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Challenges and Opportunities for Agrican Urban Agriculture

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Presented at the workshop "Urban and peri-urban agriculture in low-income countries" organised by SLU Global and SIANI. Read more here: http://www.siani.se/theme-groups/sustainable-agricultural-production-and-food-security

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Challenges and Opportunities for Agrican Urban Agriculture

  1. 1. SWEDISH AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY (SLU) UPPSALA 12 FEBRUARY 2015 CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNTIES FOR AFRICAN URBAN AGRICULTURE DIANA LEE-SMITH, MAZINGIRA INSTITUTE, NAIROBI
  2. 2. CONTENTS 1.  Challenges and drivers of UA 2.  The data: scope & impact of UA in Africa 3.  Health and UA book summary 4.  Types of UA 5.  UA, poverty and hunger 6.  Sustainability: wastes as nutrients 7.  Shifts in African urban food policy
  3. 3. 1. CHALLENGES & DRIVERS OF UA SOME COMMON ASSUMPTIONS •  Agriculture is the antithesis of the urban and UA competes with rural agriculture •  Peri-urban (UPA) may be OK but UA is not, mainly due to the space challenge •  Poverty is the main driver of UA and most practitioners are poor •  UA brings many human health risks
  4. 4. DISCUSSION OF CHALLENGES •  UA is a fact and research helps to understand it, it is not opposed to rural agriculture or an alternative, there is a rural-urban continuum •  The relationship between poverty and UA is complex •  Health risks and benefits of UA are even more complex; but benefits outweigh risks
  5. 5. CHALLENGES & DRIVERS OF UA ANALYSIS BASED ON DATA •  Main driver of UA is urban growth and food demand – subsistence and small entrepreneurs •  Proportionately more middle income do UA than poor – open space v. backyard farmers •  Urban food insecurity (of the poor and women) is the main challenge for urban and peri-urban farming systems (UPUFS) •  Intensification is the main opportunity for UA due to the urban nutrient surplus (NPK)
  6. 6. 2. THE DATA: SCOPE & IMPACT OF UA IN AFRICA • Over  500  million   urban  Africans  by   2020   • Nearly  40%  depend   partly  on  urban   agriculture  for  their   food  -­‐  200  million  by   2020  
  7. 7. THE DATA: HOUSEHOLDS ENGAGED IN UA IN SOME AFRICAN CITIES TOWN COUNTRY FARMING HHLDS SURVEY DATE POPN. THEN 11 SADC 22% (of poor) 2008 varied 21 West Africa 20-50% 2006 varied Kampala Uganda 30% 1991 774,000 Kampala Uganda 49% 2003 1,200,000 Morogoro Tanzania 90% 2002 228,000 Nakuru Kenya 35% 1998 239,000 Dar-es-Salaam Tanzania 36% (crops) 1995 2,500,000 Nairobi Kenya 20% (crops) 1985 1,000,000 Addis Ababa Ethiopia 17% (veg) 1983 1,400,000
  8. 8. THE URBAN - PERI-URBAN CONTINUUM •  the proportion of households farming and the area farmed decrease from peri-urban to urban •  these variables also decrease with increasing size of the urban area •  thus density and land availability are important drivers, in tension with demand
  9. 9. Map of Kampala District showing studied parishes along the Urban-Peri Urban Continuum
  10. 10. FACTS BASED ON RESEARCH BY CGIAR, AFSUN ETC African Urban Harvest Agriculture in the Cities of Cameroon, Kenya, and Uganda Gordon Prain, Nancy Karanja and Diana Lee-Smith, Editors Published by Springer, New York 2010 And Fountain Press,Kampala, 2011
  11. 11. 3. HEALTH & UA BOOK SUMMARY •  Healthy city harvests: Generating evidence to guide policy on UA •  Donald Cole, Diana Lee-Smith, George Nasinyama (Eds) •  A comprehensive study of UA benefits and risks in one city: Kampala •  Out of print but pdf downloadable at www.uharvest.org •  pu Published 2008
  12. 12. HCH BOOK INTRODUCTION •  Towns have been places of food production since the dawn of human history •  The separation of food production from human habitation occurred mainly as a result of the industrialization of agriculture •  Chapters on community, scientific and government perspectives on UA in Kampala
  13. 13. FOOD SECURITY, NUTRITION & UA •  X-sectional survey with questionnaire, dietary recording (household) and physical (clinic) measures •  Association between household food security and urban farming (logistic regression). Food security greater with larger size of land being farmed, raising pigs as part of UA, 2ndy education of the primary caregiver - interactions Figure 2: The Interaction between Size of land and Asset score in Model 1 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Asset Score PredictedHFSScore <=1/4 acre >1/4 acre
  14. 14. Taking height as part of child nutrition assess- ment
  15. 15. FINDINGS OF FNS & UA STUDY •  Path model of links among food & nutrition security indicators indicates animal source foods benefit child health •  It is suggested that keeping urban livestock benefits child health and nutrition •  Women’s education benefits food security and child health •  Land access for UA benefits food security
  16. 16. DEMONSTRATING HEALTHY FOOD CHOICES
  17. 17. HEALTHY HORTICULTURE IN CITIES •  Assessment of heavy metal contamination of food crops through air, water and soils –  30 m danger zone from roads, wash, use varieties •  Estimating children’s exposures to organic chemical contaminants –  Avoid wood fuel fires •  Biological hazards associated with vegetables grown on untreated sewage-watered soils –  Cooking eliminates risk
  18. 18. POLICY PRIORITIES 1.  Chemical contaminants a)  Enforce limits on discharge of potentially harmful quantities of heavy metals, especially by large industries b)  Regulate vehicle emissions and continue phase-out of leaded fuel. 2.  Biological contaminants a)  Improve sanitation e.g. ecological sanitation alternatives involving human waste re-use in UA b)  Interrupt contamination at various points, using an array of strategies
  19. 19. MANAGING URBAN LIVESTOCK FOR HEALTH •  Urban chicken and dairy studies show farmers apply risk mitigation strategies especially when water is available and UA is legal •  Consumers avoid risk by boiling milk for tea (95%)
  20. 20. WHAT CAN BE DONE? GENERAL PRINCIPLES •  Governments are obliged to respect the Right to Food, •  Ensure food safety, consistent with government obligations on the Right to Health. •  Create a city Agriculture or Food Department which: –  is aware of the potential food and nutrition security benefits of UA and –  Assists urban farmers in producing nutrient-rich products for home consumption and city markets.
  21. 21. POLICY PRIORITIES 1.  Review the Brazilian Right to Food model which includes UA in support to family farms; 2.  Adopt the framework of Kampala’s four types of UA farm households, ranked by how common they are: 1.  “survival”, 2.  “sufficiency”, 3.  “food security” and 4.  “commercial”; 3.  Target support to households in the “survival” and “sufficiency” categories – especially those headed by women e.g. land access for UA; 4.  Institute appropriate urban planning and tenure measures to support UA
  22. 22. 4. UA, HUNGER AND POVERTY •  Over three quarters of poor people in Southern African cities are food insecure •  More high and middle income do UA than poor (in relation to their numbers) •  UA brings food security and higher incomes •  Urban livestock production brings wealth and healthier children •  The poor are food insecure mainly due to lack of space, living in slums
  23. 23. KIBERA  SLUM  IN  NAIROBI   AND  A  STALL-­‐FED  COW   INSIDE  THE  SETTLEMENT
  24. 24. URBAN FOOD PRODUCTION •  Perishables (fresh vegetables and dairy crucial for nutrition) typify urban production •  UA generates 90% of Dar-es-Salaam’s leafy vegetables and 60% of its milk •  The poor in Yaoundé grow 27% of the leafy vegetables they eat and some made a living selling them. All income groups received more than 20% of their vegetables as gifts from family and friends.
  25. 25. PERI-URBAN CROP-LIVESTOCK FARMER IN YAOUNDE, CAMEROON
  26. 26. 5. TYPES OF UA IN AFRICA CROP PRODUCTION LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION AQUACULTURE VEGETABLE AND PLANT NURSERIES VALUE ADDITION
  27. 27. OPEN SPACE IRRIGATED CROP PRODUCTION ADDIS ABABA
  28. 28. URBAN LIVESTOCK KEEPING IN A NAIROBI LOW INCOME HOUSING AREA
  29. 29. AQUACULTURE USING A COMMUNITY POND
  30. 30. VEGETABLE NURSERY IN A BACKYARD HOME GARDEN – THESE ARE ALSO FOUND ON ROADSIDES, BUT MAINLY FOR ORNAMENTALS
  31. 31. VALUE ADDITION AND MARKETING PROMOTION
  32. 32. FARMERS IN NAIROBI AND CAPE TOWN USE AVAILABLE URBAN SPACE TO GROW AND PROCESS CROPS FOR FOOD AND INCOME
  33. 33. FARMERS IN NAIROBI. KENYA AND KAMPALA, UGANDA OPERATE SMALL DAIRY ENTERPRISES THAT SUPPLY 70% OF THE MILK NEEDS OF CONSUMERS. BUT IT IS HARD FOR THEM TO COMPETE AGAINST THE LARGE ENTERPRISES IN THE POLITICAL AND LEGISLATIVE ARENA
  34. 34. 6. SUSTAINABILITY: USING WASTES AS NUTRIENTS WASTE MATERIAL IS A RESOURCE WASTES ARE USED AND RE-USED IN UA WASTES ARE ORGANIC AND INORGANIC
  35. 35. CITY LEVEL •  Soil fertility is a major problem but $32 million of NPK from biodegradable solid waste “wasted” annually in Nairobi alone •  Re-use of nutrients in waste water seen as the origin of cities and civilization – “the gift of the Nile” •  Ecological city planning of the future to include UA with nutrient cycling
  36. 36. Addis Ababa: the city scale
  37. 37. The “gift of the Nile” is city runoff that produces its food
  38. 38. NEIGHBOURHOOD LEVEL •  Planners can assist high density farmers with manure depots where crop farmers can collect •  Community clean-ups can provide compost •  “Pig-bin” model from war-time UK – food waste separation and street bins
  39. 39. Neighborhood scale Land allocation, manure delivery crop production system (Nakuru, Kenya)
  40. 40. NEIGHBORHOOD SCALE WASTE SYSTEM IN A NAIROBI SLUM: ORGANIC KITCHEN AND CROP WASTES COLLECTED AND MIXED WITH MANURE TO PRODUCE CO-COMPOST THE NEIGHBOURHOOD IS KEPT CLEAN AND FOOD GROWN THROUGH COMMUNITY ORGANIZATION INCLUDING YOUTH MOBILIZATION
  41. 41. HOUSEHOLD LEVEL •  Crop-livestock backyard farms are efficient ecological recycling units •  Domestic waste recycled as fodder •  Manure and crop wastes recycled as fertilizer •  88% efficiency in backyard farms •  17% efficiency in high density slums
  42. 42. BACKYARD CROP-LIVESTOCK FARM: RUN-OFF WITH NUTRIENTS FROM LIVESTOCK WASTES FERTILIZES CROPS
  43. 43. MANURE MANAGEMENT IN NEFSALF MEMBERS’ BACKYARD FARMS, NAIROBI
  44. 44. 7. SHIFTS IN AFRICAN URBAN FOOD POLICY
  45. 45. LOCAL POLICY CASE STUDY •  Until 2013, Nairobi City Council was opposed to urban agriculture •  Under the new Constitution, agriculture is devolved to County governments and the new Nairobi City County supports UA •  Central government developing Urban & Peri-urban Agriculture & Livestock Policy (UPAL) •  Kenya’s Land Policy and Urban Areas Act now include UA
  46. 46. NAIROBI CITY COUNTY •  Beginning 2013 after the last elections, agriculture is managed at the County level & Nairobi has a Directorate of Agriculture •  There is a County Coordinating Unit that convenes all stakeholders, including Nairobi & Environs Food Security, Agriculture and Livestock Forum (NEFSALF)
  47. 47. REGIONAL SHIFT TO UA POLICY? •  Several regional declarations during 2000s •  Kampala passed Ordinances on UA 2006 •  Many cities “permissive but not supportive” of UA •  Research and city exchanges are helping •  Agricultural international cooperation also needs to be supportive by responding to the urban poor food and nutrition needs
  48. 48. INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION AND UA •  UA has not been taken seriously enough by international development agencies, with exception of research support by IDRC •  All initiatives have come from bottom up •  Likewise nutrition has not been a priority, only food production, driven by business •  By involving civil society, the Committee on Food Security is an international mechanism that begins to address these

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