What is constructivism?Constructivism is a theory about howpeople learn.learners construct their own understandingand knowledge of the world, throughexperiencing things and reflecting on thoseexperiences.
1. How does learning occur?learning occurs when learners createtheir own knowledge (meaning) . Themeaning imposes by learners and culturesLearning occurs in realistic in which thelearning tasks are relevant to thestudent’s experience.
2. Which factors influence learning?Learning environmentLearners’ engagementParticipationCulture
3. What is the role of memory?It assembles prior knowledge with thenew context (experience).Memory creates cognitive tools whichreflect the wisdom of the culture in whichthey are used as well as the insights andexperiences of learners.
4. How does transfer occur?The transfer occurs through theinvolvement in authentic tasks anchored inmeaningful contexts.
5.What types of learning arebest explained by the theory?Authentic activities Class discussionsCooperative learningPeer tutoring
6. What basic assumptions/principlesof this theory are relevant to languagelearning?An emphasis on the identification of the contextin which the skills will be learned and appliedAn emphasis on learner control and capability ofthe learner to manipulate information.The need of information to be presented in avariety of different waysSupporting the use of problem-solving skills thatallow learners to go beyond the informationAssessment focus on transfer of knowledge andskills
7. How should instruction bestructured to facilitate languagelearning?To instruct the student on how to constructmeaning, monitor, evaluate and updateconstructions.To align and design experiences for learner sothat authentic, relevant, contexts can beexperiences.To encourage students to discover and exploreTeacher and learner should engage in an activedialogTo teach learners how to construct knowledge, topromote collaboration with others