can do the work that took a dozenharvesters to do at the same time. Sunawar Khan AhsanRobots are used for harvesting, reaping and sowing purposes.They are sometimescalled, ‘Agrobots’.
  44. 44. Recreational/ Social UseThese robots are built Sunawar Khan Ahsanfor purely recreationalpurposes. They providecompany and are mostlife-like.e.g. Asimo (thehumanoid robot), Aibo(the widely popularrobotic dog)
  45. 45. Sunawar Khan AhsanPuzzle Solving machine
  46. 46. Business Benefits:Robots have the ability to consistentlyproduce high-quality products and toprecisely perform tasks Sunawar Khan AhsanSince they never tire and can worknonstop without breaks, robots areable to produce more quality goods orexecute commands quicker than theirhuman counterparts
  47. 47. Employee Benefits: Robots can do the work that no one elsewants to do—the mundane, dangerous, and Sunawar Khan Ahsanrepetitive jobsCommon Misconception about Robots:Introducing robots into a work environmentdoes not necessarily mean the elimination ofjobs. With the addition of robots comes theneed for highly-skilled, human workers
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  49. 49. Listed below are some of the languagesspecifically designed to develop (AI)application. LISP Sunawar Khan Ahsan PROLOG MERCURY APPLOGJAVA , C , C++ , PYTHON , PERLalso can used.
  50. 50. LISP-( LISPROGRAMMING LANGUAGE ) LISPis second oldest high level Programming language . Invented by John McCarthy in 1958 and Sunawar Khan Ahsan the first implemented by Steve Russell on IBM 704 computer. Number dialects have existed over LISP history. e.g : Common LISP Scheme
  51. 51. PROLOG-(PROGRAMMING IN LOGIC)PROLOG is a logic programming language which was invented in Sunawar Khan Ahsan 1972 by Alain.PROLOG was one of the first logic programming language, and remains among the most popular such languages today.
  52. 52. Sunawar Khan Ahsan
  53. 53.  Delegance: routine operations can be delegated to a computer, freeing up more time for humans (eg setup wizard) Confimation: having an ai check your work as Sunawar Khan Ahsan you go along (eg spellcheck) Isolation: have a computer simulate a human interaction in order to test something(eg fire safety simulations) Emulation: provide a virtual second user for a system(eg game ai.)
  54. 54.  Proficiency: an ai has only the real world experience of the specialists who created it Predictability: an ai will only ever cerate new Sunawar Khan Ahsan permutations of known states, completely new behavior will never arise (learn the ais tactics, and itll never pull anything new on you) Redundancy: if a system becomes too proficient, it may render humans obsolete (casino security).
  55. 55.  Gradual Change Sunawar Khan Ahsan-Despite the rapid advance of technology, the advent of strong AI will be a gradual process
  56. 56.  Jobs/Work -Even now we have robots taking over jobs. Sunawar Khan Ahsan -Right now Japan uses about 320 robots of all sorts per 10,000 employees, while Germany uses 148 industrial robots per 10,000 employees, Italy 116, Sweden 99 and between 50 and 80 each in United States.
  57. 57. • Will AI rule the world ? if machines can replicate human intelligence , it might be able to rule the Sunawar Khan Ahsan world.But.The question remain …………….......... Can Artificial Intelligence match the human Intelligence.??
  58. 58. AI can have two purposes.First is to use the power of computers to augmenthuman thinking. Robotics and expert systems are Sunawar Khan Ahsanmajor branches of that.The other is to use a computers artificialintelligence to understand how humans think.
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