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Organizational Social Context


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Presentation to SIKM Leaders Community on October 18, 2916 by Al Simard

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Organizational Social Context

  1. 1. Organizational Social Context Albert Simard President, Integrated Knowledge ServicesPresented to: SIKM, Oct 18, 2016
  2. 2. Organizational Structures Context Interactions ManagementResearch Governance Network Servers Desktops Security Content Flow Services Interfaces Knowledge Social Business Technology Organizational Outputs 2
  3. 3. Social Interaction Framework Interests Mutual Autonomous Work Group Community Network Conversation Posting Publication Purchasing Contracts Merger Sports Business Military Goals Compatible Conflicting Collaboration peer production partnership approach high trust diverse, synergistic Sharing leverage knowledge passive approach some trust benign, supportive Negotiation mutual agreement adversarial approach some trust structured, formal Competition defence or victory aggressive approach no trust secretive, hostile Unclear 3
  4. 4. 18 Primary Social Science Authors Reviewed* • Individual trust: Mayer, et. al. (1995); Stoyko (2013) • Organizational trust: Covey (2006); Kimmel (2014) • Societal trust: Schneier (2012) • Engagement: Pink (2009); Stoyko (2010); Gebauer and Lowman (2008) • Communities of Practice: Wegner et. al. (2002); St. Onge and Wallace (2003) • Social interaction: Simard, (2013) • Knowledge management: Dalkir (2005); Simard and Jourdeuil (2013) • Emotional intelligence: Cooper and Sawaf (1996); Cherniss and Goleman (2001) • Organizational culture: Kotter and Heskett (1992); Kotter (2002); Cox (1993) • Leadership: Zand (1997) 4* Total of 75 authors referenced
  5. 5. Literature Survey Results • 1,200 terms and phrases found • 90% used only once; 5% used twice • Only a handful used 5 times or more • Little consensus in the literature • Little holistic understanding • Little help for describing KM social context 5
  6. 6. Organizational Social Context Landscape 6 ethics actions behave
  7. 7. Organizing Process • Create lists of terms by author • Find related terms (similar, contrasting, sequential) • Classify terms (attributes, indicators, actions) • Organize into named groups • Add terms to small groups • Split and rename large groups • Organize into framework 7
  8. 8. Definitions • Criteria: Name of a group of terms that captures the essence of what makes the group a whole. • Attribute: Characteristic of a criteria that is normally not observable or manageable. • Indicator: Characteristic of a criteria that is normally observable and manageable. • Action: Executing a management decision to undertake an activity that affects an indicator. Individual criteria are not defined (what they are). They are described (what they look like) through the set of terms that are associated with the criteria. 8
  9. 9. Social Context Framework Summary • Situation 1 Component; 7 Criteria • Scale 3 Components; 18 Criteria • Interaction 4 Components; 18 Criteria • Trust 6 components; 34 Criteria Totals 14 Components; 77 Criteria; 1900 terms used (overlap) 9
  10. 10. Organizational Social Context Framework Organization Group Individual Trust Factors Criteria Indicators Management 10 Leadership
  11. 11. Prioritizing Decision Model Holistic approach, one criteria at a time 11 Flow through Action ? Yes No Legend Start End Ind. Mgt. Ind. Ind. Mgt. Mgt.
  12. 12. Interaction Context Components Previous Factor Negotiation Collaboration Sharing Next Factor Competition 3 criteria 6 criteria 5 criteria 4 criteria 12
  13. 13. Sharing Context Prioritization Next Component Sharing Situation Actions Sharing Environment Actions Sharing Motivation Actions Management Sharing Situation Indicators Sharing Environment Indicators Sharing Motivation Indicators IndicatorCriteria Sharing Situation Sharing Environment Sharing Motivation low low high high low high Previous Component Priority 13
  14. 14. Sharing Indicators & Management Criteria Indicators* Management* Sharing Situation Content transactions Autonomous participants Similar interests One-to-one / One-to-many Provider / User Author / Requestor Source / Destination Sharing / Exchange Explicit / Tacit Implement sharing methods Train individuals on using methods Communicate sharing goals Provide opportunities for sharing Support, facilitate, promote sharing Provide sharing sites, places Develop reciprocity markets Facilitate finding expertise, sources Sharing Environment Sharing culture Level of trust Safe sharing environment Individual privacy Content security Author recognition Provide a safe environment Implement sharing guidelines Establish sharing norms Demonstrate sharing benefits Recognize authors, sources Respect intellectual property rights Sharing Motivation Sharing incentives Sharing, exchange activity Promote content use Control, hoarding Reciprocity mechanisms Internal markets Provide sharing incentives Promote, encourage sharing Leaders practice good sharing Reward good sharing behavior Discourage poor sharing behavior Censure, sanction hoarding * (/) indicates contrasting terms; (,) indicates similar terms; (-) indicates sequential terms. 14
  15. 15. Scale Context Components Previous Factor Individuals Groups Organization Next Factor 7 criteria 5 criteria 6 criteria
  16. 16. Organizational Scale Context Prioritization Organizational Culture Actions Controlling Culture Actions Enabling Culture Actions Culture Change Actions Management Organizational Culture Indicators Controlling Culture Indicators Enabling Culture Indicators Culture Change Indicators Indicator Culture Change Criteria Organizational Culture Controlling Culture Enabling Culture Next Component low low high high high low low high Previous Component Priority Employee Practices Cultural Leadership Cultural Leadership Indicators Cultural Leadership Actions low low Employee Practice Indicators Employee Practice Actions high high
  17. 17. Organizational Scale Attributes, Indicators & Management (1) Criteria / Attributes Indicators* Management* Organizational Culture Shared values, norms, attitudes Shared vision, ideology, beliefs Shared assumptions, models Shared principles, practices Organizational memory, essence Common direction Diversity, differences Social environment, context Symbols have meaning Perceptions Social differentiation Social behavior Rituals, artifacts Transmitted through stories Social practices, pressure Corporate understanding Symbolic actions Leaders provide cues Decisions communicate values Leaders telegraph values Rewards send messages Praise / criticism show values Reward desired behavior Practice espoused values Promote shared values Promote desired behavior Match words and practices Model values and behavior Increase cultural awareness Increase understanding Communicate values Recognize accomplishments Mentor new employees Controlling Culture Authoritative hierarchy Resistant to change Laws, rules, policies Inflexible structure Institutions Morality Intergroup conflict Prejudice, ethnocentricity Common responsibility Organizational structure Central goals Stability, order Institutional bias Command, control Compliance, enforcement Security Pluralism / monolithic Bureaucracy Mercenary Fragmented Arrogance Insular, intolerance Discrimination, stereotyping Social contract, moral pressure Institutional pressure Loopholes, interpretation Implement rules, codes Match strategy to culture Develop policies, Guidelines Balance pressures Apply proportional penalties Clarify expectations Require compliance Issue regulations Prevention, coercion Detection Intervention Recovery Punish, penalize wrongdoing 17
  18. 18. Organizational Scale Attributes, Indicators & Management (2) Criteria / Attributes Indicators* Management* Enabling Culture Responsible autonomy Adaptive, agile Values, ethics Social responsibility Environmental responsibility Continuous learning Social development Sense-making mechanism Binds the organization Stable but not static Culture evolves naturally Good corporate citizenship Delegated decisions Negotiated agreements Creative, innovative Holistic perspective Multicultural, diverse Network structure Consensus building Freely shared information Frequent input, feedback Collaborative work Informal integration Be environmentally responsible Provide guidelines Have mutual goals, expectations Manage with empathy, honesty Promote sharing, collaboration Create safe-fail environment Encourage innovation Stress employee ownership Match work to passions Earn trust continuously Seek feedback, listen to ideas Ask for help & advice Culture Change Change weakens culture Passed between generations Generational differences Cross-generation transfer Interdependence Culture perpetuates itself Social interactions over time Underlying drivers Lengthy process Evolution, cultural drift Changing environment Leadership is key Change is hard, difficult No pain, no change Culture linked to power Power is required Must change everything Management Organizational readiness Positive role models Resistance to change Create sense of urgency Communicate need for change Analyze need, research Establish guiding coalition Solicit political sponsorship Create vision, strategy Empower, involve employees Short-term wins Consolidate, reinforce gains, integrate in systems Anchor, institutionalize change 18
  19. 19. Organizational Scale Attributes, Indicators & Management (3) Criteria / Attributes Indicators* Management* Employee Practices Worker relationships, attitudes Diversity Demographics, trends Retention Work experience Organizational knowledge Work-life balance Employee well-being Desire to learn Worker interactions Insight to attitudes Hiring, staffing Work environment Organizational awareness Involvement Work assignments Career advancement Know demographics & trends Gather employee input Measure diversity, interactions Employee retention practices Engage employees Match employees to culture Match work to proficiency Be interested in employees Value, appreciate employees Cultural Leadership Emotional intelligence Charisma, presence Leadership style Accountability, responsibility Organizational role Situational pressure Broad view, vision Leading, managing Understanding, expertise Confidence, trust Risk tolerance Previous experience Belief system Self-interest Power, agenda Decision making Goal-setting Approving Endorsing, promoting Guiding Leading Supporting, enabling Challenging Dictating, directing Ordering, controlling Commanding Consulting Concurring Enforcing Reviewing Approve, endorse behavior Lead by example, guidance Promote desired behavior Seek counsel, collaborate Consider expert advice Champion ongoing education Personally interact with workers Emphasize growth opportunities Provide a safe-fail environment Treat people with respect Communicate honestly, often Give people freedom Be fair with everyone Inspire employees Provide incentives 19
  20. 20. Trust Context Components Previous Factor Positive Individual Trust Context Negative Individual Trust Context Group Trust Context Positive Organizational Trust Context Negative Organizational Trust Context Trust Leadership Context Next Factor 4 criteria 4 criteria 4 criteria 7 criteria 8 criteria 7 criteria
  21. 21. Positive Individual Trust Context Prioritization Next Component Similarity Actions Positive Perception Actions Positive Reputation Actions Positive Trust Behavior Actions Management Similarity Indicators Positive Perception Indicators Positive Reputation Indicators Positive Trust Behavior Indicators IndicatorCriteria Similarity Positive Perception Positive Reputation Positive Trust Behavior Previous Component low low high high high low low high Priority
  22. 22. Criteria Indicators* Management* Similarity Shared values Shared mental models Shared assumptions Convergent interests Consensus, agreement Solidarity, cohesion Create mutual agenda Balance similarity / diversity Promote teamwork, cooperation Ensure participant equality Encourage meritocracy of ideas Validate models, assumptions Positive Perception Perceived safety Willingness to trust Trustor / trustee views Different perceptions Provide a safe environment Recognize different propensities Adapt to different relationships Positive Reputation Good reputation Integrity, honesty Reliable High confidence Integrity, trustworthiness Accomplishments High productivity Competence, ability Demonstrate respect Establish feedback process Recognize - act on feedback Right wrongs Deliver results, keep commitments Practice accountability Confront reality Positive Trust Behavior Openness, honesty, candor Participation, commitment Dialogue, conversation Loyalty, fidelity Compassion, caring, Benevolence, forgiving Judgment Dialogue, conversation Be transparent, be open Be honest, full disclosure No hidden agenda, talk straight Be caring Don’t disclose private information Show loyalty Listen first Reward good trust behavior 22 Positive Individual Trust Indicators & Management
  23. 23. Using the Framework To Identify Priority Issues • Consider the whole, one criteria at a time • Senior group may eliminate unimportant groups and criteria • Host a workshop to prioritize criteria • Divide the criteria into multiple teams • Each team prioritizes their criteria • Teams report their priorities and reasons • Workshop selects one to three top criteria 23
  24. 24. To Summarize • Terminology is highly diverse • Holistic understanding is limited • Social context is complex • Social context can be structured • Key issues can be identified Framework is only a beginning; much work is needed 24