Manual Security Council

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Manual Security Council, SIAJNU, open agenda.

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Manual Security Council

  1. 1. Distinguished delegates, member states and observers: It is an honor for the High Command and the members of this Chair to welcome you to the 5th edition of the Simulacro de Acción Juvenil de Naciones Unidas, as well as to the Security Council. Created in 1945 by the San Francisco Charter, the United Nations Security Council aims to preserve international peace and security and to prevent any conflict, always looking for new ways to maintain a good relation between States and to establish cooperation links that lead the way to development in our nations. During the last two decades, our international system has faced numerous changes in its structure, which has also affected the way that conflict develops and the approach we need to confront it. In this sense, the Security Council is an organ with a very changing agenda, always attending to the most regarding issues and topics of our international community and focusing on all the subjects related to the maintenance of international peace and security. As we all know, 2013 has been a very active year for our Council, but we still have pendant some of the most challenging issues in the story of our organization. Delegates, it is our duty to look out for solutions through peaceful means and negotiation, but above everything else, it is our responsibility not to stay silent about what happens in our world. We want to exhort you to think about the goals of our committee; and mostly, about what you are going to do to help maintain our international community’s stability,
  2. 2. because, in the end, the decisions that we take today are the ones who will define the future of our world. As Eleanor Roosevelt once said, “It is not enough to talk about peace. One must believe in it. And it is not enough to believe in it. One must work at it”. Hoping to meet you in October, feel free to send any questions, requests or doubts to: sc@siajnu.org Ana Karen Herrera González President Valeria Hernández Almaguer Nathalia López García Moderators Miguel Mendivil Roiz Conference Office
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION In 1945, as World War II was reaching an end, great powers assume the responsibility of creating an organizational plan in order to avoid another conflagration, restore international peace and promote cooperation between the nations. The United Nations was formally created in October 24th 1945, with 51 nations represented and six main organs, between which we find the Security Council, which main responsibility is to maintain international peace, the prevention of future wars and any decision concerning peacekeeping and peace enforcement missions. The Security Council held its first session on 17 January 1946 at Church House, London. Since its first meeting, the Security Council has taken permanent residence at the United Nations Headquarters in New York City.1 According to the United Nations Charter, this organ has “primary responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security”2 Furthermore, it has some other purposes: “develop friendly relations among nations; to cooperate in solving international problems and in promoting respect for human rights; and to be a center for harmonizing the actions of nations”3 To this effect, the Security Council may meet whenever any of its purposes is threatened. The Security Council is conferred by its members with the responsibility to maintain international peace and security, member states agree that in carrying out its duties, the council acts on their behalf. The Security Council always works in 1 United Nations Security Council, “Organization”, What is the Security Council? [accessed: may 16th 2013], available in: http://www.un.org/en/sc/about/ 2 United Nations Security Council, “Mandate”, What is Security Council? [accessed: may 16th 2013], available in: http://www.un.org/en/sc/about/ 3 United Nations Security Council, “Maintaining Peace and Security”, What is Security Council? [accessed: may 16th 2013], available in: http://www.un.org/en/sc/about/
  4. 4. accordance with the Purposes and Principles established by the United Nations Charter, which also specifies the powers granted to this committee for the discharge of its duties under chapters VI, VII, VII and XII. In order to bring peace and order in some regions of the world where a dispute leads to hostilities, the Council may: “issue ceasefire directives that can help prevent an escalation of the conflict; dispatch military observers or a peacekeeping force to help reduce tensions, separate opposing forces and establish a calm in which peaceful settlements may be sought.”4 In case these effort do not work at all or as it was thought, the Council may opt for enforcement measures as “economic sanctions, arms embargoes, financial penalties, and restrictions, and travel bans; severance of diplomatic relations; blockade; or even collective military action.”5 Based on Article 39 of the United Nations, “the Security Council shall determine the existence of any threat to the peace, breach of the peace, or act of aggression. [some specific situations seen as a possible threat could be] situations such as inter or intra-State conflict or internal conflicts with a regional or sub-regional dimension”6 To be even more specific, the Security Council identifies potential or generic threats as threats to international peace and security, “such as terrorist acts, the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and the proliferation and illicit trafficking of small arms and light weapons”.7 4 United Nations Security Council, “Maintaining Peace and Security”, What is Security Council? [accessed: may 16th 2013], available in: http://www.un.org/en/sc/about/ 5 United Nations Security Council, “Maintaining Peace and Security”, What is Security Council? [accessed: may 16th 2013], available in: http://www.un.org/en/sc/about/ 6 United Nations Security Council, “How does the Security Council determine the existence of any threat to the peace, breach of the peace, or act of aggression? ”, Frequently Asked Questions [accessed: may 16th 2013], available in: http://www.un.org/en/sc/about/faq.shtml 7 United Nations Security Council, “How does the Security Council determine the existence of any threat to the peace, breach of the peace, or act of aggression? ”, Frequently Asked Questions [accessed: may 16th 2013], available in: http://www.un.org/en/sc/about/faq.shtml
  5. 5. Once the Council has determined those threats to international peace and security, “it calls upon the parties to a dispute to settle it by peaceful means and recommend methods of adjustment or terms of settlement”8 also, the Security Council recommends to the General Assembly “the appointment of the Secretary-General and the admission of new Members to the United Nations. And, together with the General Assembly, it elects the judges of the International Court of Justice”.9 The fundamental difference between the Security Council and other organs of the United Nations is that, while the others make recommendations to member States, only the Security Council has the power to make decisions that all members are then obligated to implement under the Charter. The United Nations Security Council is composed by fifteen Member States of the United Nations, five permanent members (The United States of America, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the Russian Federation, the People’s Republic of China and the French Republic) and ten non-permanent members, elected by the General Assembly for a two years term. The election process of the new UNSC members will be held in October 2013. The current non- permanent members of the committee are the following: • Argentina (2014) • Azerbaijan (2013) • Australia (2014) • Guatemala (2013) • Luxembourg (2014) 8 United Nations Security Council, “How does the Security Council determine the existence of any threat to the peace, breach of the peace, or act of aggression? ”, Frequently Asked Questions [accessed: may 16th 2013], available in: http://www.un.org/en/sc/about/ 9 United Nations Security Council, “How does the Security Council determine the existence of any threat to the peace, breach of the peace, or act of aggression? ”, Frequently Asked Questions [accessed: may 16th 2013], available in: http://www.un.org/en/sc/about/
  6. 6. • Morocco (2013) • Pakistan (2013) • Republic of Korea (2014) • Rwanda (2014) • Togo (2013) A State which is a Member of the United Nations but not of the Security Council may participate, without a vote, in its discussions when the Council considers that that country's interests are affected. Both Members and non-members of the United Nations, if they are parties to a dispute being considered by the Council, may be invited to take part, without a vote, in the Council's discussions; the Council sets the conditions for participation by a non-member State. 10 In order for the Security Council to adopt a decision, it must be approved by an affirmative vote of at least nine members. In decisions under Chapter VI, and under paragraph 3 of Art. 52, a party to a dispute shall abstain from voting. This in accordance to what is established by Art. 27. All the members of the United Nations agree to accept and carry out the decisions of the Security Council, according to what is established in the Charter. The procedure for the revision of the United Nations Charter and the faculties conferred to the Security Council are established in Chapter XVIII of the Charter. The Security Council duties include: 10 United Nations. “Charter of the United Nations”, (2013 [May 15th , 2013]), available in: http://www.un.org/en/documents/charter/index.shtml
  7. 7. I. The submission of an annual report to the General Assembly for its consideration. The Council might also deliver special reports when necessary. (Art 24) II. The formulation, with the assistance of the Military Staff Committee, plans for the establishment of a system for the regulation of armaments, which may be approved by the Members of the United Nations (Art. 26). III. The establishment, if necessary, subsidiary organs for the performance of its functions. (Art. 29) IV. Investigate any situation that might led to an international friction and call upon the parties to a dispute to settle its disagreement by peaceful means like negotiation, enquiry, mediation, conciliation, arbitration, judicial settlement, resort to regional agencies or arrangements; taking into consideration any procedures that had already been adopted by the parties in order to maintain international peace and security. The Security Council shall also attend any situation referred to its jurisdiction by any Member State or by a non-member state that accepts the obligations of pacific settlement that the UN Charter provides, being conscious that legal disputes should be referred to the International Court of Justice. V. Determine the existence of any threat to peace, breach of the peace or act of aggression and make recommendations, or decide what measures shall be taken to maintain or restore international peace and security in accordance with art. 41 and 42 of UN Charter, calling upon the parties to comply provisional measures and taking into account the failure to comply such procedures.
  8. 8. VI. Taking measures not involving the use of armed force to give effect to the decisions of the Security Council provided by art. 41 of the UN Charter, that include the complete or partial interruption of economic relations and communications and the severance of diplomatic relations. VII. If measures provided by Art. 41 have proved to be inadequate, the UNSC may take action by air, sea or land forces as may be necessary to maintain or restore international peace and security. Such actions may include demonstrations, blockade and other operations by air, sea or land forces of Members of the United Nations; plans involving the application of such measures must comprise the assistance of the Military Staff Committee. The Security Council might invite all of the Member States of the United Nations not represented in the Council to participate in the decisions concerning the employment of contingents of their armed forces. VIII. As established by Art. 47 of the UN Charter, a Military Staff Committee must consist of the Chiefs of Staff of the permanent members of the Security Council or their representatives and any Member of the United Nations that is not permanently represented on the committee and is invited to be associated in the case that the efficient discharge of the Committee responsibilities requires the participation of that Member. The Committee’s duty is to advise and assist the Security Council on all questions relating to its military requirements for the maintenance of international peace and security, the employment and command of forces, the regulation of armaments and possible disarmament. This committee shall be responsible for the strategic direction of any armed forces placed at disposal of the UNSC and it might establish (with previous
  9. 9. authorization of the UNSC and after consultation with appropriate regional agencies) establish regional sub-committees. IX. The Security Council might determine if the action required to carry out the committee’s decisions for the maintenance of international peace and security must be taken by all the members of the United Nations or by some of them. Decisions shall be carried out directly by UN members through their action in the appropriate international agencies of which they are members and utilize regional arrangements or agencies to reinforce the action under its authority. Regional arrangements or actions must consult the Council before taking enforcement actions, with exception of the cases provided by Art. 53 and Art. 107 of the UN Charter or in regional arrangements directed against renewal of aggressive policy of the part of any State11 . Members of the United Nations shall join in affording mutual assistance in carrying out the measures decided upon by the Security Council, as established by art. 49 of the UN Charter. Nevertheless, Art. 50 of the Charter also remarks that if the application of preventive or enforcement measures represents a rise of special economic problems, the State have the right to consult the Security Council with regard to a solution of those problems. Nothing in the UN Charter shall impair the right of States to exercise individual or collective self-defense actions until the Security Council has taken measures necessary to maintain international peace and security. This kind of measures shall immediately be reported to the Security Council and shall not in any way affect its 11 United Nations, “Charter of the United Nations”, (2013[May, 15th 2013]) available in http://www.un.org/en/documents/charter/index.shtml
  10. 10. authority and responsibility to take necessary actions to maintain or restore international peace and security.12 As the Security Council is the organ in charge of guarding international peace and security, the topics on its agenda are constantly in change, attending to the needs of the international community. There are mainly two kind of focuses in the committee’s agenda: The first one attends to the already established missions and programs and their revisions, and the second concentrates in potential or ongoing crisis in the global scenario. For the fifth edition of the Simulacro de Acción Juvenil de Naciones Unidas we will focus on the second approach, stay tuned for more information. 12 United Nations, “Chapter VII: Action with respect to threats to peace, breaches of peace and acts of aggression”, (2013[May, 15th 2013]) available in http://www.un.org/en/documents/charter/chapter7.shtml

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