Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
Geographies of Evasion and the Prospects for REDD
Robin Biddulph (robin.biddulph@geography.gu.se)
ABSTRACT
Recent research...
Overview
• Introduction: ”good policy” and academic
critique
• Geographies of Evasion in Cambodia
• The relevance for REDD...
Context
• Shadow state governance (formal leadership
grounded in the informal economy)
• Resource-rich/resource-poor lands...
”Good Policy is Unimplementable”
• Interventions need to be (over-) sold to get
supported and financed;
• Resistance gets ...
Behind the policy facade
• Smart operators get worthwhile things done
(even if not exactly what was on the packet),
or
• D...
Geographies of Evasion: Origins in
Cambodia
Cambodia Case I Land Titling
• Tenure insecurity described as a national
problem which is ”everywhere”
• Tenure insecure i...
Cambodia Case II Community Forestry
• Promoted as restoring ’traditional’ and
’historical’ forest-based livelihoods
• Thos...
Geography of Evasion
• Western Development industry programme
does not have genuine host nation political
support
• (often...
Geographies of Evasion theory
explains:
• How things might go wrong
• Why things might go wrong
• How problems might be id...
Ingredients for a Geography of Evasion
• An ambitious rights-based international
development agenda (”overreach”)
• Shadow...
Relevance to REDD
• A Western political project (climate fear)
attempting to use carrot and stick to achieve
change
• Rati...
First phase of REDD
• National Dialogue
• Capacity Building
• Demonstration Activities
Perfect for a prolonged Geography o...
Geography of Evasion predicts:
• Policy dialogue, capacity building etc will provide
the rationale for a slow start and sm...
Empirical questions
• Where is deforestation occurring most
rapidly? (Which countries, which parts of
countries)
• Where a...
Indications thus far?
• Guyana – REDD support to a country without
deforestation (0.45% baseline) (Helmers,
2010)
• Odtar ...
The right question?
• For a geographer, ’where’ is always the right
question.
• Does the ”Geographies of Evasion” hypothes...
Geographies of Evasion and the Prospects for REDD
Geographies of Evasion and the Prospects for REDD
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Geographies of Evasion and the Prospects for REDD

287 views

Published on

This study was presented during the conference “Production and Carbon Dynamics in Sustainable Agricultural and Forest Systems in Africa ” held in September, 2010.

Published in: Travel, Technology
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Geographies of Evasion and the Prospects for REDD

  1. 1. Geographies of Evasion and the Prospects for REDD Robin Biddulph (robin.biddulph@geography.gu.se) ABSTRACT Recent research in Cambodia focusing on property rights interventions in the form of community forestry and systematic land titling has generated a “Geographies of Evasion” hypothesis. The suggestion here is that when the development industry attempts to extend rights that host governments are unwilling to enforce the result will not be a rejection of development industry overtures. Rather host nation elites will cooperate with the sponsors of the development industry interventions using performance indicators to create a facade of success. However, behind this facade, the interventions will be resisted by the simple expedient of ensuring that they are only implemented in places where they will not make a substantial difference. Much of the analysis of the Cambodia case is built on theoretical insights from African experience. The key ingredients for the Geographies of Evasion identified in Cambodia are readily found throughout the World, and certainly in countries which are undergoing processes of deforestation. These include: Shadow State governance; landscapes dichotomised into resource rich and resource poor areas; a development industry with ambitions that exceed those of the host country political elite; transparent, results-based management. In the context of REDD the Geographies of Evasion thesis suggests that a long capacity building and policy reform process may provide the means by which rational host governments are able over a period of years or even decades to sponsor REDD in some places and continued deforestation in others. If the Geographies of Evasion thesis is to be believed, REDD will prove ineffective, but this ineffectiveness will be concealed and downplayed for many years before an inevitable descent into scandal and blame. If there is a key to preventing this outcome, it lies in ceasing to promote REDD on the basis of claims that avoided deforestation and degradation is cheap and easy relative to other forms of climate intervention. Achieving REDD would not be cheap and it would not be easy politically or technically.
  2. 2. Overview • Introduction: ”good policy” and academic critique • Geographies of Evasion in Cambodia • The relevance for REDD in Africa and globally
  3. 3. Context • Shadow state governance (formal leadership grounded in the informal economy) • Resource-rich/resource-poor landscape (more or less resource cursed)
  4. 4. ”Good Policy is Unimplementable” • Interventions need to be (over-) sold to get supported and financed; • Resistance gets under-played, • Difficulties get under-played, and • Potential benefits get exaggerated
  5. 5. Behind the policy facade • Smart operators get worthwhile things done (even if not exactly what was on the packet), or • Disastrous misconceived interventions end in failure • (Failure now may prevent success later so worth preventing)
  6. 6. Geographies of Evasion: Origins in Cambodia
  7. 7. Cambodia Case I Land Titling • Tenure insecurity described as a national problem which is ”everywhere” • Tenure insecure in forests, former conflict areas • Tenure in smallholder rice landscapes rather secure • Land titling only implemented in smallholder rice landscapes
  8. 8. Cambodia Case II Community Forestry • Promoted as restoring ’traditional’ and ’historical’ forest-based livelihoods • Those livelihoods centred around hard-wood resin-producing trees • Community forestry only implemented in areas where the trees have already been cut • So again, the policy solution avoids the places where the problem it addresses is found
  9. 9. Geography of Evasion • Western Development industry programme does not have genuine host nation political support • (often = Development Industry seeks to extend rights that host nation leadership are not prepared to enforce) • Host nation channels interventions to places where those rights already exist de facto or where they do not matter
  10. 10. Geographies of Evasion theory explains: • How things might go wrong • Why things might go wrong • How problems might be identified early • ’might’ = patterns, tendencies not universal laws
  11. 11. Ingredients for a Geography of Evasion • An ambitious rights-based international development agenda (”overreach”) • Shadow-state governance • A more or less dichotomized landscape (resource rich areas and resource poor areas) • Policy facade represents host government as a progressive ’development partner’ and the landscape as fairly homogenous
  12. 12. Relevance to REDD • A Western political project (climate fear) attempting to use carrot and stick to achieve change • Rational for host nation governments to resist (support deforestation in one place and avoided deforestation in another) • A phased approach provides a window of opportunity for a geography of evasion...
  13. 13. First phase of REDD • National Dialogue • Capacity Building • Demonstration Activities Perfect for a prolonged Geography of Evasion
  14. 14. Geography of Evasion predicts: • Policy dialogue, capacity building etc will provide the rationale for a slow start and small scale • Deforestation will continue in places where it is lucrative • Pilots and demonstration activities will take place where forest is already degraded or where deforestation is not a threat • Facade of achievement will be maintained using indicators that conceal this state of affairs
  15. 15. Empirical questions • Where is deforestation occurring most rapidly? (Which countries, which parts of countries) • Where are REDD activities taking place?
  16. 16. Indications thus far? • Guyana – REDD support to a country without deforestation (0.45% baseline) (Helmers, 2010) • Odtar Meanchey province, Cambodia- pilot activities in province with high deforestation, but in part of province with low deforestation (Bradley 2009)
  17. 17. The right question? • For a geographer, ’where’ is always the right question. • Does the ”Geographies of Evasion” hypothesis help us to ask the right questions to identify when REDD is being derailed? • Or am I barking up the wrong tree?

×