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Chapter 8


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Chapter 8

  1. 1. Chapter 8:Employment, Labor, and Wages<br />
  2. 2. 8-1: The Labor Movement<br />Early Union Development<br />First attempt to organize labor in America was in 1778, by printers in New York City<br />Small fraction of workers belonged to unions<br />Comprised of skilled workers and possessed strong bargaining power<br />In early 1800’s, large scale immigration provided a supply of cheap, unskilled labor<br />Public opinion against the unions and labor organizers were viewed as troublemakers<br />
  3. 3. Civil War to the 1930s<br />Manufacturing expanded<br />Hourly workers made up about ¼ of working population<br />Working conditions were difficult and often dangerous<br />Attitudes toward labor unions began to ease<br />Two main types of unions:<br />Trade or craft union – association of skilled workers who perform the same kind of work<br />Industrial union – association of all workers in the same industry, regardless of the job<br />
  4. 4. Union Activities<br /><ul><li>Unions negotiated for higher wages, better hours, job security and better working conditions
  5. 5. Strike - refuse to work until demands were met
  6. 6. Picket – demonstrate or march before a place of business to protest a company’s actions
  7. 7. Boycott – mass refusal to buy products from targeted employers or companies</li></ul>Employer Resistance<br /><ul><li>Lockout – management refusal to let employees work
  8. 8. Hire all new workers
  9. 9. Set up company unions, organized, supported or run by employers
  10. 10. Ludlow Massacre 1914</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Labor Since the 1930s
  11. 11. Most of the significant labor laws in effect today were passed in the 1930s, 1940s, and 1950s,
  12. 12. Great Depression (1929 – 1939) video
  13. 13. Stock market crash October, 1929
  14. 14. High unemployment
  15. 15. Average hourly wage dropped from 55 cents to 5 cents
  16. 16. Pro-union legislation
  17. 17. The Wagner Act of 1935 established the right of unions to collective bargaining and created the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) to police unfair labor practices
  18. 18. The Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 set the first minimum wage, established overtime pay, and prohibited oppressive child labor</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Unions grew strong until the end of WWII, when public opinion changed again.
  19. 19. Right to Work Law – state law making it illegal to require a worker to join a union as a condition of employment </li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Organized Labor Today
  20. 20. Closed Shop - arrangement under which workers must join a union before they are hired, which allows the union to determine who is hired
  21. 21. Taft-Hartley Act of 1947 made the closed shop illegal for all companies engaged in interstate commerce
  22. 22. Union Shop – workers do not have to belong to the union to be hired, but must join afterward
  23. 23. Modified Union Shop – workers have the option to join a union after being hired
  24. 24. Agency Shop – workers do not have to join a union to get a job; however, they must pay union dues to help pay for collective bargaining costs</li></li></ul><li>
  25. 25. 8-2: Wages and Labor Disputes<br />Wage Determination – different occupations and levels of training are rewarded with different wages<br /> 1. Unskilled labor – workers not trained to operate specialized machines and equipment<br /> 2. Semiskilled labor – workers who operate machines that require a minimum amount of training<br /> 3. Skilled labor – workers who are trained to operate complex equipment and require little supervision<br /> 4. Professional labor – workers with a high level of training, education and management skills<br />
  26. 26.
  27. 27. Resolving Labor Disputes<br /><ul><li>Collective bargaining – process of negotiation between union and management representatives over pay, benefits, and job-related matters
  28. 28. Mediation – process if resolving a dispute by bringing in a neutral third party
  29. 29. Arbitration – agreement to place a dispute before a third party for a binding settlement
  30. 30. Fact-finding – agreement to have a neutral third party collect facts about a dispute and present nonbinding recommendations
  31. 31. Injunction – court order issued to prevent a company or union from taking action during a labor protest
  32. 32. Seizure – temporary government takeover of a company to keep it running during a labor-management dispute
  33. 33. Presidential intervention </li></li></ul><li>8-3: Employment Trends and Issues<br />Decline of Union Influence<br />Lower Pay for Women<br />Minimum Wage<br />