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Rene Manenti - SIHMA Seminar 2 - 30 July 2014

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The human cost of undocumented migration, a European overview.

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Rene Manenti - SIHMA Seminar 2 - 30 July 2014

  1. 1. Detections of illegal border-crossing along the EU’s external borders 2012 72 437 2013 107 365 2009: 104 599 2010: 104 060 2011: 141 051 Arab spring
  2. 2. 2013 was also characterized by three phenomena: 1) A large increase in illegal border-crossings by Syrians, subsequently applying for asylum (Eastern Mediterranean route and Central Mediterranean)
  3. 3. 2013 was also characterized by three phenomena: 2) A steady flow of migrants departing from North Africa (Libya and Egypt) putting their life at risk to cross the Mediterranean Sea
  4. 4. 2013 was also characterized by three phenomena: 3) A sharp increase in detections reported by Hungary at its land border with Serbia (mostly in January-June)
  5. 5. 52% of total detections in 2013 (55 400) Afghans Eritreans Syrians 25 500 (1/4 of tot.) their detections at the EU border tripled between 2012 and 2013
  6. 6. Central Mediterranean route 40 304 (38%) detections of illegal border-crossings in 2013 mostly from Lybia and Egypt
  7. 7. Eastern Mediterranean route 24 800 detections of illegal border-crossings in 2013 lowest level reported since 2009 Western Balkan route about 6 391 in 2012 – 19 951 in 2013 Hungarian-Serbian land border
  8. 8. Eastern Mediterranean route 2011 57 025 2012 37 214 2013 24 799
  9. 9. Eastern Mediterranean route 2011 57 025 2012 37 214 2013 24 799 - strengthening of border surveillance on the Greek side, including the completion of a fence along the 12-kilometre land connection with Turkey
  10. 10. Eastern Mediterranean route 2011 57 025 2012 37 214 2013 24 799 - deployment of additional staff to patrol the area of the River Evros marking the land border between Turkey and Greece
  11. 11. Eastern Mediterranean route 2011 57 025 2012 37 214 2013 24 799 - Greece took a series of measures inland (i.e. changes in the asylum policy and return measures)
  12. 12. Western Mediterranean/African route 7 100 detections of illegal border-crossings in 2013 more effective prevention of departures at sea by the Moroccan authorities and enhanced prevention measures in the Mediterranean Sea
  13. 13. Detections of illegal border-crossing in 2013 with percentage change on 2012 by route and top nationality detected
  14. 14. Central Mediterranean route In 2008, nearly 40 000 migrants were detected, mostly near Lampedusa and Malta. Most migrants were nationals from Tunisia, Nigeria, Somalia and Eritrea. This traffic stopped almost completely however in 2009 after the Italian government signed a bilateral agreement with Libya
  15. 15. Central Mediterranean route Civil unrest erupting in Tunisia and Libya in 2011 saw a massive spike in the number of migrants along this route (over 64 000 arrivals for the whole year). Sub Saharan Africans arrived on Lampedusa and to a smaller degree on Sicily and Malta. Many were forcibly expelled by the Gaddafi regime. Most of these migrants applied for asylum in Italy.
  16. 16. Central Mediterranean route With the collapse of the Gaddafi regime in August of 2011 the migratory pressure had dropped almost entirely, and detections in 2012 remained very low. 2012
  17. 17. Central Mediterranean route Second striking peak in the arrivals of migrants departing from Libya. The dramatic conditions of the overcrowded boats used by the migrants were particularly visible in October 2013 when 366 migrants lost their lives near Lampedusa when their boat suddenly capsized. Top three nationalities using this route: Syrians, Eritreans and Somali nationals arriving to Italy and Malta from Libya. 2012 2013
  18. 18. Illegal border crossings on the Central Mediterranean route (including Apulia and Calabria) in numbers
  19. 19. 2013 345 000 detections of illegal stay in the EU: generally stable trend 2012 353 991 asylum applications Syrians most common nationality, nearly double the already very high number of 2012 2013
  20. 20. Recommendations: •Steer away from excessively militarised and security-centered approaches •Highlight the importance of good governance, and of good migration governance more specifically
  21. 21. Recommendations: •Recognize the importance and challenges that South-South and intra-African migration represent for countries in the southern Mediterranean, rather than focusing solely on the (much smaller) flows towards the EU
  22. 22. Recommendations: •Encourage further research on the migration-development nexus and explore the positive impact of human mobility on socioeconomic development •Encourage EU Member States to facilitate and speed up their procedures to grant asylum and EU protected status, whilst better differentiating between refugees and irregular migrants

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