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Kenya Smallholder Agriculture Carbon Finance Project


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Kenya Smallholder Agriculture Carbon Finance Project

  1. 1. Kenya Smallholder AgricultureCarbon Finance ProjectAmos
  2. 2. Outline• Project description: Size, location and ER Value• Methodology: Sustainable Agriculture LandManagement• Monitoring plan• Conclusion
  3. 3. Where and How do we work?Background
  4. 4. Land degradationThe organic matter content of many soils in East Africa hasbeen depleted
  5. 5. Institutionalization: Project Participants• Project proponent: Vi agro forestry• Project developer: Unique Forestry Consultants Ltd.• Technical advisors:JOANNEUM RESEARCH• Finance : World Bank, sida and self• Stakeholders: MOA, KARI, ICRAF, KEFRI, CBOs etc
  6. 6. Public policy• Voluntary Carbon Standard rules– Validation and Approvals of methodology• World bank safeguard policies– ERPA– Environmental and social protection• National government policies– Project approvals– Secured land tenure and carbon rights
  7. 7. Project purpose• Advisory/extension services• Restoring agricultural production, adoptingfarm enterprise approach and reducingclimate change vulnerability– Target cropland management– Livestock management– High carbon sequestration Agro forestry options thatincrease food or incomes as well
  8. 8. 0%5%10%15%20%25%30%35%Practice of no tillageRemoval of ResiduesUse of crop residues fordirect mulchingBurning of residuesDistribute raw manure tothe fieldComposted manure to thefieldUse of cover cropsTerracing of fieldsWater harvestingstructuresAdoption of SALM practices KitaleCurrent practice Future adoptionMatthias Seebauer 2010
  9. 9. Project Area: Piloted in WesternKenya
  10. 10. Western Kenya smallholder agriculture carbon project• Key project features:• Western Kenya, with 6 Divisions 3 each in Kisumuand Kitale (project region: 116,000ha, adoption area:45,000ha, with 60,000 farmers)• Project developer: SCC – VI (Swedish CooperativeCentre – Viagroforestry)• Project roll out plan: 9 years• Average ex-ante estimated SOC sequestration rate:1.37 tCO2 /ha/yr• Total estimated emission reductions over 20 years(2009 – 2029) is about 1.2 million• Transactable VCUs about 618,000 (considering 60 %leakage and non-permanence buffer)• Assumed transaction value (US$4/tCO2): US$2.48 m• Status of the project:• Methodology submitted to VCS• ERPA signed• Implementation activities started in 2009
  11. 11. Methodology• Methodology is called: Adoption of sustainableagricultural land management (SALM)• To be approved by Voluntary Carbon Standard• The methodology is aimed to estimate and monitorgreenhouse gas emissions of project activities thatreduce emissions in agriculture by applying sustainableland management practices (SALM)• Carbon pools– Above ground– Below ground– Soil organic carbon
  12. 12. Transaction costsPlanned Cost Amount (U$)Preparation 50, 000Establishment 50, 000Operation 1, 026, 000Others 172, 000Total 1046,000Carbon payments and co-benefits totals projects values andbenefits
  13. 13. BioCarbon fund (WB)Unique Forestryprogramme officeProject office-PM- DPMField Operation-Head unit-M & EZone 1- Zone coordinatorEnvironment Climatechange-Head-Energy & SLM/seedAdministration-Head- accountant-Casher & HRField staffs perlocationFarmer EnterpriseDevelopment-Head unit- finance coord. &-- capacity BuildingOrganizational structure- 28 field staffs- 6 zonal coordinators- 6 financial field staffsHow are we implementing? SIDA/VI Planterar/LVB/FarmersICRAFCAMCOKARI, Local Gk AND MOAKEFRI/Kenya Seed/Moi UniNEMAParticipatory extensionProvision
  14. 14. Agricultural mitigation potential in Kenya:Commodity SmallholderMixedcroppingsystemMaize BiofuelsCoffee Tea SugarLand (m ha) 3 1.6 0.9 0.15 0.15 0.15GHGmitigationactivitiesSALM:AgronomyNutrient mgmtWater mgmtAgroforestrySet aside landResiduemgmtJatropha/Croton1) Fuelswitch2) AR1) Shadetrees,multiplecropping2)Mulching3)FertilizeruseefficiencyIntercroppingno optionin KenyaInter-1) No/burningofresidues2)Mulchingsystems3)FertilizerrelatedemissionsExistingExtensionservices0 0 0 + ++ +Tech. GHGmitigationpotential in tCO e/ha/y.CO22 – 5 0.5 1 – 122.5 –5.03 – 8 ----- 7.8 in 3years14 in 10years20 in 20yearsEconomicmitigationpotential++ ? ? ++ 0 +
  15. 15. Emissions and Removals in AgriculturalLand ManagementEmissions RemovalsCO2 �Biomass removal�Land clearing�Tree cutting�Soils�Fossil fuel useCarbonSequestration�Trees�Improved soilmanagementCH4 �Manure�Biomass burning�Fossil fuel useN2O�Manure�Fertilizer use�N-fixing species�Biomass burning�Fossil fuel use
  16. 16. SALM technology SALM sub-category AdaptationpotentialMitigation potential Sited literatureAgronomic practices Improved crop varieties, Covercrops and green manure,Multiple cropping, croprotations, intercroppingHigh yields 0.51-1.45 tCO2-eq/ha/yr Follet 2001; Barthés et al 2004 and Freibauer etal 2004 ;Nutrient management Mulching, Improved fallow,Manure management,Composting, Improving fertilizeruse efficiencySoil fertilityimproved0.02-1.42 tCO2-eq/ha/yr Also reduced N2O Willey et al. 2007;ICRAF 2003;Paustian et al. 2004; Pattey et al. 2005 ;Smith et al 2007 and IPCC 2007;Tillage and ResidueManagementReduced tillage, ResiduemanagementSoil protected -0.44-1.89 tCO2-eq/ha/yr Willey et al. 2007Smith et al. 2008Water management Water harvesting structures,TerracingSoil protected -0.55-2.82 tCO2-eq/ha/yr Follet 2001, Lal 2004a ; Monteny et al. 2006Agro forestry Woodlots, boundary, Dispersedinterplanting, fruit orchardsWood products,soil protected-0.44-1.89 tCO2-eq/ha/yr CIFOR 2000, Sampson and Scholes 2000Roshetko et al. 2008, Gou & Gifford 2002, Paulet al. 2003 ; Oelbermann et al. 2004; Mutuo et al.2005; Montagnini et al. 2004Restoration andrehabilitation of DegradedLandSet-aside land Soil restored andprotected1.17-9.51 tCO2-eq/ha/yr Follet 2001, Ogle et al. 2004, Falloon et al. 2004,Lal 2004a ; Scholes et al. 1996Livestock management Improving pasture and fodderQuality UpgradingFood and income,soil protected0.0002-0.01 tCO2-eq/ha/yr(for East Africa)Leng 1991, McGrabb et al. 1998, Alcock &Hegarty 2005; Boadi et al. 2004; Rice &Owensby 2001, Liebig et al. 2005Sustainable agricultural landmanagement activities
  17. 17. Roll out and carbon creditting potential1.4 Tons of CO2/ha0.75Hectares/
  18. 18. MonitoringMonitoring method Activities monitoredActivity Based monitoring Agriculture practices Production (yields)Cover cropsResiduesManureFertilizer use Amount of fertilizer appliedBiomass burning Amount of residues burntFossil fuel use Litters/kgs of petrol/diesel/gasusedSoil organic carbon Model long-term Δ of soilorganic carbonTrees Measure Δ tree biomassLivelihood monitoring Livelihood status of a farmer Type of shelterWater supplySavingsFood sufficiencyFamily Education levelsSocial farm structureIncome and expensesEnvironmental and socialmanagement monitoringPesticides IPM activitiesFarmer Group monitoring Group contracts and payments Recording all group activitiesand grievances
  19. 19. Activity &ProductivityMonitoring SurveyProjectYear 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Year 10 Year 15 Year 20??Carbonsequestration10% Re-samplingUncertainty analysisInputInputProject regionMonitoringBaselineassessmentSoil Carbon Model(RothC, Century, etc)VerificationModeloutputsBaselineIPCC Tier 1dataResearchdata??????? ?10% Re-samplingMethodology: Activity Baseline and carbon monitoringapproach
  20. 20. Soil Organic Carbon Component• Roth C modelto be used to Model long-term Δ soilorganic carbon– Clay content, weather– plant residues, manure, soil cover
  21. 21. Linking ABMS data to Google earthmaps
  22. 22. Implementation status• Methodology submitted to Voluntary CarbonStandard, validation ongoing:• Project validation as soon as methodologyapproved• ERPA signature was done in Hague 5th November2010• SALM practices disseminated and adopted by18,800 farmers, i.e. role out plan for 2009 - 2010implemented covering 16,000 ha
  23. 23. SALM practicesImproved fallow
  24. 24. conclusion• The project aims to improve staple foodproduction and providing advisory services tofarmers• Combined benefits: carbon assets and co-benefits
  25. 25. Thanks