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Using ethanol for domestic energy supply in Nigeria

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ANGA, SIMEON BOMA CHAIRMAN CASSAVA AGRO INDUSTRIES – 03-2012
 Ethanol as fuel for stoves,
generators cars, buses
and lamps will be
available everywhere (as
telephone handsets now
are, yet much cheaper…
Imagine a soon coming Africa
where…
Our cars will run on
GASOHOL: A cleaner
fuel made from a
blend of Ethanol &
Gasoline:
Why the use of ethanol for Cooking?
The rationale (Statement of Problems)
 The costs of fossil fuels are rising and so are the
budgets of most African Countries who spend an
average of 55-60% of national budget on
importation and subsidization of liquid
petroleum fuels for their domestic economies.
 African countries cannot cope with this rising
cost. Most African economies may experience
stagnation & worsen the poverty trap except
alternative bio fuels are produced to substitute
the unsustainable imports of petroleum.
 Nigerian Goverment to commence Deregulation
in the 1st quarter of 2011
WHY USE ETHANOL FOR COOKING?
 Blackened pots, walls and ceiling
 Health: eye irritation, coughing
 Long distances for gathering 6-8
hours or more
 Rape, beatings, intimidation, threat
of murder, theft
 Falls and injuries, dehydration,
injuries to back, legs and kidneys
 Lack of wood
 Lack of time for education, income
generation, or access to services
Long lines await delivery of kerosene in a
fuel station.
Replacing kerosene with ethanol is
financially more rewarding than replacing
gasoline, since Nigeria pays more for
kerosene.
The retail fuel market in Nigeria has been
plagued by high prices, scarcities, and
quality problems. Purchasing fuels from
abroad creates a FOREX problem.
Mother and child in a smoky
Kitchen cooking in Nigeria
Extremely high particulate matter and CO. kills
360,000 women and children every year in Sub
Saharan Africa (WHO 2006)

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Using ethanol for domestic energy supply in Nigeria

  • 1. ANGA, SIMEON BOMA CHAIRMAN CASSAVA AGRO INDUSTRIES – 03-2012
  • 2.  Ethanol as fuel for stoves, generators cars, buses and lamps will be available everywhere (as telephone handsets now are, yet much cheaper… Imagine a soon coming Africa where… Our cars will run on GASOHOL: A cleaner fuel made from a blend of Ethanol & Gasoline:
  • 3. Why the use of ethanol for Cooking? The rationale (Statement of Problems)  The costs of fossil fuels are rising and so are the budgets of most African Countries who spend an average of 55-60% of national budget on importation and subsidization of liquid petroleum fuels for their domestic economies.  African countries cannot cope with this rising cost. Most African economies may experience stagnation & worsen the poverty trap except alternative bio fuels are produced to substitute the unsustainable imports of petroleum.  Nigerian Goverment to commence Deregulation in the 1st quarter of 2011
  • 4. WHY USE ETHANOL FOR COOKING?  Blackened pots, walls and ceiling  Health: eye irritation, coughing  Long distances for gathering 6-8 hours or more  Rape, beatings, intimidation, threat of murder, theft  Falls and injuries, dehydration, injuries to back, legs and kidneys  Lack of wood  Lack of time for education, income generation, or access to services
  • 5. Long lines await delivery of kerosene in a fuel station. Replacing kerosene with ethanol is financially more rewarding than replacing gasoline, since Nigeria pays more for kerosene. The retail fuel market in Nigeria has been plagued by high prices, scarcities, and quality problems. Purchasing fuels from abroad creates a FOREX problem.
  • 6. Mother and child in a smoky Kitchen cooking in Nigeria Extremely high particulate matter and CO. kills 360,000 women and children every year in Sub Saharan Africa (WHO 2006)
  • 7. The Main Sources of cooking Fuel in Nigeria Source National Bayelsa Delta Rivers Firewood 69.98 65.3 70.2 67.6 Charcoal 0.84 – 0.6 0.4 Kerosene 26.55 33.1 26.4 28.1 LPG 1.11 0.3 1.4 1.8 Electricity 0.52 0.3 1.4 1.8 Crop residue 0.9 – – – Animal waste 0.07 – 0.3 0.4 Others 0.84 1.11 0.3 1.4 Total 100 100 100 100 Source: FOS: Nigeria Poverty Profile 2004
  • 8. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Dung Crop Wood Kerosene Gas Alcohol Electricity PM10(g/meal) CO(g/meal) Emissions Along the Energy Ladder CO (g/meal) PM10 Our tests show that alcohol fuels used in the CleanCook stove are the cleanest and safest alternative for the 80%+ of homes in the developing world that do not have adequate or reliable access to electricity. PM10 are small soot particles 10 μ in size or less. PM10 indicates that even smaller, more dangerous particles are present.
  • 9. The Cassakero VISION “To provide Nigeria with a locally made bio- ethanol Cooking fuel and appliances for household use that will be available, affordable and accessible, creating new jobs and reducing poverty while enhancing food and energy security in the nation without harming the environment.”
  • 10. PROJECT MISSION “To establish a dedicated national bio-ethanol output of 4 million liters per day produced from small scale-bio ethanol refineries to provide the household Cooking fuel requirement of 4 million families in four years (2011-2015).”
  • 11. The Project To establish an integrated pilot project to demonstrate the feasibility and economic viability of ethanol production from farm gate base refineries using energy crops and its use as clean low cost cooking and household fuel. Capacity: 1,000 Liters/day Providing fuel for: 1,000 household 50 Out growers: 100 hectares Feedstock: Non Edible Cassava, sweet sorghum Clean Cook Stoves: 1,000
  • 12. Phase/year Number of Plants Cassava requirement (tons per day) Output (Liters) per day 1 (March. 2011- March. 2012) 400 2,300 400,000 2 (March. 2012- March. 2013) 1,200 5,000 1,200,000 3 (March. 2013- March. 2014) 1,200 5,000 1,200,000 4 (March. 2014- March. 2015) 1,200 5,000 1,200,000 Total 4,000 4,000,000 Cassakero Implementing Program : Commercialization phase 2011-2015
  • 13. Project cost Project cost $230,000 (N34.5 Million)the cost covers: Project Land N1 Million Building & Borehole: N2.5Million Naira Complete small scale Ethanol refinery N18 Million 1,000 Stoves: N10 million Working Capital: N3 Million
  • 14. Typical cost breakdown for cassava-based ethanol production – Feedstock costs 49,91% Electricity 3,96% Fuels 16,33% Waste management 0,25% Water 0,12% Enzymes 2,33% Yeast 0,38% Chemicals 1,90% Denaturant 4,49% Maintenance 3,33% Labor 2,50% Administrative costs 2,50% Other costs 0.36% Depreciation 11.65%
  • 15. Cost Comparison and Viability Analysis of Feedstock for Ethanol Production Cassava Sweet Potato Sweet Sorghum Crop yield (t/ha) 35 40 40 Ethanol yield(liters/t feedstock) 180 125 40 Ethanol yield (liters/ha) 6,300 5,000 1,600 Ethanol production cost (N/liter) 54.7 59.3 56.5 Selling price (N/liter)* 80.0 80.5 80.0 Gross profit (N/liter) 34.7 *Mark up 40% production cost All prices are indicative with specifics established only after a project feasibility study
  • 16. 16 Liquefaction module Fermentation module Distillation module Dehydration module 1 Million Liter Modular Biorefinery
  • 18. The Distribution of the Liquid The Ethanol to serve as a cooking & Household fuel
  • 21. We must mechanize!!!  Don’t use heavy machinery in fragile soils  Promote use of light machinery such the rugged power tiller and accessories 1ha/hour/3 persons
  • 22. Planting 1 ha / hour / 3 persons Manual planting 1 ha / day (12 persons) Single Line Planter (India)
  • 23. Transportation & Haulage  Capacity1.5 t  Type:Non Tipping & Tipping  Accessories Required Hitch Bracket Assy.  Handle Weight Assy.  Fuel Consumption1.0 - 1.25 ltr/hr
  • 24. The Cassakero Cooking fuelCassakero is safe and easy to handle and user friendly. it is less volatile and as a bio-fuel, it is easily absorbed into the environment with no known health hazard. The ethanol will be denatured with Bitrex, a bitter substance to render it undrinkable, and a colorant to give it a distinguishing color.
  • 25. 25 EXPECTED PROFILE OF ETHANOL FUEL  Ethanol content (at 250) 98 – 99%  Methanol (g/100L) - 3 max  Ethyl Carbamate (g/100L) - 150 max  Ethyl Acetate (g/100L of ethanol) - 150 max  Toluene (g/100L) - Nil  Benzene (g/100L) - Nil  Cyclohexane - Nil  Zinc - 5mg/L max  Copper - 2mg/L max  Lead - 0.2mg/L max  Cadmium - 0.1mg/L max  Appearance - Clear, Colourless Liquid  Odour - Characteristic of Spirit  Taste - Bitter as a result of the Bitrex  Denaturant Bitrex 2.5ppm level
  • 26. THE USE OF ETHANOL AS A COOKING FUEL USING THE CLEAN COOK STOVES
  • 27. The Stove Technical SpecificationsTechnical Specifications -Width:596:mm -Depth:326mm -Height:137mm fuel tank:1,21 -Burn time: approximately 4.5hrs. At maximum effect.
  • 28. ORIGO C100,220-240V, electric & ethanol stove The electric & ethanol stove Combination ORIGO C200,220-240V, electric & ethanol double stove
  • 29. Ethanol Stove & Oven Combination ORIGO 6000, oven & stove combination ORIGO 6100, oven Only
  • 30. The CleanCook fueling system: The fuel is charged into the canister as a liquid and adsorbed onto a fiber filling. The fuel will not spill and cannot explode. The result it is a very safe stove.
  • 31. The CleanCook stove will make it possible for ethanol to enter into and take command of the household energy market—a new and important opportunity for CAR.
  • 32. The other Applications of Ethanol as a household fuel
  • 34. Bio-electricity 4 liters hydrated ethanol = 1 hour electricity 110-220 v ; 8.5 kwa 400 light bulbs Crops processing at village level Improved quality of life in poor rural households
  • 36. Ethanol powered Shower with heater The shower head
  • 37. Ethanol opens a world of new Possibilities
  • 38. Rural/Agro-Industrial Employment “Energy Poverty” Reduction Safe Usage for Women & Children (Non-Spill & Non-Explosive) Clean Cooking Environment (No Smoke, Fumes or Smell) Adaptable to Existing Wood fuel & Kerosene Stoves/Cooking Practices Social Impacts & Benefits
  • 39. Bio-fuels Initiative in Africa Key Stakeholders 1. Energy security & diversification 2. Higher convertible currency exports 3. New revenue stream for agro- industries & farmers 4. Carbon finance 5. Jobs 6. Local rural energy needs Private sector Commercial Banks NGOs Civil Society Gov Development Banks Development Partners Sub-regional, Regional. & International Institutions Research
  • 40. For Further Details Contact: THE PROJECT CONSULTANTS: : Mr. Boma Simeon Anga Executive Chairman Cassava Agro industries Services Limited House 32, 351 Road, off 3rd Avenue, Gwarinpa Estate, Abuja. Tel: +234-(0)803-303-1097, (9)290-7366 Fax: +234-(9)222-4046 WEBSITE: www.cassavaagroindustries.com e-mail: bomaanga@yahoo.com, boma@cassavaagroindustries.com