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How different agricultural practices affect soil health - Katarina Hedlund

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Presented by Katarina Hedlund at the seminar Save our Soils on May 20, Malmö, Sweden. Read more here: http://www.siani.se/event/SOSsoil

Published in: Environment
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How different agricultural practices affect soil health - Katarina Hedlund

  1. 1. How different agricultural practices affect soil health KATARINA HEDLUND LUND UNIVERSITY
  2. 2. Agriculture and soil threats Decline in: Lead to: soil carbon soil erosion biological activity soil compaction soil biodiversity reduced resistance to pests reduced nutrient provisioning Intensification of agriculture
  3. 3. Soil ”health” - ecosystem services Intermediate ecosystem services Nutrient retention Carbon storage Water retention Resistance to pests Regulation of above ground diversity Final ecosystem services Food Feed Biofuel Clean water Climate mitigation Soil biodiversity Actions and inter- actions among soil organisms feeding digging burrows mycorrhiza
  4. 4. Agriculture and ecosystem services Foley et al Science 2005
  5. 5. Long term decline of soil-C in Europe Brady et al 2015 Agronomy Journal
  6. 6. How can we change Soil C ? Management C decline per year Intensive cereal production -1.0% UK Inorganic fertilisers -0.5% SE Farm yard manure (5 ton/ha) -0.2% SE Straw addition (3 ton/ha) -0.2% DK Management C increase per year Cover crops 0.2% FR Straw addition (12 ton/ha) 0.3% DK Farm yard manure (35 ton/ha) 0.4% UK Ley 2 yrs (in 8 yr rotation) 0.3% SE Miscanthus grass 2.0% US
  7. 7. Soil carbon and agriculture in Europe? SOC in agricultural land 2009 Wheat yield g/kg 100 kg/ha
  8. 8. Soil carbon and management • Systematic Rewiew (Global scope) – Soil carbon and agricultural management – 25000 publications – 750 papers used in review • Management – Tillage – Amendents – Fertilsers – Crop rotations http://www.eviem.se/en/projects/Soil-organic-carbon-stocks/
  9. 9. Systematic map – review of global evidence 25000 papers checked 750 in the database to be used in meta-analyses
  10. 10. Systematic map – review of evidence Interactive map – with metadata and links to published evidence Open access during 2015
  11. 11. Soilservice project Soil management across EU SwedenGreece
  12. 12. Soil carbon and biodiversity Gradient of intensive crop rotation to pastures Tsiafouli et al Global Change Biology 2014
  13. 13. Producers of ecosystem services The soil food web
  14. 14. Food web diversity Lower food chain length  Steeper biomass pyramid  Lower C & N mineralization rates Loss of larger species low intensity high intensity
  15. 15. Greenhouse gas emissions De Vries et al PNAS 2013
  16. 16. Nutrient retention 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Pasture Extensive rotation Intensive rotation LeachedN(mg/l) CZ GR SE UK 0.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0 Pasture Extensive rotation Intensive rotation AMfungalbiomass CZ GR SE UK De Vries et al PNAS 2013
  17. 17. Soil biodiversity & intensive agriculture • Reduce species diversity • Lower food chain length • Soil carbon: 10 – 0.8 %C • Soil nitrogen: 0.4 - 0.1%N • Specific groups that are influenced: – AM fungi, earthworms, larger predatory mites Pastures to crop rotation:
  18. 18. Smart management decisions? Support ecosystem services Nutrient retention Food Fiber Water regulation Natural pest controlCarbon retention Soil formation Climate regulation Nutrient retention Food Fiber Water regulation Natural pest controlCarbon retention Soil formation Climate regulation
  19. 19. Using ecosystem services for decisions Ecosystems & biodiversity Ecosystem services Decisions Institutions (farmers, EC) Values Agricultural management Information on sustainable soil use Incentives After Daily et al 2009 ”decision loop” Valuation models Mapping services
  20. 20. Information transfer
  21. 21. "Natural Capital” - The ecosystem services from nature which are essential for human life. http://bankofnaturalcapital.com/category/ecosystem-services/agriculture/
  22. 22. Value of soil ecosystem services Value to farmers • Fertile soils • Water retention • Less erosion • Less use of – fertilizers – pesticides Value to society • Reduce eutrofication • Clean water • Carbon retention €?
  23. 23. Economic valuation: Carbon a currency for natural capital Brady et al 2015 Agronomy Journal
  24. 24. Optimal use of soil C 3 5 7 9 11 0.75 1.25 1.75 2.25 2.75 3.25 Yieldt/ha % soil Carbon Sweden Denmark England Germany 0 50 100 150 200 0.75 1.25 1.75 2.25 2.75 3.25 Nitrogenkg/ha % soil Carbon Sweden Denmark England Germany Optimal yield Optimal fertiliser use
  25. 25. Carbon a natural capital 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 0.75 1.25 1.75 2.25 2.75 3.25 Maximumprofit€/ha % soil Carbon Sweden Denmark England Germany
  26. 26. 400 450 500 550 €/ha 2008 2012 2016 2020 2024 2028 2032 year Sweden 250 300 350 400 €/ha 2008 2012 2016 2020 2024 2028 2032 year UK Ley in the crop rotation Profit per hectare 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 2008 2012 2016 2020 2024 2028 2032 2008 2012 2016 2020 2024 2028 2032 Sweden UK 0% set aside 7% 15% 25% kgwheat/kgN year Graphs by region N-efficiency Saarbacher et al in prep /SOILSERVICE project
  27. 27. Soil natural capital • Promoting soil C means increasing soil biodiversity and soil ecosystem services • Processes are long term and yields will be affected in the future • The value of soil natural capital can be used to promote sustainable management • Soil C- investment banks?
  28. 28. 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 1960 1980 2000 2020 kg/ha Year Wheat Scania Sweden Yield increase and soils?
  29. 29. Filling yield gaps (wheat) with natural capital (20 years) Business as usual 0.3% SOC/yr increase rate 100kg/ha Nelson E, Brady M, Hedlund K in prep
  30. 30. Tools for valuation of services – project with Swedish EPA Local level: C bank (open access tool) Production model where yield is related to fertiliser and ecosystem service levels Regional level (Skåne): AgriPoliS “Agricultural Policy Simulator” Agent based model, optimise farmers profit and predict land use within 25 years future National level: Cost benefit analys of policy Evaluate decisions and incentives to reach environmental objectives

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