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The water-land-food-energy-climate Nexus for a resource efficient Europe


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Presentation delivered by Maria P. Papadopoulou (NTUA) at the 15th International Conference on Science & Technology (CEST2017)

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The water-land-food-energy-climate Nexus for a resource efficient Europe

  1. 1. The water-land-food- energy-climate Nexus for a resource efficient Europe Laspidou C., Witmer M., Vamvakeridou L.S., Domingo X. , Brouwer F., Howells M., Susnik J., Blanco M., Bonazountas M., Fournier M., Papadopoulou M.P. 15th International Conference on Science and Technology (CEST2017) Maria P. Papadopoulou Associate Professor National Technical University of Athens Rhodes, 2/9/2019
  2. 2. SIM4NEXUS project • H2020 project SIM4NEXUS • Sustainable Integrated Management FOR the NEXUS of water-land-food-energy-climate for a resource-efficient Europe • Grant of € 7.9M • 4 year project (2016-2020) • Started June 2016 • 25 partners from 15 European countries • Co-ordination: Wageningen University & Research • Core team: University of Exeter, University of Thessaly
  3. 3. Project Objectives SIM4NEXUS has four objectives: 1. To adopt existing knowledge and develop new expertise on the Nexus, 2. To reduce uncertainties of how policies, governance and institutions affect complex changing environmental systems, 3. To showcase the implementation by a network of regional and national case studies in Europe 4. To valorise the project outputs by suitable business models.
  4. 4. The Nexus for resource efficiency Target: Resource efficiency Water-Energy-Food-Land use under Climate Change Instruments: • Technology • Economic development • Social cohesion • Social innovation • Governance • Policy
  5. 5. Previous related research: Filling the gap Several well-established and developed “thematic” models” do exist: • Simulating some (but not all five) Nexus components • At some scales (e.g. Global) • Not necessarily targeting resource efficiency • Some targeting GHG • Or biodiversity • Or the economy But not all…
  6. 6. The main idea(s) • Using the “thematic models” to identify the links and the gaps in the Nexus • With diverse Data Sources and Climate change scenarios • Running the thematic models • Combining outputs from the thematic models using Complexity Science methodologies To develop “Nexus” models for specific Case Studies and scenarios To develop a Serious Game for education and decision makers
  7. 7. Thematic models in SIM4NEXUS
  8. 8. Concept before integration partial integration Nexus with SIM4NEXUS Common prac ce with silo-thinking, fragmented policy and decision making and R&D support Decision making par ally integra ng Nexus components with high uncertainty about results SIM4NEXUS approach: NEXUS- compliant R&D and policy-making thema c models knowledge policy & decision making complexity science producing integrated knowledge water energy food land climate with high uncertainty All Nexus components interac ng with reduced uncertainty
  9. 9. Structure
  10. 10. Outcome: The Serious Game SIM4NEXUS to develop a Serious Game • With an Innovative Knowledge Elicitation Engine (KEE) • Based on Aqua Republica (an existing serious game focusing on water developed by DHI) • 5-Exploring-the-World-of-Aqua-Republica-DHI-Case-Story.pdf
  11. 11. 12 Case Studies • To achieve a detailed understanding of the scientific interrelations between the components of the Nexus. • To represent different spatial scales (regional, national, continental and global) • To assess the benefits of synergies in policies when decision makers address the Nexus concerns. • To assess relevant near-term policy initiatives. This assessment will be accompanied by sensitivity analysis in all the case studies, in order to reduce uncertainties and increase the reliability of each proposed scenario. • To propose the potential for transferability of the case study to other regions and countries. • As test beds of the models and the Serious Game
  12. 12. With Local stakeholders • 3 at regional level • 5 at national level • 2 transboundary At higher level (educational) • 1 at European level • 1 at Global level
  13. 13. GREECE: Fast-track National CS Area: 131,957km2 Population: 10.8 million residents (1/3 concentrated along the coast), attracting over 18 million tourists during the summer. Type: Greece consists of nine geographic regions in the mainland & 4 for insular complexes. The Aegean Sea lies to the east of the mainland, the Ionian Sea to the west, & the Mediterranean Sea to the south. Greece has the longest coastline on the Mediterranean Basin 16,300 km in length, featuring more than 5000 islands (only 227 of which are inhabited). Major industries: Agriculture & tourism. Environmental sensitivity: More than 25% of total area of Greece is registered as NATURE2000 area. In Greece there are 50,000 species 25% of which about are endemic & some rare (pinniped seals, sea turtles and brown bear). About flora there are 6.300 taxa (species and subspecies) of plants 1,000 of which are endemic.
  14. 14. TOURIST SECTOR Land Development of tourist activitiesWater Meeting tourists’ needs Food Meeting tourists’ needs Energy Meeting tourists’ needs Climate Adaptation to climate changeAvailability Availability Availability Availability • Climate change impacts on existing land uses and the tourist ‘product’ • Competitive land uses (e.g. agricultural sector, protected areas, forest land). • Availability of water and energy resources – Satisfaction of tourist sector’s needs. • Development of mass and alternative tourist activities with respect to the available resources and peculiarities of each region. • Policies regulating the tourist sector • Future perspectives – Strategic directions for the development of the tourist sector. • Management of existing problems.
  15. 15. AGRICULTURAL SECTOR Water Meeting agricultural needs - Irrigation Availability Land Development of agricultural activities Availability Food Agricultural products Production Energy Meeting agricultural needs – Energy crops Availability Production Climate Adaptation to climate change • Climate change impacts on existing land uses and existing crops. • Food production – Agricultural products • Competitive land uses (e.g. tourist sector, protected areas, forest land). • Multifunctional role of agricultural land – Complementarity of activities (e.g. agro-tourism, agricultural biomass for energy production). • Availability of water and energy resources – Irrigation. • Policies regulating the agricultural sector
  16. 16. available energy imported gas imported oil coal hydropower solar wind waste- biomass Land uses agricultural non edible industrial forests/ Protected areas urban climate temperature extreme events energy for pumping great demand in land hydropower plants in reservoirs an energy consuming procedure forests hold surface water great dema nd in water CO2 emissions agricultural edible livestock radiation pasture quality Conceptual Model precipitation importe d locally produced available food exporte d livestock products agricultural products fishery products available water groundwater reclaimed waste water desalination non trans/ry transbound ary surface water bodies reservoirs rivers
  17. 17. surface water reservoirs availab le energy imported gas imported oil coal hydropower solar wind waste- biomass energy crops energy demand industry domestic tourist sector agricultural sector transport tertiary energy demand by sector electricity imports electricity exports available food climate energy consumption GHG emissions Land use agricultural non edible agricultural edible livestock Energy Sector pasture forests/ Protected areas (NATURA2000)
  18. 18. System Dynamic Modelling
  19. 19. Aquastat Methodology
  20. 20. What we expect from the SG? Case study summary The Greek case study is on a national scale with an emphasis on energy needs and water scarcity issues. Objectives: - To provide advice to policy makers about the interdependence of energy, water and food, - To provide knowledge to adapt agricultural practices. Case study learning goals Learn how national policies in the domains of water management, renewable power production, and land use affect each other and result in changes in food production, tourism, greenhouse gas emissions, and quality and quantity of water resources.
  21. 21. Stakeholder Engagement  Meetings in small groups or individual discussions with representatives from several stakeholder institutions in Greece to inform them about the case study, related policies, modelling and the serious game - At national level: • Ministry of Environment and Energy • Ministry of Foreign Affairs • Ministry of Tourism • Piraeus Bank • Hellenic Public Power Corporation S.A. (PPC) • Athens Labour Unions Organization – Department of the Environment and International Relations • Hellenic Association of Photovoltaic Energy Producers (SPEF) • Joint SA (multi-stakeholder) agri-businesses Synergies need to be developed in national scale between policy makers, national/ local authorities and end-users  to propose policy improvements to better integrate the Nexus.
  22. 22. 23 Policy Analysis: Stakeholders involved Key stakeholders: • Ministry of Environment and Energy • Ministry of Tourism • Ministry of Foreign Affairs • Hellenic Public Power Corporation S.A.
  23. 23. For further information please consult, follow us at @SIM4NEXUS Thanks for your attention!