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Job analysis-activities

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Job analysis-activities

  1. 1. SHRM Survey Findings: Job Analysis Activities In collaboration with and commissioned by ACT December 11, 2014
  2. 2. • In this research, respondents were asked about activities related to the processes that occur to examine and analyze the activities of a particular job or role within an organization. The analysis can result in information that includes the tasks or competencies of the job/role; the knowledge, skills and abilities required for successful performance in the job/role; and the conditions under which the responsibilities are performed. These types of activities are often referred to as a job analysis. Job Analysis Activities ©SHRM 2014 2 Definitions
  3. 3. • What methods and tools did organizations use to conduct job analysis activities? The leading methods to conduct job analysis were interview (50%), observation (33%) and structured questionnaires (27%). Organizations with 25,000 or more employees were more likely than organizations with 1 to 99 employees to use structured questionnaires to conduct job analysis activities. Over two-fifths (44%) of organizations used tools that were specifically designed for their organization, and one-quarter (26%) used online job analysis tools. • What types of information did organizations collect when conducting job analysis activities? The most common types of information organizations collected when conducting job analysis activities were knowledge (96%), skills (95%), abilities (92%) and task statements (90%). • How did organizations use information collected through job analysis activities? Nearly three-quarters of organizations used the information collected through job analysis activities for recruitment (73%) and performance standards (72%). Other purposes included compensation (69%) and training (61%). • For what job levels did organizations conduct job analysis activities? The majority of organizations conducted job analysis activities for management (87%), nonexempt (84%) and professional nonmanagement (80%) job levels. Furthermore, 60% of organizations conducted job analysis activities for executive-level positions. Job Analysis Activities ©SHRM 2014 3 Key Findings
  4. 4. • What experience did HR professionals have with job analysis? Roughly one-half (51%) of HR professionals have participated in at least one formal or informal job analysis-related activity, and 45% of HR professionals have used information from job analyses for purposes beyond identifying what was required for a job/role, such as developing interview questions and performance appraisal systems. Approximately two out of five HR professionals have conducted job analyses at their current organization. Job Analysis Activities ©SHRM 2014 4 Key Findings (continued)
  5. 5. • Considering that many HR professionals say they are having trouble finding qualified candidates for open positions at the moment, an accurate job description becomes even more important as an element of the recruiting process. Nearly three-fourths of respondents to this survey said they used information collected through job analysis activities for recruiting. • With proper analysis of jobs at all levels of organizations, HR professionals will also have a more effective performance management process. Clearly knowing the responsibilities that come with certain jobs allows for ease of measurement on annual evaluations, periodic reviews, goal attainment and other forms of performance management. • HR professionals need a comprehensive understanding of how jobs are performed at all levels of their organizations to perform their own duties. The tasks of managing personnel, developing training guidelines and fulfilling other responsibilities could be much more difficult for HR professionals without an effective job analysis system. Job Analysis Activities ©SHRM 2014 5 Implications for the HR Profession
  6. 6. Methods to Conduct Job Analysis Activities 50% 33% Note: n = 459. Percentages do not equal 100% due to multiple response options. Respondents who answered "don't know" were excluded from this analysis. Job Analysis Activities ©SHRM 2014 6 27% 25% 25% 24% 19% 9% 7% 6% 3% Interview Observation Structured questionnaire Checklist Open-ended questionnaire Existing sources of information Technical conference/focus group Critical incident Diary None of the above Other
  7. 7. Methods to Conduct Job Analysis Activities • Government organizations were more likely than publicly owned for-profit organizations to report existing sources of information as a method for identifying the knowledge, skills, abilities and competencies required for a job/role. Job Analysis Activities ©SHRM 2014 7 Comparisons by organization sector Note: Only statistically significant differences are shown. Existing sources of information Government (42%) > Publicly owned for-profit (17%)
  8. 8. Methods to Conduct Job Analysis Activities • Larger organizations were more likely than smaller organizations to report checklists, structured questionnaires and technical conference/focus groups as methods for identifying the knowledge, skills, abilities and competencies required for a job/role. Job Analysis Activities ©SHRM 2014 8 Comparisons by organization staff size Note: Only statistically significant differences are shown. Checklists 25,000 or more employees (42%) > 500 to 2,499 employees (18%) Structured questionnaires 25,000 or more employees (38%) > 1 to 99 employees (13%) Technical conference/focus groups 25,000 or more employees (36%) > 1 to 99 employees (13%)
  9. 9. Tools for Conducting Job Analysis Activities 44% 26% Note: n = 388. Percentages do not equal 100% due to multiple response options. Respondents whose organizations do not use or were unsure about methods associated with job analysis activities were not asked this question. Respondents who answered "don't know" were excluded from this analysis. Job Analysis Activities ©SHRM 2014 9 16% 13% 8% 9% Tools designed specifically for my organization Online job analysis tools Off-the-shelf questionnaires Survey software Human capital management (HCM) software Other
  10. 10. Tools for Conducting Job Analysis Activities • Larger organizations were more likely than smaller organizations to use survey software and tools designed specifically for their organization when identifying the knowledge, skills, abilities and competencies required for a job/role. Job Analysis Activities ©SHRM 2014 10 Comparisons by organization staff size Note: Only statistically significant differences are shown. Survey software 500 to 2,499 employees (23%) > 1 to 99 employees (2%) Tools designed specifically for my organization 25,000 or more employees (69%) > 100 to 499 employees (40%)
  11. 11. Information Collected in Job Analysis Activities Percentage Knowledge (i.e., specific types of information people need to perform a job such as an understanding HIPAA regulations) 96% Skills (i.e., practiced acts such as writing clearly or operating a crane) 95% Abilities (i.e., stable capacity to engage in a specific behavior such as lifting 92% objects weighing up to 50 pounds or climbing ladders up to 25 feet) Task statements (i.e., list of activities performed on the job) 90% The types of tools and technology that are used in the job 89% Requirement/qualification of knowledge, skills and abilities at time of 86% appointment Competencies (i.e., set of defined behaviors that are used to identify, evaluate and develop employees) 84% Job context (e.g., purpose of job within the organization or work environment) 80% Ratings for knowledge, skills, abilities (e.g., importance, criticality, frequency) 64% Performance criteria (e.g., standards for each performance level) 64% Note: n = 267-339. Percentages do not equal 100% due to multiple responses. Respondents whose organizations do not use or were unsure about methods associated with job analysis activities were not asked this question. Responses for this question were as follows: yes, no and don’t know. Respondents who answered "don't know" were excluded from this analysis. Only respondents who answered “yes” are shown. Job Analysis Activities ©SHRM 2014 11
  12. 12. Information Collected in Job Analysis Activities (continued) Percentage Ratings for tasks (e.g., importance, criticality, frequency, difficulty) 61% Ratings for competencies (e.g., importance, criticality, frequency) 58% Other characteristics (e.g., personality, interests, work styles, values) 55% Consequences of error 36% Note: n = 267-339. Percentages do not equal 100% due to multiple responses. Respondents whose organizations do not use or were unsure about methods associated with job analysis activities were not asked this question. Responses for this question were as follows: yes, no and don’t know. Respondents who answered "don't know" were excluded from this analysis. Only respondents who answered “yes” are shown. Job Analysis Activities ©SHRM 2014 12
  13. 13. Information Collected in Job Analysis Activities • Publicly owned for-profit organizations were more likely than privately owned for-profit organizations to collect ratings for tasks and ratings for competencies when identifying the knowledge, skills, abilities and competencies required for a job/role. Job Analysis Activities ©SHRM 2014 13 Comparisons by organization sector Note: Only statistically significant differences are shown. Ratings for tasks Publicly owned for-profit (75%) > Privately owned for-profit (52%) Ratings for competencies Publicly owned for-profit (74%) > Privately owned for-profit (50%)
  14. 14. Information Collected in Job Analysis Activities • Organizations with 2,500 to 24,999 employees were more likely than organizations with 100 to 499 employees to collect ratings for tasks when identifying the knowledge, skills, abilities and competencies required for a job/role. Job Analysis Activities ©SHRM 2014 14 Comparisons by organization staff size Note: Only statistically significant differences are shown. Ratings for tasks 2,500 to 24,999 employees (75%) > 100 to 499 employees (48%)
  15. 15. Purposes for Job Analysis Activities Percentage Recruitment 73% Performance standards/appraisals 72% Compensation (e.g., classification and pay) 69% Training 61% Employee development 58% Selection 54% Workforce planning/organizational design 45% Succession planning 43% Disability or return-to-work accommodation 38% Legal support (e.g., ADA compliance, termination, workers’ compensation) 33% High-potential identification and development 27% Test identification, test development and/or test validation 15% Other 1% Note: n = 344. Percentages do not equal 100% due to multiple responses. Respondents whose organizations do not use or were unsure about methods associated with job analysis activities were not asked this question. Respondents who answered "don't know" were excluded from this analysis. Job Analysis Activities ©SHRM 2014 15
  16. 16. Purposes for Job Analysis Activities • Publicly owned for-profit organizations were more likely than privately owned for-profit organizations to use information identifying the knowledge, skills, abilities and competencies required for a job/role for workforce planning. • Publicly owned for-profit organizations were more likely than privately owned for-profit and nonprofit organizations to use information identifying the knowledge, skills, abilities and competencies required for a job/role for succession planning. Job Analysis Activities ©SHRM 2014 16 Comparisons by organization sector Note: Only statistically significant differences are shown. Workforce planning Publicly owned for-profit (62%) > Privately owned for-profit (36%) Succession planning Publicly owned for-profit (64%) > Privately owned for-profit (39%) Nonprofit (31%)
  17. 17. Purposes for Job Analysis Activities • Nonprofit organizations were more likely than privately owned for-profit organizations to use information identifying the knowledge, skills, abilities and competencies required for a job/role for compensation. Job Analysis Activities ©SHRM 2014 17 Comparisons by organization sector Note: Only statistically significant differences are shown. Compensation Nonprofit (80%) > Privately owned for-profit (60%)
  18. 18. Job Levels Used for Job Analysis Activities 60% 87% 80% 84% Note: n = 344. Percentages do not equal 100% due to multiple responses. Respondents whose organizations do not use or were unsure about methods associated with job analysis activities were not asked this question. Respondents who answered "don't know" were excluded from this analysis. Job Analysis Activities ©SHRM 2014 18 Executive level (e.g., CEO, CFO, VP) Management (e.g., director, manager, supervisor) Professional nonmanagement (e.g., analyst, nurse, engineer) Nonexempt (e.g., assistant, coordinator, specialist)
  19. 19. Job Levels Used for Job Analysis Activities • Nonprofit organizations were more likely than privately owned for-profit organizations to identify the knowledge, skills, abilities and competencies required for a job/role for executives and nonexempt job levels. Job Analysis Activities ©SHRM 2014 19 Comparisons by organization sector Note: Only statistically significant differences are shown. Executive level Nonprofit (78%) > Privately owned for-profit (51%) Professional nonmanagement level Nonprofit (94%) > Publicly owned for-profit (74%) Privately owned for-profit (71%) Nonexempt level Nonprofit (95%) > Privately owned for-profit (80%) • Nonprofit organizations were more likely than publicly owned for-profit and privately owned for-profit organizations to identify the knowledge, skills, abilities and competencies required for a job/role for professional nonmanagement job levels.
  20. 20. Job Levels Used for Job Analysis Activities • Organizations with 2,500 to 24,999 employees were more likely than organizations with 100 to 499 employees to identify the knowledge, skills, abilities and competencies required for a job/role for the executive job level. Job Analysis Activities ©SHRM 2014 20 Comparisons by organization staff size Note: Only statistically significant differences are shown. Executive level 2,500 to 24,999 employees (70%) > 100 to 499 employees (47%)
  21. 21. Job Candidate Evaluation Methods Percentage Behavioral interviews: job specific and prepared in advance. 62% Online, minimum qualifications screening questionnaires: questions that may 41% eliminate/disqualify candidates from the recruiting process. Skills testing: assessing the level of a practiced activity such as writing, blueprint reading and computer programming. 38% Interviews with behaviorally anchored rating scales: answer keys used to evaluate candidate responses and rating methods that produce a numeric score. 26% Note: n = 344. Percentages do not equal 100% due to multiple responses. Respondents whose organizations do not use or were unsure about methods associated with job analysis activities were not asked this question. Respondents who answered "don't know" were excluded from this analysis. Job Analysis Activities ©SHRM 2014 21 Situational judgment questionnaires: choosing a response when given a scenario. 23% Organizational fit questionnaires: questions that evaluate organization-relevant factors such as team based, entrepreneurial and traditional. 23% Personality testing: assessing personality traits such as persuasiveness, detail orientation, conscientiousness, rule following, optimism, goal orientation, data rational and boredom proneness. 22% Aptitude testing: assessing the level of abilities in areas such as problem-solving and critical reasoning. 18% Scorable job applications: numeric values placed on experience, skills, etc. 16%
  22. 22. Job Candidate Evaluation Methods (continued) Percentage Cognitive skills testing: assessing the level of abilities in areas such as reading and mathematics. 16% Note: n = 344. Percentages do not equal 100% due to multiple responses. Respondents whose organizations do not use or were unsure about methods associated with job analysis activities were not asked this question. Respondents who answered "don't know" were excluded from this analysis. Job Analysis Activities ©SHRM 2014 22 Online, realistic job preview (RJP): an overview of the job demands with questions to confirm interest in continuing the application process. 12% Biodata questionnaires: standardized questions on verifiable school/work history, reported in scales such as reliability, dependability and safety. 7% Simulations: interactive experience that models job demands. 7% Assessment centers: formal observation under controlled conditions. 6% Virtual job tryouts: completing online work samples. 2% Other 2%
  23. 23. Job Candidate Evaluation Methods Comparisons by organization sector • Publicly owned for-profit organizations were more likely than privately owned for-profit organizations to use or plan to use interview with behaviorally anchored rating scales, online minimum qualification screening questionnaires and biodata questionnaires within the next 12 months to evaluate job candidates for hiring. Interviews with behaviorally anchored rating scales Publicly owned for-profit (39%) > Privately owned for-profit (18%) Online, minimum qualifications screening questionnaires Publicly owned for-profit (58%) > Privately owned for-profit (30%) Job Analysis Activities ©SHRM 2014 23 Note: Only statistically significant differences are shown. Biodata questionnaires Publicly owned for-profit (14%) > Privately owned for-profit (3%)
  24. 24. Job Candidate Evaluation Methods • Publicly owned for-profit and privately owned for-profit organizations were more likely than government organizations to use or plan to use personality testing within the next 12 months to evaluate job candidates for hiring. Job Analysis Activities ©SHRM 2014 24 Note: Only statistically significant differences are shown. Online, realistic job previews Publicly owned for-profit (24%) > Privately owned for-profit (8%) Nonprofit (3%) Comparisons by organization sector • Publicly owned for-profit organizations were more likely than privately owned for-profit and nonprofit organizations to use or plan to use online, realistic job previews within the next 12 months to evaluate job candidates for hiring. Personality testing Publicly owned for-profit (27%) Privately owned for-profit (26%) > Government (4%)
  25. 25. Job Candidate Evaluation Methods Comparisons by organization staff size • Organizations with 2,500 to 24,999 employees were more likely than organizations with 100 to 499 employees to use or plan to use online minimum qualification screening questionnaires within the next 12 months to evaluate job candidates for hiring. Online minimum qualification screening questionnaires 2,500 to 24,999 employees (53%) > 100 to 499 employees (27%) Job Analysis Activities ©SHRM 2014 25 Note: Only statistically significant differences are shown.
  26. 26. HR Professionals’ Experience with Job Analysis Activities Percentage I have conducted job analyses at my current organization. 41% I have conducted job analyses at a previous organization. 39% I have used information from job analyses for purposes beyond identifying what was required for a job/role such as developing interview questions and performance appraisal systems. 45% I have taken one or more courses that covered job analysis. 30% I have a certification that covers job analysis. 15% I have participated in at least one formal or informal activity associated with job analysis. 51% I have no experience with any formal or informal activities associated with job analysis. 15% Other 1% Note: n = 339. Percentages do not equal 100% due to multiple responses. Respondents whose organizations do not use or were unsure about methods associated with job analysis activities were not asked this question. Job Analysis Activities ©SHRM 2014 26
  27. 27. Job Analysis Activities ©SHRM 2014 27 Demographics
  28. 28. Demographics: Organization Industry Job Analysis Activities ©SHRM 2014 28 Note: n = 392. Percentages do not equal 100% due to multiple response options. Percentage Professional, scientific and technical services 18% Health care and social assistance 15% Manufacturing 15% Government agencies 11% Finance and insurance 9% Educational services 8% Transportation and warehousing 7% Accommodation and food services 6% Retail trade 6% Administrative and support and waste management and remediation services 5% Construction 5%
  29. 29. Demographics: Organization Industry (continued) Job Analysis Activities ©SHRM 2014 29 Note: n = 392. Percentages do not equal 100% due to multiple response options. Percentage Utilities 5% Information 4% Wholesale trade 4% Arts, entertainment, and recreation 3% Real estate and rental and leasing 3% Religious, grant-making, civic, professional and similar organizations 3% Agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting 2% Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction 2% Repair and maintenance 2% Personal and laundry services 1% Other 2%
  30. 30. Demographics: Organization Sector Job Analysis Activities ©SHRM 2014 30 n = 385 43% 23% 19% 14% 1% Privately owned for-profit Publicly owned for-profit Nonprofit Government Other
  31. 31. Demographics: Organization Staff Size Job Analysis Activities ©SHRM 2014 31 Note: n = 387. Percentages do not equal 100% due to rounding. 14% 24% 23% 25% 13% 1 to 99 employees 100 to 499 employees 500 to 2,499 employees 2,500 to 24,999 employees 25,000 or more employees
  32. 32. n = 394 Demographics: Other Job Analysis Activities ©SHRM 2014 32 U.S.-based operations only 70% Multinational operations 30% Single-unit organization: An organization in which the location and the organization are one and the same. 26% Multi-unit organization: An organization that has more than one location. 74% Multi-unit headquarters determines HR policies and practices 47% Each work location determines HR policies and practices 4% A combination of both the work location and the multi-unit headquarters determines HR policies and practices 50% Is your organization a single-unit organization or a multi-unit organization? For multi-unit organizations, are HR policies and practices determined by the multi-unit headquarters, by each work location or by both? Does your organization have U.S.-based operations (business units) only, or does it operate multinationally? n = 397 Note: n = 305. Percentages do not equal 100% due to rounding. What is the HR department/function for which you responded throughout this survey? Corporate (companywide) 69% Business unit/division 16% Facility/location 14% Note: n = 304. Percentages do not equal 100% due to rounding.
  33. 33. 33 SHRM Survey Findings: Job Analysis Activities In collaboration with and commissioned by ACT Survey Methodology • Response rate = 16% • 459 HR professionals from a randomly selected sample of SHRM’s membership participated in this survey • Margin of error +/-5% • Survey fielded September 11-October 15, 2014 Job Analysis Activities ©SHRM 2014
  34. 34. • Job Analysis Resource Page • Performing Job Analysis Toolkit • Job Analysis: Desk Audit Review Sample Form • Resources for HR Educators: Job Analysis-Based Performance Appraisal Job Analysis Activities ©SHRM 2014 34 Additional SHRM Resources
  35. 35. For more survey/poll findings, visit shrm.org/surveys For more information about SHRM’s Customized Research Services, visit shrm.org/customizedresearch Follow us on Twitter @SHRM_Research Job Analysis Activities ©SHRM 2014 35 About SHRM Research
  36. 36. Founded in 1948, the Society for Human Resource Management (SHRM) is the world’s largest HR membership organization devoted to human resource management. Representing more than 275,000 members in over 160 countries, the Society is the leading provider of resources to serve the needs of HR professionals and advance the professional practice of human resource management. SHRM has more than 575 affiliated chapters within the United States and subsidiary offices in China, India and United Arab Emirates. Visit us at shrm.org. Job Analysis Activities ©SHRM 2014 36 About SHRM
  37. 37. ACT is a mission-driven, nonprofit organization dedicated to helping people achieve education and workplace success. Headquartered in Iowa City, Iowa, ACT is trusted as the nation’s leader in college and career readiness, providing high-quality achievement assessments grounded in more than 50 years of research and experience. ACT offers a uniquely integrated set of solutions that help people succeed from elementary school through career, providing insights that unlock potential. To learn more about ACT, go to www.act.org. Job Analysis Activities ©SHRM 2014 37 About ACT

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