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Serving the Multigenerational Workforce


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Shirley Davis from SHRM presenting this at the Client Forum about serving the multigenerational workforce.

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Serving the Multigenerational Workforce

  1. 1. Leading People. Leading Organizations.Serving the Workforce of the Future Dr. Shirley Davis Chief Diversity & Inclusion Officer Society for Human Resource Management
  2. 2. What We’ll Cover Today Leading People. Leading Organizations.• Building Inclusive Organizations: The New Business Imperative• Changing Demographics: A New Workforce• Leading a Multigenerational Workforce• Designing & Implementing Benefit Plans for a Multigenerational Workforce 2 2
  3. 3. Leading People. Leading Organizations.Building Inclusive Organizations: The New Business Imperative
  4. 4. Diversity + Inclusion = Diversity Management Leading People. Leading Organizations. Diversity “the collective mixture of differences and similarities that includes, for example, individual and organizationalcharacteristics, values, beliefs, experiences, backgrounds, preferences, and behaviors.” Inclusion “the achievement of a work environment in which all individuals are treated fairly and respectfully, have equal access to opportunities and resources, and can contribute fully to the organization’s success.” Diversity management “the comprehensive organizational and managerial process for leveraging diversity and achieving inclusion that maximizes the potential of all employees.” 4
  5. 5. Workplace Diversity Leading People. Leading Organizations. The collective mixture of differences and similarities that includes individual and organizational characteristics, values, beliefs, experiences, backgrounds, preferences, and behaviors. GENDER Geographic Location WORKPersonality BACKGROUND Skin Color/Ethnicity `tÜ|àtÄ fàtàâá age VISIBLE DIVERSITY TRAITS BELIEFSSexual Orientation THINKING Level in OrganizationNative born/non native STYLES DIVERSITY TRAITS V A Behaviors Culture L EthnicityReligion Parental Status Education MILITARY EXPERIENCE socio-economic status U E SFunctional Specialty Smoker/Non smokerPhysical Attributes Communication Style Physical Abilities/Qualities 5
  6. 6. Why Diversity & Inclusion? Leading People. Leading Organizations.Compliance Case“Diversity is somethingwe’re forced to do … by law.” Business Case “Diversity is the smart thing to do … forValues Case our business.”“Diversity is the right thingto do … for our people.” 6
  7. 7. Leading People. Leading Organizations.Changing Demographics: A New Workforce
  8. 8. Changing Demographics: A New Workforce Leading People. Leading Organizations. Workforce 2000 Workforce 2020The workforce will grow more slowly than at Workforce planning will become moreany time since the 1930s uncertain as retirement ages become increasingly less predictableThe proportion of women and minorities in The proportion of women in the workforcethe workforce will rise dramatically will have gradually increased to about 50%*The average age of the workforce will rise, The presence of top-level older employeesand the pool of young workers entering the may cause dissension among their middle-labor market will shrink aged subordinates eager for promotionThe workforce is aging and thus becoming Older workers will need different benefits,less willing to relocate, retrain or change such as elder care programsoccupations, yet the economy isdemanding more flexibilityImmigrants will represent the largest share The U.S. population and workforce willof the increase in the workforce since gradually become more ethnically diverseHudson Institute 2000 IWorld War Hudson Institute 2020 *U.S. Census Bureau 8 8
  9. 9. Changing Demographics: A New Workforce Leading People. Leading Organizations. Workforce 2000 Workforce 2020Need to recognize the importance of a To increase workforce participation,flexible workforce through company firms and governments will need toand national policies accommodate unconventional working arrangements to encourage(e.g., flexible workforce programs, people to return or remain in therevised pension systems, promotion workforceof retraining and lifelong learning). (e.g., parents, older workers) 9 9
  10. 10. Changing Workforce Demographics Leading People. Leading Organizations.• By 2050 Asians, Hispanics, African Americans and American Indians will account for 47.2% of the population – Currently: 75% of new entrants to the workforce is women and people of color• By 2012, the Hispanic labor force is expected to reach 23.8 million• 10% of the workforce is gay or lesbian• It is estimated that one in three people has a disability• The mobile workforce in the U.S. (which has the largest percentage of mobile workers in the world) is set to become 73 percent of the nation’s workforce by end of 2011*• More than 28 million Americans now work at least one day per month from home, with an estimated 100 million tele-working by 2010** *International Data Corporation Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics **WorldatWork “Telework Trendlines” survey report 10 10
  11. 11. Changing Workforce Demographics Leading People. Leading Organizations. • Increase in religious diversity • Growth in number of employees whom English is a second language • More than 12 percent of U.S. population is foreign-born; record increases since 2000 • By 2013, Gen Y will represent the largest percentage of the U.S. workforce – By 2016 it will be bigger than all other age groups combined. • Baby boomers want/need to work longer Planning HR practices and benefits programs to address the needs of all generations and ethnicities is complex and constantly changingSource: Bureau of Labor Statistics 11 11
  12. 12. The Business Case for Diversity Leading People. Leading Organizations. Over a 10-year period, the index of publicly traded companies in DiversityInc’s Top 50 Companies for Diversity list outperformed the: • NASDAQ by 28% • Standard & Poor’s 500 by 25% • Dow Jones Industrial Average by 22%Source: – DeGroat, TJ, No Way to Measure Diversitys Value? Mainstream Article Ignores the Hard Facts, DiversityInc.com 12 12
  13. 13. The Business Case for Diversity Leading People. Leading Organizations.• A 2009 study by CalPERS found that companies with a high ratio of diverse board seats exceeded Dow Jones average returns• Each of the selected companies had an executive responsible for diversity initiatives• Women make up more than half of the U.S. population but hold only 17 percent of Fortune 100 corporate board seats• These big companies may be missing out on a key tool for competitive advantage Source: 2009 CalPERS Board Diversification Strategy: Realizing Competitive Advantage and Shareowner Value 13 13
  14. 14. The Business Case for Diversity 2007 Catalyst Survey Leading People. Leading Organizations.Higher female representation on Board = Higher returns Source: 2007 The Bottom Line: Corporate Performance and Women’s Representation on Boards, Catalyst 14 14
  15. 15. The Business Case for Diversity Leading People. Leading Organizations.1. Demographic shifts in U.S. population2. Attracting and retaining the best talent3. Greater adaptability and flexibility in a rapidly changing marketplace (INNOVATION)4. Job satisfaction and reducing costs associated with turnover, absenteeism and low productivity/employee engagement5. Changing consumer, client, and customer marketplace6. Contributes to company performance7. Mitigates and minimizes legal risks8. Global Trends 15 15
  16. 16. Leading People. Leading Organizations.Leading a Multigenerational Workforce 16 16
  17. 17. Two Different Views of Diversity Leading People. Leading Organizations. Why are generations important?Socio-economic GenerationCulture & Ethnicity Expectations of life/workGender orientation Trusted influencersAssets, debt and income Stage in lifeGeography Attitudes towards authority/peersLifestyle Individuals with similar socio-economic backgrounds may have substantially different values and preferences regarding HR programs, benefits, communications and loyalty to the company. Key implications for establishing employer brand and recruiting talent 17 17
  18. 18. Leading a Multigenerational Workforce Leading People. Leading Organizations. 18 18
  19. 19. The Multigenerational Workforce Leading People. Leading Organizations. “Understanding what drives each generation, and what their underlying experiences are, is the key to creating a cohesive work environment where our people feel valued and empowered to work together effectively. This appreciation of generational diversity, and initiatives customized to meet the needs of each generation, allows each group to fully contribute and be a part of the growth and success of the organization.” Dr. Rohini Anand Senior Vice President & Chief Global Diversity Officer SodexoSource: The Multigenerational Workforce: Opportunity for Competitive Success, SHRM, 2009 19 19
  20. 20. Two Theories of Understanding Each Generation Leading People. Leading Organizations. • The oldest, wealthiest, and most visible members of a generation define the behavior and attitude for those that follow • Identify a generation’s heroes and you’ll learn their value systems 20 20Source: Cam Marsten, 2007
  21. 21. The Multigenerational Workforce Leading People. Leading Organizations.Today’s workforce is comprised of four generations, covering an 80+- yearspan whose effectiveness in working together impacts the overall successof the organizations they work for. Generational Cohort Example Impacts Traditionalists (1925-1945) Climate/culture over 65 years of age Communication (7% of workforce) Work-life balance Boomers (1946-1965) Benefits 45-66 years of age Revenue (40% of workforce) Management Development & Coaching Generation X (1960s/1970s) Work ethic 34-44 years of age (32% of workforce) Coaching/mentoring Use of technology Generation Y (1977-present) Networking under 33 years of age Where, when, & how work gets done (21% and increasing rapidly) Overall success of the company (1) Although age equals years of age, it is “coming of age” that aligns more to a generational cohort and its impacts 21 21
  22. 22. Traditionalists Leading People. Leading Organizations. Traditionalists (1925-1945) EVENTS CHARACTERISTICS • WWII, Korean War • Human Relationship Skills • Civil Rights/Women’s • Ability to negotiate Movements Leaders • Decisive leadership • First Peace Corps volunteers • Adopted elders values of loyalty, • Helped to rebuild American dedication, commitment economy in the 1950s • Age=Seniority • Great Depression • Values face time • B/W TV; transistor radio • Prefer structure • Loyal(1) Coming of age during key socio-historical events influences how each cohort reacts and responds 22 22
  23. 23. Baby Boomers Leading People. Leading Organizations. Baby Boomers (1946-1965) EVENTS CHARACTERISTICS• Assassinations: JFK, Robert • Flexible working arrangements Kennedy, Martin Luther King • Coaching style managers; mentors• Walk on the moon • Look for respect, respect, respect in• Vietnam the workplace and work hard to• Civil Rights Movement secure it• Environmental movement • Strong work ethic• Protests, riots • I am what I do• Woodstock/drug experimentation • Self focused• Watergate • Values face time• Oil embargo/gas shortages • Service oriented• Raging inflation • Cynical but loyal• Child-focused 23 23
  24. 24. Generation X Leading People. Leading Organizations. Generation X (1960s/1970s) EVENTS CHARACTERISTICS• Challenger Explosion • Independent/self-reliant• Iran Contra • Technologically savvy• Fall of Berlin Wall • Hard workers when focused and motivated• AIDS/Safe Sex • Seek flexible work arrangements that• High Divorce Rate/Single Parent facilitate work-life balance Families • Risk takers• Latchkey kids • Innovative• Parents as “friends” • Seek challenging work• Terrorism • Goal oriented• Computer games • Outside of the box thinkers and want to• End of employment contracts manage own time • Embraces Diversity/Thinks globally 24 24
  25. 25. Generation Y Leading People. Leading Organizations. Generation Y (1980s/1990s) EVENTS CHARACTERISTICS• Rise of the Internet • New confidence, upbeat and full of• Terrorism/Bombings: Oklahoma self-esteem City, Atlanta Summer Olympics, • Need to know WHY World Trade Center • Most education-minded generation in• Cultural Diversity history• Two wars in Iraq (Desert • Tend to be highly pressured to Storm/Operation Freedom) “succeed”• Largest demographic group since the • Many aspects of their lives scheduled Boomers (Echoes) by their parents• First true cohort of global citizens • Very tolerant towards multiculturalism• Expansive economy and internationalism • Learns quickly • Technically savvy • College degree expected 25 25
  26. 26. Generations at a Glance Leading People. Leading Organizations. Generation % of Workforce Assets in the WorkplaceTraditionalists Hard working, stable, loyal, thorough,Born 1922-1945 8% detail-oriented, focused, emotional (Ages 63-86) maturityBaby Boomers 44% Team perspective, dedicated,Born 1946-1964 experienced, knowledgeable, service- (Ages 44-62) orientedGeneration X 34% Independent, adaptable creative,Born 1965-1980 techno-literate, willing to challenge the (Ages 28-43) status quo Millennials 14% Optimistic, able to multitask, tenacious,Born 1981-2000 (increasing rapidly) technologically savvy, driven to learn (Ages 8-27) and grow, team oriented, social responsibility 26 26
  27. 27. Leading People. Leading Organizations.Designing & Implementing Benefit Plans for a Multigenerational Workforce 27 27
  28. 28. Challenge for Human Resources Leading People. Leading Organizations.Manage ManageDiversity CostSupport Diverse Workforce Streamline Benefit AdministrationMultiple benefit choices Self-serve AdministrationPersonalized Communications Consolidate VendorsFlexible Work Environment Reduce Plan Options 28 28
  29. 29. Benefits Packaged for Specific Life Stages Leading People. Leading Organizations. Sample Benefit Portfolio Health Other Other Other Insurance Health Insurance Health Insurance Savings Savings Take-home Savings Take-home Take-home Pay Pay Pay Employee Age 22 Employee Age 45 Employee Age 60 • Single • Married with two kids • Preparing to retire • Just starting career • Employed for 20+ years • Employed for 40+ years • $40,000 base pay • $75,000 base pay • $100,000 base paySource: Fidelity Perspectives, Fall 2008 29 29
  30. 30. Approaching Older Age = Increased Happiness Leading People. Leading Organizations. 30 30
  31. 31. The Next Wave of Benefits Planning Leading People. Leading Organizations.Source: Fidelity Generation Study, 2009 31 31
  32. 32. Benefits and Generation Y Leading People. Leading Organizations.75% Work/life balance drives career choices at a significant level Quality of benefits packages influences choice of employer 62%44% Value of the benefits package should be tied to workplace performanceManaging everyday finances (mortgage or credit card debt) is more crucial than saving for retirement Source: Fidelity Generation Study, 2009 47% 32 32
  33. 33. Benefit Plan Utilization by Generation Leading People. Leading Organizations. 33 33
  34. 34. Gen Y Driving Changes in Benefits Leading People. Leading Organizations.Source:, 2007 34 34
  35. 35. Changes in Benefits to Include Gen Y Leading People. Leading Organizations. Benefits/ Compensation Pros Cons Employer ActionVariety of choices Expensive for Need employee decision-makingat reasonable employers to support to increase awarenesscosts provide and of value offerings manageLess New benefits trends Make it simplecomplex/easy to are reducing theunderstand perceived value to employeesBenefits offer Identify optimal spend for benefitmore effective dollars and compensationcost management programs that suit life stagefor employers 35 35
  36. 36. Changes in Benefits to Include Gen Y Leading People. Leading Organizations. Talent management Pros Cons Employer ActionLonger tenure Employers now Provide greater flexibility andresults in stability faced with value of benefits while morefor both tremendous sea effectively managing employeremployers and change in expensesemployees workplace demographics; “brain drain”Opportunity for Creates additional Incorporating holistic financialemployers to offer talent management health solutions and advice andcreative solutions challenges for guidance that can result into attract and employers, thus increased loyalty and retentionretain the Gen Y increasingworker of the expensesfuture 36 36
  37. 37. Changes in Benefits to Include Gen Y Leading People. Leading Organizations. Communication Pros Cons Employer ActionOpen to Traditional paper Effective communication andtechnology as communications education is key component toan information are less effective successfully help drive financialvehicle and more security and wealth expensive than accumulation for employees electronic distributionsTechnology Demands new Leverage the Internet as theprovides the most engagement primary vehicle forcost effective, strategies to reach advice and guidance for mostrobust, and this demographic effective resultsmeasurable and most efficient spendcommunicationvehicle Move from annual enrollment communication model to ongoing engagement 37 37
  38. 38. Evaluating Your Plan Leading People. Leading Organizations.Source: Fidelity Perspectives, Fall 2008 38 38
  39. 39. Evaluating the Options Leading People. Leading Organizations. Tactics for a Multigenerational Workforce Approach/ Segment Key FactorsCompensation Traditional approach/ Baby Accustomed to paternalistic benefits such as pension plans Benefits/ Boomers and retiree health care Increased individual responsibility Emerging trends/ Gen Y Facing less paternalistic benefits such as DC and HSAs High salary expectations Traditional approach /Baby Long-tenured employees (age 55–64, average tenure 9.3 years) Boomers Facing retirement challenges, both financially and in termsmanagement of personal well-being Talent Short-tenured employees (age 25–34, average tenure 2.9 years) Emerging trends /Gen Y No strong commitment to any one employer View job as financial transaction Strive for work/life balance Traditional approach /Baby Prefer in-person interaction to build relationships, but are Boomers growing technology users for information and transactions Communication Want simplicity and convenience Want relatable, personalized information Need total financial solutions Emerging trends / Gen Y Technology and the Internet are essential to their livelihood Prefer informal communications Need spending/debt management support 39 39 39 39
  40. 40. Leading People. Leading Organizations.Designing & Implementing Benefit Plans for a Racially and Ethnically Diverse Workforce 40 40
  41. 41. Racial Demographics for Employee Participants Leading People. Leading Organizations. African- American Asian Hispanic White All Average Age 39 39 37 42 41 Average Tenure 8 7 7 10 10 Gender (% Fem Ale) 60% 54% 54% 48% 51%Source: The Ariel /Hewitt Study 2010. The findings in this study are based on year-end 2008 information collected from nearly 3 million eligible employeesworking for 57 of the largest U.S. companies across a variety of industries and sectors. 41 41
  42. 42. Participation Rates by Salary Leading People. Leading Organizations. $0- $30,000- $60,000- $90,000- $120,000 $29,999 $59,999 $89,999 $119,999 +African- 50% 75% 83% 88% 91%AmericanAsian 54% 84% 92% 94% 94%Hispanic 50% 75% 85% 89% 90%White 56% 80% 88% 92% 92% 42 42
  43. 43. Plan Participation Leading People. Leading Organizations.Overall, African-American and Hispanic employees are about 10 percentagepoints less likely than white and Asian employees to have a 401(k) account. 43 43
  44. 44. Savings Rates Among Plan Participants Leading People. Leading Organizations. 44 44
  45. 45. Average Account Balance by Salary Leading People. Leading Organizations. $0- $30,000- $60,000- $90,000- $120,000 $29,999 $59,999 $89,999 $119,999 +African- $3,956 $21,224 $51,594 $98,432 $154,902AmericanAsian $6,707 $32,590 $70,393 $104,233 $161,259Hispanic $4,036 $22,017 $60,782 $104,549 $150,456White $8,184 $35,551 $79,018 $139,724 $223,408 In 2007, average account balances in 401(k) plans were considerably lower for African-American and Hispanic employees – even at the highest pay levels – than for white and Asian employees 45 45
  46. 46. Hardship Withdrawals Leading People. Leading Organizations. 46 46
  47. 47. Ethnicity’s Role in 401(k) Participation Leading People. Leading Organizations. • Savings and participation rates: – Regardless of age and income, African-American and Hispanic workers are less likely to participate in their company 401(k) plans • When they do contribute, they save at much lower rates than whites. – Asian employees have the highest participation and savings rates • Stock exposure: – African- American workers are less likely than other workers to invest in equities • This behavior may limit the long-term growth potential of their accounts – Historically, equities have been the highest-yielding investment over the long termSource: Ariel/Hewitt Study. 401(k) Plans in Living Color: A Study of Savings Disparities Across Racial and Ethnic Groups, 2010. 47 47
  48. 48. Ethnicity’s Role in 401(k) Participation Leading People. Leading Organizations.• Loans and hardship withdrawals: – African-Americans are more likely to take a loan • More than twice as likely to take a hardship withdrawal – Hispanics borrow from their retirement accounts at a higher rate than whites • But not to the same degree as African-Americans. – Asian employees are the least likely to take early distributions from their 401(k) plan accounts 48 48
  49. 49. Ethnicity’s Role in 401(k) Participation Leading People. Leading Organizations.• Account balances: – Smaller average account balances can be contributed to lower participation, contribution rates, equity exposure and higher withdrawal rates – Employees with a similar range of income show a significant difference in account balances: • African-Americans ($21,224) • Hispanics ($22,017) • Asians ($32,590) • White ($35,551) – Results are influenced by other factors, such as age, job tenure, and pay within the range, but variations exist, even after adjusting for these factors 49 49
  50. 50. Ethnicity’s Role in 401(k) Participation Leading People. Leading Organizations.• African-American employees are the most likely group to take a hardship withdrawal from their 401(k) plan accounts• For most groups, both genders are equally as likely to take a hardship withdrawal• 9% of African-American women are taking a hardship withdrawal compared to 6% of African-American men• Hispanics are 50% more likely to take a withdrawal when compared to whites (with other differences held constant) – African-Americans are 167% more likely, all else being equal 50 50
  51. 51. Designing Benefit Plans and Reward Packages Leading People. Leading Organizations.• Use research and employee surveys to understand generational differences in employee needs and preferences• Consider innovative workplace practices to allow flexibility• Offer more choices in benefits such as health care coverage and retirement accounts• Consider a range of financial benefits to appeal to employees of different ages/ ethnicities• Eliminate penalties for older employees who choose to work after "retirement" (within ERISA parameters)• Communicate benefits in multiple ways – Consider comfort levels with technology and different needs for face-to-face or print communication 51 51
  52. 52. Leading People. Leading Organizations.Additional Considerations for HR Benefits Planning
  53. 53. HR Policies and Programs Leading People. Leading Organizations. 53 53Source: The Multigenerational Workforce: Opportunity for Competitive Success, SHRM, 2009
  54. 54. Considerations for Workplace Flexibility Leading People. Leading Organizations.• All generations respond favorably to more flexible workplaces – Many traditionalists are on their second career • Having left more high-profile (and high-pressure) roles in the past; they might describe themselves as “working to live, not living to work” • Many expected to be retired by now, and they want more autonomy. – Many boomers are part of “The Sandwich Generation” • Taking care of elderly parents while still caring for children at home • Creates its own set of work/life demands – Generation X and Generation Y grew up in a “wired” world and don’t define the “workplace” as brick & mortar • It’s about the results of one’s efforts, not when and where the work was completed• Organizations must focus on flexibility to be an employer of choice across all generations 54 54
  55. 55. Considerations for Rewards and Recognition Leading People. Leading Organizations.• Important to Generation Y, who grew up in a “feedback-intensive” world• Rewards should not be given for the sake of giving them just to satisfy Baby Boomers and Generation X• Awards that are given for excellence should only be given to those who deserve them – “Perks” given to everyone should not claim to be rewards for excellent work• For Generation Y, a culture that encourages a high level of feedback (not necessarily all positive, contrary to the stereotype) will result in an engaged employee – Silence is neither positive nor negative – it’s just silence 55 55
  56. 56. Considerations for Health Care Benefits Leading People. Leading Organizations.• Perception of health benefits closely matches life stages – It becomes more important to each generation as they age and enter new stages of life that require more medical attention• Most important to Traditionalists, Baby Boomers, and – increasingly – Generation X (who are beginning to enter their 40s)• Should include multiple options to attract top performers within Generation Y• Wellness programs are very attractive to all generations (as shown in slide 34) – All seem to recognize the benefits of a healthy lifestyle• Health care costs continue to rise (see Exhibit 1-2 next page) 56 56
  57. 57. Health Care Costs 2010 Leading People. Leading Organizations. 57 57
  58. 58. Health Care Costs 2010 Leading People. Leading Organizations. 58 58
  59. 59. Considerations for Training & Development Leading People. Leading Organizations.• Generation Y enters the workplace with high expectations of advancement and will remain engaged if they feel as though they are growing as professionals – Training should be offered in multiple formats including e-learning• Generation X is motivated by training & development if increased knowledge can help them achieve greater autonomy and independence – They will feel appreciated and engaged• As Baby Boomers and Traditionalists age they don’t want to feel as though they’ve been “put out to pasture” – Opportunities must exist for all employees, not just the younger ones• Be creative in your approaches to Training & Development – For many employees, on-the-job learning trumps a day in the classroom 59 59
  60. 60. Succession Planning Leading People. Leading Organizations. Different generations have different ideas about what qualifies an individual for advancementTraditionalists believe Baby Boomers expect Generation X prefers Generation Yleadership is earned leaders to match their transparency in the believes anyone who through faithful and own work ethic, ways potential leaders can deliver impact loyal service resume and years of are identified and should be considered experience developed for a leadership role It is crucial that organizations codify and execute solid succession planning based on widely known competencies and conducted in a fair and transparent manner. 60 60
  61. 61. Summary Leading People. Leading Organizations.• Workforce demographics are shifting dramatically but the goal of benefits decision-makers remains consistent – Provide an effective mix of compensation, benefits, flexible work arrangements, and opportunities for every individual• Balance changing needs of employees with organization’s increasingly complex priorities – Helps you gain a competitive edge, while helping meet your attraction and retention goals• Do not view each aspect of savings and benefits plans in isolation – Help employees make the most of their opportunities to accumulate wealth and provide for lifetime financial security 61 61
  62. 62. Summary Leading People. Leading Organizations.• Take a holistic approach to total compensation and benefits plans – Goal is to maximize the return on investment for employers, while maximizing the value to employees• Ensure that the money being committed by organizations to benefits programs is delivering the best possible value for the organization and its employees – Optimizing the value of total compensation and benefits spending will become increasingly important as competition for talent increases 62 62
  63. 63. Questions/Comments Leading People. Leading Organizations. 63 63