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Policy Coherence in the WLEFC Nexus

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Policy Coherence in the WLEFC Nexus

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Presentation given on 'Policy coherence in
the WLEFC nexus: EU and international policies' by Stefania Munaretto and Maria Witmer, PBL Netherlands Environmental
Assessment Agency, at Lunch Seminar, WRI, Washington D.C.

Presentation given on 'Policy coherence in
the WLEFC nexus: EU and international policies' by Stefania Munaretto and Maria Witmer, PBL Netherlands Environmental
Assessment Agency, at Lunch Seminar, WRI, Washington D.C.

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Policy Coherence in the WLEFC Nexus

  1. 1. Policy coherence in the WLEFC nexus: EU and international policies Lunch seminar, WRI, Washington D.C. Stefania Munaretto Maria Witmer PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency May 24th, 2017
  2. 2. 2 EU funded project - SIM4NEXUS • Sustainable Integrated Management FOR the NEXUS of water-land-food-energy-climate for a resource efficient Europe • Integrated knowledge and tools (serious game) to evaluate impacts of resource use and policies on NX • 26 partners from16 countries • 2016-2020
  3. 3. 3 Project structure
  4. 4. 4 Defining the WLEFCN nexus Analytical approach Systematic process of inquiry that explicitly account for WLEFC interactions for better understanding relationships and providing integrated knowledge for planning and decision making
  5. 5. 5 Defining the WLEFCN nexus Governance approach Guidance for policy decisions through an explicit focus on interactions between WLEFC policy goals and instruments in order to enhance cross-sectoral collaboration and policy coherence
  6. 6. 6 Defining the WLEFCN nexus Emerging discourse Emphasize synergies, conflicts and trade-offs emerging from the interactions at bio-physical, socio-economic, and policy and governance level in the WLEFC nexus (boundary concept)
  7. 7. 7 WLEFC nexus framework A systematic process of scientific inquiry and of coherent policy design that focuses on synergies, conflicts and trade-offs emerging in the interactions at bio- physical, socio-economic, and governance level in the WLEFC NX • Equal weight of NX domains • Focus on interactions • Bilateral • Synergistic • Conflicting (trade-offs) Food Land Water Energy Climate Trade-offs Synergies Government (Policy/Regulation)
  8. 8. 8 Policy coherence in SIM4NEXUS Policy coherence refers to the systematic effort to reduce conflicts and promote synergies within and across individual policy areas at different spatial scales Policy coherence within and across sectors and scales Policy inputs Policy processes Policy content: goals and means Policy implementation Contextual factors and unforeseen events Outcomes and impacts (adapted from Nilsson et al., 2012)
  9. 9. 9 Policy interactions at different levels Policy area Administrative/spatial scale Horizontal Vertical Internal e.g. EU climate mitigation targets vs EU carbon emission cap, or vs EU burden sharing or vs EU ETS e.g. global climate policy vs EU climate policy External e.g. EU food policy vs EU climate policy e.g. global climate policy vs EU energy policy A causal relationship between two policies in which one policy exerts influence on the other either intentionally or unintentionally policy A>policy B ≠ policy B>policy A
  10. 10. 10 Typology of interactions and scoring system (Nilsson et al., 2016) + + +
  11. 11. 11 Density of interactions: hotspots W1 W3 E3 F4 F5 L2 L3 L4 C2 W2 W4 E1 E4 E5 F1 F2 C3 E2 F3 L1 C1 NEXUS CRITICAL SYSTEM (NCS) NEXUS CRITICAL SYSTEM (NCS) NEXUS CRITICAL OBJECTIVE (NCO) NEXUS CRITICAL OBJECTIVE (NCO)
  12. 12. 12 Methodology • Collecting primary and secondary data • Mapping policy goals and means • Selecting policy objectives • Assessing interactions at EU level • Selecting NCOs; further investigation: • Horizontal external coherence • Level of integration of synergies and conflicts in policy docs • Vertical external coherence
  13. 13. 13 Selected objectives • Relevance of the objectives to the project • Potential of the objectives to have a high number of interactions • 33 objectives across 5 policy sectors EU WATER POLICY W1 Achieve good water quality status W2 Ensure sufficient supply of good quality surface water and groundwater for people’s needs, the economy and the environment W3 Increase water efficiency W4 Reduce water consumption W5 Assess and manage flood risk and mitigate flood effects W6 Address and mitigate water scarcity and drought EU ENERGY POLICY E1 Increase production of biofuel E2 Increase consumption of biofuel E3 Increase production of energy from biomass (excluding biofuel) E4 Increase consumption of energy from biomass (excluding biofuel) E5 Increase hydro-energy production E6 Increase hydro-energy consumption E7 Increase energy efficiency E8 Reduce energy consumption E9 Push forward important energy infrastructure projects (grid, network, interconnectors, etc.) E10 Achieve energy supply security EU LAND USE POLICY L1 Restoring degraded soils to a level of functionality consistent with at least current and intended use L2 Prevent soil degradation L3 Maintain and enhance forest cover L4 Prevent indirect land use change from nature to productive use EU FOOD AND AGRICULTURE POLICY F1 Contribute to farm incomes (if farmers respect rules on environment, land management, soil protection, water management, food safety, animal health and welfare - ‘cross-compliance’) F2 Improve competitiveness of agricultural sector (including sector-specific support and international trade issues) F3 Ensure provision of environmental public goods in the agriculture sector F4 Support rural areas economy (employment, social fabric, local markets, diverse farming systems) F5 Promote resource efficiency in the agriculture, food and forestry sectors F6 Reduce and prevent food waste F7 Reduce intake of animal protein in human diet (non-binding objective; expressed intention on a research phase) EU CLIMATE POLICY C1 Reduce GHGs emissions to keep global temperature increase within 2 degrees C2 Increase efficiency of the transport system C3 Support the development and uptake of low-carbon technology C4 Support the development and uptake of safe CCS technology C5 Incentivize more climate-friendly land use C6 Promote adaptation in key vulnerable EU sectors and in MSs
  14. 14. 14 Scoring approach • Scoring process: • Individual scoring by two researchers • Comparison of individual scoring • Discussion of the most controversial interactions in a team of researchers • Scoring criteria: • What happens to objective X if we make progress on objective Y? • Only direct interactions • Specification of the context • Justification of scores • Sources of information: • Expert knowledge • Evidence of policy interactions available in the literature • Information on bio-physical and socio-economic interactions provided by SIM4NEXUS WP1
  15. 15. 15 W1 W2 W3 W4 W5 W6 E1 E2 E3 E4 E5 E6 E7 E8 E9 E10 L1 L2 L3 L4 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 W1 +2 -1/0 +1 +1 -1/+1 -1/+1 +1 +1 +1 -1/+1 -1/+1 +2 -1/+2 W2 +2 -1 -1 +3 -1/+2 +3 -1/+1 +2 +1 +1 +1 -1 -1/+2 -1/+2 +2 -1/+2 -1/+1 +1 W3 +3 +2 +1 -1/+1 -1/+1 +1 +2 +3 +3 W4 +1 +3 +2 +2 -1/+1 -1/+1 -1/+1 +2 +1 +1 -1/+1 -1/+1 +1 +2 +1 W5 -1/+1 -1/+1 0/+1 -1/+1 +2 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 0/+1 +3 W6 +1 +3 +2 +3 -1/+1 +1 -1/+1 +2 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +3 +1 +1 0/+1 +3 E1 -1 -1 -2 -1 -1 +3 +1 -1 -1 -3 -3 +2 -2 +1 -1 -1/+2 -1/0 -2 -2 E2 +3 -1/+2 -1 -1 E3 +3 +1 -1/0 -1/0 -1/0 +1 +1 -1/+1 +1 +1 -1/0 +2 -2 E4 +3 +2 -1 E5 -3 -2 -1 -2/+2 +3 +1 +1 -1 +2 -1 -1 +1 E6 +3 +2 -1 E7 +1 0/+2 0/+2 -1/0 -1/0 -1/0 -1/0 -1/0 -1/0 +3 +1 +2 +2 +1 +3 +3 +1 +3 E8 +1 +1 +2 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 +3 -1 +1 +2 +2 +3 +3 +1 +2 E9 +1 +1 -1 -1 +2 0/+1 +2 -1/+1 E10 0/+1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 +1 0/+1 0/+1 0/+2 -2 -1 -1 L1 +3 +2 +2 +2 +1 +1 +2 +1 +1 +1 +2 +1 +2 +2 +2 +2 L2 +3 +2 +2 +2 +1 +1 +1 +2 +1 +1 +2 +1 +2 +2 +2 +2 L3 +1 +2 +1 +2 -1 +1 -1/+1 +1 +2 -1/+2 +1 +1 +3 +3 +2 L4 +1 +1 0/+1 +1 +1 -2 +1 +1 0/+1 0/+1 +1 +2 +3 -1 -1 +2 -1/+1 +2 +1 +1 F1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 -1/0 -1/0 +2 +2 +2 +2 -1/+1 +1 +1 -1/+1 +1 0/+1 +1 +1 F2 -1/+1 -1/+1 -1/+1 -1/+1 -1/+1 +1 -1/+1 -1 -1 -1/0 -1/0 +2 -1 +1 +2 -1 +1 -1 -1 F3 +3 +3 +1 +2 -2 -2 -1/0 -1/0 +3 +3 +2 +2 -1/+1 -1/+1 +1 +1 +2 +2 F4 -1/+1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 -1/+1 0/+1 0/+1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 F5 +1 +3 +2 0/+1 +3 +3 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +3 0/+1 +3 +1 0/+1 F6 +1 +1 +2 +1 +2 +1 +1 +1 -1 -1 +2 +2 +1 +1 F7 +1 +1 +2 +1 +2 +1 +1 +2 -2/+2 -2 -1/+1 -1 +2 +1 +3 +1 C1 +2 +2 +2 +2 +2 -1 -1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +2 +1 -1/+1 -1/+1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +3 +3 +3 +3 C2 -1 +3 +3 +2 +1 +1 +1 +3 +3 +2 C3 -1/+1 -1/+1 +2 +2 +2 +2 +2 +3 +2 +1 +2 +3 +3 +3 +3 C4 -2 -2 -1 0/+1 0/+1 -2 +3 +3 C5 +1 +1 +1 +1 +2 -1/+1 0/+1 +1 +1 +1 -1/+1 -1/+1 -1/+1 +3 +1 +1 +3 +1 C6 +1 +2 -1/+1 -1/+1 +3 +3 0/+1 +1 -2/+2 +3 +1 +1 +2 +1 +2 +2 +2 +1 0/+1 +1 Screening matrix What happens to objective x → (affected) If we make progress on objective y ↓(affec ng)
  16. 16. 16 Nexus critical goals (hotspots) E1 W1 L1 C2 W3 W6 W5 W4 L2 L3 L4 F2 F7 C1 C3 C4 C5 C6 E10 E8 E5 F1 F5 F4 W2 F3 E7 NEXUS CRITICAL OBJECTIVE (E1) AND RELATED NEXUS CRITICAL SYSTEM (E1 + DIRECT INTERACTIONS) NEXUS CRITICAL OBJECTIVE (W2) AND RELATED NEXUS CRITICAL SYSTEM (W2 + DIRECT INTERACTIONS) -2 -2 -1 -1 -1/+2 +1 -1 -1/+2 -1/0 -2+2 -1/+2 +1 -1 0/+1 -1/+2 -1/+1 +1 -1 +1 +1 -1 +2 -2 +1 -2 +1 -1 -3 -1 -3 -1/+1 -1/+1 0/+1 -1 -2 -1/+1 -1/+1 +2 +3 +1 +1 +1 +2 +1 +2 +2 -1 +1 -2 +2 +2 -1/+2 +2 -1/+1 +3 +1 0/+1 +1 -2 -1/+1 -1/+1 F6 +1 +1
  17. 17. 17 Level of integration of E1 and W2 in policy documents Reference in renewables (E1) policy documents to … Water 2-3 Land 3 Food and Agriculture 2-3 Climate 3 Reference to W2 in policy documents of… Land 1-2 Energy 2-3 Food and Agriculture 3 Climate 1-2 E1 affecting NX W2 affected by the NX 0 = no integration 1 = low integration 2 = moderate integration 3 = strong integration
  18. 18. 18 Vertical coherence E1 and W2 with international policies • E1 and W2 generally coherent with global policies (SDGs, UNFCCC, UNEP, UNCCD, etc.) • Effects of E1 on food security and consumer food prices are weakly addressed in EU policy (key target in SDGs) • Social impacts of E1 on competition for land, water and other natural resources in developing countries not mentioned in EU policy • Water footprints of mitigation alternatives mentioned by UNEP but not by UNFCCC and EU nexus policy docs
  19. 19. 19 What can we tell policy-makers? • More synergies than conflicts: coherence on paper > problems arise in implementation • E1, E5, F2, C4 can negatively affect NX > trade-offs • W6, L1,L2, E7, E8, F3, F4, F5, F6,C1, C6 > if pursued with integrated policies could have a wide range of positive effects in the NX • W2 can benefit from an integrated policy approach in the NX • EU policies for biofuels need to integrate global goals of food security, consumer food prices and social impacts of competition for resources
  20. 20. 20 About the method • Scoring system works but time consuming: wide range of expertise required to score interactions; interpretation and context crucial for results • Network representation is useful addition to identify indirect interactions; if representing more than two objectives at once it becomes less readable • Checking which policy documents acknowledge synergies and trade-offs gives a deeper understanding of policy coherence than only scoring interactions
  21. 21. 21 What’s next? • Discuss scoring and results with stakeholders • How synergies are exploited and conflict addressed in implementation practices? • Several crucial EU policy reviews (by 2020) offer window of opportunity to integrate project findings in policy discussion
  22. 22. For further information please consult www.sim4nexus.eu, follow us at @SIM4NEXUS Thanks for your attention! stefania.munaretto@pbl.nl

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