SLIDE: OPENING Technologies and how they might affect all of our lives New applications and technologies that impact on lighting Some of the drivers of IOT development in Smart Cities and especially lighting
SLIDE: SMARTIES There are real bottom line benefits for using standards – some of which Ill cover briefly today.
However I thinking this quote from Andrew Tannenbaum says this best.
The important questions are... do these benefits transfer into the world of IOT? Do smart cities need new standards for IOT implementation? Or have they already emerged and it’s just a matter of ratifying them, internationally. How does one decide on which standards will serve your city and its people to best achieve your goals?
SLIDE: DESCRIPTION Ironically there is no standard definition for a smart city with over 100 different versions currently circulating. So here is one more.
SLIDE: WHAT MAKES A STANDARD 1 So what makes a standard?
There are 3 key aspects.
1. Specification available to all member bodies and sufficiently detailed to enable one to make a fully inter operable device purely from the specification
SLIDE: WHAT MAKES A STANDARD 2
2. Fair and reasonable access to any Intellectual property Rights (IPR)
SLIDE: WHAT MAKES A STANDARD 3
3. Testing and certification regime that ensure a logo on devices provides assurance of its compliance and therefore interoperability with other certified devices
SLIDE: RESULTS OF STANDARDS What benefits should materialise in the market as a consequence of standards?
1. Competition: Standard technology can be delivered by multiple different companies in competition with each other
2. Price: Has the effect of driving down price and innovation in business models. If the playing field is relatively even due to the standard
3. Cost Sharing: Reduces the need for business cases for each specific application as standards based platforms allow infrastructure and data (costs) to be shared across more than one application
SLIDE: LIGHT POVERTY Before we dive right in lets pause for a moment,
Decisions we are making now in our cities with respects to technology, hardware, standards may come to impact 1.3billion people who suffer from light poverty
Light Poverty means that commerce stops at dusk. Education is more difficult. Studying is undertaken by candlelight/kerosene lamps which have their own dangers and 1.5million people die every year
Standards can lower the cost of these technologies and implementing them for cities which are not upgrading infrastructure but just starting to install this infrastructure.
SLIDE: LIGHT FIT? Many of the applications and scenarios now being delivered in outdoor lighting for roadways, and urban areas have been delivered to the indoor space for more than 25 years.
And whilst the platforms, protocols and people are different the desired outcomes are the same.
Monitor – track and accumulate energy consumption, identify/track faults – light is inoperable, lighting is on when it should be off (and vice versa),
Maintain – the photocopier /vending machine service model which has been with us for decades where the machine dials out to tell the supplier that the toner needs to be replaced or the mars bars are empty.
In a street lighting ecosystem this helps.
In some countries such as the UK there are performance contracts and down time standards after which the companies maintained the street lighting grids will be fined if the contracts are not met.
Control (REALTIME) – save energy, respond to local lighting needs – security, safety, and aesthetics.
SLIDE: POLE MORE IMPORTANT Without these fundamentals of outdoor lighting control – monitor, maintain, real-time control - you don’t have a ticket to play in the future.
This is a hygiene performance level. A minimum performance expectation. This in itself is the standard equipment for any new road or outdoor lighting installation being considered today. But importantly not all street lighting applications always need to do all 3.
Just as indoor lighting control is starting to leverage the lighting infrastructure to do more than just illuminate and environment by creating digital ceilings and sensor arrays from the existing lighting infrastructure, the same is true for the outdoor lighting control networks.
Indoor lighting controls are undergoing a transformation and with this a potential transformation of some of the standards.
But that infrastructure isn’t so much the light point itself as it is the pole to which the light is mounted.
Every light point has a 7 pin NEMA Standard (National Electrical Manufacturers Association) base for connection. That’s the standard.
This makes the light point on the pole ‘connection ready’ via an international electrical standard.
Any company complying to that standard with their offer can provide a hardware/ service to control, monitor or maintain that light point and outdoor lighting control system.
One can receive some of the benefits of standards...Competition, Price. Cost sharing.
Importantly it may lay dormant until the backend infrastructure to support it is built and will operate in a standard, sensible energy saving mode until that activation occurs via a PE CELL.
The lighting poles are a different matter.
Poles are unique in that they have 24/7 power supply.
They are tall enough to stop inhibit and deter vandalism, and their height provides an ideal place to install transmitters and receivers, and provide a good point of view of the local area.
We can add a whole lot of other IOT devices – sensors for air quality, earthquakes, city Wi-Fi transmitters, and CCTV cameras for security and parking systems, electric vehicle chargers – onto these poles.
SLIDE: CAR Ford, Tesla and others are frantically developing self-driving cars and project that within the next 10 years the technology will be sufficiently developed and tested to provide a safer driving experience than humans.
These cars are full of sensors and cameras.
Given that these poles are positioned for delivering light primarily what changes when the divers don’t need the roads lit?
Do we need as many poles? Do the poles need to have as many sensors installed - after all the cars will be providing real-time telemetry about their surroundings and feeding this back to shared services. Does the pole need to be designed the way it is now if it does not need to light the road? How does this change the aesthetics of that pole its physical location and therefore how sensors are integrated into it – or if sensors need to be integrated at all…
Of course, transforming and entire city or countries fleet of older vehicles makes this reality….challenging in the short term
City states like Singapore where they cycle cars every 10 years are prime candidates for implementing this. WE should be watching them carefully.
How does this change your lifecycle planning for this infrastructure in your city?
Is a 25 year model for infrastructure still appropriate to build your business case?
SLIDE: DATA All of these system are measuring, tracking and storing data. But what is the standard for exporting this data so it can be properly leveraged to enhance decision making?
Do the systems that are being installed allow free and easy export of this data in a standardised data format?
Standardisation in data exports format mean there is No lock in to vendors. No DATA ransoming
Use whatever you want to wrangle the data – such as TABLEAU a clouds service which integrates multiple data sources from standard databases.
This helps to collate all your data from all you possibly disconnected nonstandard systems and wrangle that data for intelligence. And predictions.
SLIDE: DATA SCIENCE It’s about the future and what will happen, not the past.
If you are using data to describe what happened in the past this is traditional business intelligence (BI) and that’s what data analysts focus on
Using tools that ‘discover the signal in the data/ signal in the noise’. That's what a data scientist does.
Data science tells us what the data predicts about the future and what actions we should take as a result (predictive and prescriptive analytics)
Do you have now or have you budgeted for a data scientist - or a team of data scientists - as part of your smart city? Internally or outsourced.
Any smart city project should - as a standard - be employing data scientists to get the most from their systems.
SLIDE: SECURITY There a currently no ratified standards for IOT security
In the past Cyber security concerns have primarily revolved around the threat of having data stolen, such as credit card or healthcare information.
The growth of the IoT has now added another threat layer in which physical devices can now be hacked, have their information stolen, and even be remotely controlled.
Expect a huge surge in demand for insurance policies that protect against cyber hacks.
But its difficult to assess cyber security risks partly because there are no standards to measure against.
Having IOT security standards in place will make these evaluations easier.
For example its not just about assessing the software/hardware infrastructure but also assessing the systems integrators and their businesses policies with respects to cyber-security, If these systems integrators are plugging in or logging in to your site or cloud, catch a virus from a less secure system than yours, gets their systems infected and then infects yours...
Does your city SPECFICALLY have its street lighting control system / infrastructure insured against cybersecurity threats?
How are IOT devices decommissioned?
Just because there are no standards in place is not an excuse for hardware manufactures or end users not to address security in their devices and systems.
SLIDE: Security 2 A successful security standard will provide.
Protection for the device by ensuring only authentic code from a trusted source is allowed to run on the device. Protection for data by providing secure communication, data-at-rest protection and secure decommissioning of devices. Awareness of attacks by including security monitoring, intrusion detection and integration with security management systems. Security management Enabling updates to security policies in response to emerging threats. Machine to machine authentication Ensuring that IoT devices are only communicating with other known, trusted entities
SLIDE: RECOMMENDATIONS Any infrastructure technology that you replace or install now should be IOT ready even if you are not going to leverage it right away. Example street lighting and 7 pin NEMA.
Re asses your assets life time and recalculate your ROI on a different time scale. 25 years to 10 years or less.
BE mindful /careful of software solutions which lock you in to having your data ransomed to you for a fee every month. Or annuity. Instead ensure that the data sets can be exported in a range of different / standardised database formats
Avoid data ransom.
Use 3rd party data analytics software to collate all your data sets across all your assets
Move from reactive to proactive.
Cyber-security insurance - Use security standards to evaluate your infrastructure – include the companies delivering the solutions for you
New revenue models. Data = dollars. Can this data be sold to 3rd parties so you can create new/additional revenue stream?
IEC-62443 is a security standard for industrial automation and control systems
The Battle of IOT Standardisation for Smart Cities
The Battle of IoT Standardisation for Smart Cities
The nice thing about standards is that there are so
many to choose from
Andrew Tannenbaum, Computer Scientist
Machina Research White Paper, 2016
A smart sustainable city is an innovative city that
uses information and communication
technologies (ICT) and other means to improve
quality of life, efficiency of urban operation and
services, and competiveness, while ensuring
that it meets the needs of present and future
generations with respects to economic, social
and environmental aspects
What makes a standard? (1)
Specification available to all member
bodies and sufficiently detailed to enable
one to make a fully interoperable device
purely from the specification
What makes a standard? (2)
Fair and reasonable access to any
Intellectual property Rights (IPR)
What makes a standard? (3)
Testing and certification regime that
ensure the logo on devices provides
assurance of its compliance and
therefore interoperability with other
What are the Results of Using Standards
Cybersecurity – Inventory
Alan Grau, President and co-founder of Icon Labs
Fundamental security capabilities that
should be included in any IoT device.
A successful security standard will provide…
Alan Grau, President and co-founder of Icon Labs
Protection for the device
Protection for data
Awareness of attacks
Machine to machine authentication
Street Lighting infrastructure should be
installed as “connection ready” via NEMA
7 pin connectors
Re asses your asset’s life-cycle and your
From 25 years to <10-15
Use 3rd party Data Analytics Platforms
Avoid Data Ransoming