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Project report-TATA Power

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Project report-TATA Power

  1. 1. 1 Reduction in auxiliary consumption & Energy conservation 11/05/2016 to 11/06/2016 Guided by: Mr. G B Deshmukh Group Head, O&M TATA Power, Bhira Submitted by: Shivam Dwivedi Department of Electrical Engineering NIT Agartala
  2. 2. 2 BONAFIDE CERTIFICATE This is to certify that project report entitled “Reduction in auxiliary consumption & Energy conservation” at TATA Power, Bhira is a bonafide record of work done by Mr. Shubham Jaiswal who carried out the internship under my supervision. Certified further, that to the best of my knowledge the work reported herein does notform part ofany other project reportor dissertation on the basis of which a degree or award was conferred on an earlier occasionon this or any other candidate. Mr. G B Deshmukh Group Head, O&M TATA Power, Bhira
  3. 3. 3 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The satisfaction and euphoria that accompanythe completion ofthe project would be incomplete without the mention of the people who made it possible. I would like to take the opportunity to thank and express my deep sense of gratitude to the employees of TATA Power, Bhira for providing all the support needed for completing this project successfully. I am deeply indebted to my project guide Mr. G B Deshmukh (Group Head, O&M) for guiding and helping to grasp various concepts related to this project. I also convey my special thanks to Mr. Praveen Reddy, Mr. Madhusudan Jadhav ,Mr. Akshay Gawade and Mr. Debarghya Mitra whose suggestions and encouragement helped all the time during the project. I also thank Mr. A G Patil and Mr. S B Vedpathak for giving such an opportunity to learn and gain practical knowledge.
  4. 4. 4 ABSTRACT Energy efficiency is the least expensive way for power and process industries to meet a growing demand for cleaner energy, and this applies to the power generating industry as well. Auxiliary equipment has a critical role in the safe operation of the plant and can be found in all plant systems. Perhaps the diversity of applications is one reason why a comprehensive approachto auxiliaries is needed to reduce their proportion of gross power. In-plant electrical power, when taken from the generator bus, may be priced artificially low in some utility companies’ auxiliary lifecycle calculations. A process industrycustomer, however, must always pay high commercial rates (and sometimes penalties), thus providing a strong incentive to improve their auxiliary energy efficiency. Price dis-incentives, regulations permitting cost-pass thru. Based on analysis of the energy flow of hydroelectric generating units (HGU) at different loading, the energy indices of the unit are calculated using related formulas. This project report takes a comprehensive view on reduction in auxiliary consumption and describes some common approaches to energy efficient design which can be applied in retrofit and new plant projects.
  5. 5. 5 TABLE OF CONTENTS Page no. Bonafide Certificate……………………………………………………….2 Acknowledgement…………………………………………………………3 Abstract……………………………………………………………………4 1. Introduction………………………………………………………………..6 2. Electricity generation in India……………………………………..………7 2.1. Installed capacity………………………………………………………7 2.2. Utility power…………………………………………………………..7 2.3. Hydro power…………………………………………………………..10 2.4. Solar power……………………………………………………………11 3. Bhira Generating station…………………………………………………...12 3.1. Geographical location…………………………………………………12 3.2. Introduction……………………………………………………..…….12 3.3. Hydro pump storage scheme…………………………………….....…12 3.4. Vision……………………………………………………………...….13 4. Hydraulic Layout…………………………………………………………..14 4.1. Dams, Lakes, Intake and Tunnels……………………………………..15 4.2. Valve house and Penstocks……………………………………………15 4.3.Auxiliary Reservoir…………………………………………………….15 4.4. Turbines and Governors……………………………………………….16 5. 110KV/22KV Layout………………………………………………............17 5.1. Study of generator 1,3,4,6……………………………………………..17 5.2. Study of generator 2 & 5………………………………………………18 5.3.110KV Main & Transfer bus system……………………………..……19 5.4. Protection Equipment……………………………………………...…..19 6. Analysis of 440V bus…………………………………………………........19 6.1. Calculation of 440V bus…………………………………………...…..22 6.2. Suggestions…………………………………………………...….…….25 7. 3 MW Solar plant…………………………………………………………...26 8. Study of Senior camp…………………………………………………….....28 8.1. Suggestions……………………………………………………………29 9. References……………………………………………………………….….31
  6. 6. 6 INTRODUCTION Growing economy, expanding energy intensive industries, rising urbanization, increasing population and on top of all, a quest for modernization and improved quality of life have increased the demand of electricity in India. Energy generation is one of the major key factors for economic and social development in all the developed and developing nations of the world. Hydropower is the most widely used renewable energy source worldwide, contributing almost with 18.5% to the fulfilment of the planet electricity generation. Hydroelectric generation is a continuous productionprocess inwhich hydraulic energy is converted into mechanical energy and finally converted into electric energy. This is a clean, renewable and economic way of energy production. Every single kWh of hydropower makes sense because this means a small reduction of fossil or nuclear fuel burning. The hydraulic energy is a valuable natural resource, and increasing the efficiency of hydropower production is a long term goal in the field of hydropower engineering because it greatly contributes to the economy and environment. Usually, the rated efficiency of a large generator is above 98%, the efficiency of the water turbine is the key element in the overall efficiency of a hydroelectric generating unit (HGU). A significant performance factorin the power generation from a hydroelectric plant is the efficiency of the units. Each generating unit experiences three types of losses. These losses occur in the turbine, the generator, and the penstock. In the turbine and the generator losses happen due to mechanical friction and heat dissipation in the process to convert kinetic energy into mechanical energy and mechanical energy into electrical energy, respectively.
  7. 7. 7 ELECTRICITY GENERATION IN INDIA The utility electricitysectorinIndia had an installed capacity of 302.833 GW as of 30 April 2016. Renewable power plants constituted 28% of total installed capacity and Non-Renewable Power Plants constituted the remaining 72%. The gross electricity generated by utilities is 1,106 TWh (1,106,000 GWh) and 166 TWh by captive power plants during the 2014–15 fiscal. The gross electricity generation includes auxiliary power consumption of power generation plants. India became the world's third largest producerofelectricity in the year 2013 with 4.8% global share in electricity generation surpassing Japan and Russia. 1.1) Installed capacity The total installed power generation capacity is sum of utility capacity, captive power capacity and other non-utilities 1.2) Utility power Growth of Installed Capacity in India Install ed Capac ity as on Thermal (MW) Nucle ar (MW ) Renewable (MW) Total (MW ) % Grow th (on yearl y basis) Coal Gas Dies el Sub- Total Ther mal Hyd el Other Renewa ble Sub- Total Renewa ble 31- Dec- 1947 756 - 98 854 - 508 - 508 1,362 - 31- Dec- 1950 1,004 - 149 1,153 - 560 - 560 1,713 8.59 %
  8. 8. 8 31- Mar- 1956 1,597 - 228 1,825 - 1,06 1 - 1,061 2,886 13.04 % 31- Mar- 1961 2,436 - 300 2,736 - 1,91 7 - 1,917 4,653 12.25 % 31- Mar- 1966 4,417 137 352 4,903 - 4,12 4 - 4,124 9,027 18.80 % 31- Mar- 1974 8,652 165 241 9,058 640 6,96 6 - 6,966 16,66 4 10.58 % 31- Mar- 1979 14,87 5 168 164 15,207 640 10,8 33 - 10,833 26,68 0 12.02 % 31- Mar- 1985 26,31 1 542 177 27,030 1,095 14,4 60 - 14,460 42,58 5 9.94 % 31- Mar- 1990 41,23 6 2,34 3 165 43,764 1,565 18,3 07 - 18,307 63,63 6 9.89 % 31- Mar- 1997 54,15 4 6,56 2 294 61,010 2,225 21,6 58 902 22,560 85,79 5 4.94 %
  9. 9. 9 31- Mar- 2002 62,13 1 11,1 63 1,13 5 74,429 2,720 26,2 69 1,628 27,897 105,0 46 4.49 % 31- Mar- 2007 71,12 1 13,6 92 1,20 2 86,015 3,900 34,6 54 7,760 42,414 132,3 29 5.19 % 31- Mar- 2012 112,0 22 18,3 81 1,20 0 131,60 3 4,780 38,9 90 24,503 63,493 199,8 77 9.00 % 31 Mar 2015 169,1 18 23,0 62 1,20 0 188,89 8 5,780 41,2 67 35,777 77,044 271,7 22 10.8 % 31 Mar 2016 185,1 72 24,5 08 993 210,67 5 5,780 42,7 83 @ 42,72 7 85,510 301,9 65 11.13 % The planned additional thermal power generation capacity excluding renewable power during the last two years of the 12th plan period (up to March 2017) is nearly 84,000 MW. The total installed utility power generation capacity as on 31 March 2015 with sectorwise & type wise break up is as given below. Secto r Coal Gas Diesel Total Nuclea r Hydro RES Grand Total (MW) Centr al 48,130.0 0 7,519.7 3 0 55,649.7 3 5,780. 00 11,091. 43 0 72,521.1 6
  10. 10. 10 State 58,100.5 0 6,974.4 2 602.61 65,677.5 3 0 27,482. 00 3,803.6 7 96,963.2 0 Privat e 58,405.3 8 8,568.0 0 597.14 67,570.5 2 0 2,694.0 0 31,973. 29 102,237. 81 All India 164,635. 88 23,062. 15 1,199. 75 188,897. 78 5,780. 00 41,267. 43 35,776. 96 271,722. 17 1.3) Hydro Power By taking advantage of gravity and the water cycle, we have tapped into one of nature's engines to create a useful form of energy. In fact, humans have been capturing the energy of moving water for thousands of years. Today, harnessing the power ofmoving water to generate electricity, known as hydroelectric power, is the largest source of emissions-free, renewable electricity in India and worldwide. Although the generation of hydropowerdoes not emit air pollution or greenhouse gas emissions, it can have negative environmental and social consequences. Blocking rivers with dams can degrade water quality, damage aquatic and riparian habitat, block migratory fish passage, and displace local communities. The benefits and drawbacks of any proposed hydropower development must be weighed before moving forward with any project. Still, if it's done right, hydropower can be a sustainable and non-polluting source of electricity that can help decrease our dependence on fossil fuels and reduce the threat of global warming. India is endowed with economically exploitable and viable hydro potential assessed to be about 84,000 MW at 60% load factor. In addition, 6740 MW in terms of installed capacity from Small, Mini, and Micro Hydel schemes have been assessed. Also, 56 sites for pumped storage schemes with an aggregate installed capacity of 94,000 MW have been identified. It is the most widely used form of renewable energy. India is blessed with immense amount of hydro- electric potential and ranks 5th in terms of exploitable hydro-potential on global scenario. The presentinstalled capacity as of31 May 2014 is approximately 40,661.41 MW which is 16.36% of total electricity generation in India. The public sector has a
  11. 11. 11 predominant share of 97% in this sector. National Hydroelectric Power Corporation (NHPC), Northeast Electric Power Company (NEEPCO), Satluj jal vidyut nigam (SJVNL), Tehri Hydro Development Corporation, NTPC-Hydro are a few public sector companies engaged in development of hydroelectric power in India. 1.4) Solar Power India is endowed with vast solar energy. Thesolar radiation of about 5,000 trillion kWh per year is incident over its land mass with average daily solar power potential of 0.25 kWh per m2 of used land area with the available commercially proven technologies. As of 31 March 2016, the installed capacity was 6,763 MW. India expects to install an additional 10,000 MW by 2017, and a total of 100,000 MW by 2022. Installation of solar power plants require nearly 2.4 hectares (6 acres) land per MW capacity which is similar to coal-fired power plants when life cycle coal mining, consumptive water storage & ash disposal areas are also accounted and hydro power plants when submergence area of water reservoir is also accounted. 1.33 million MW capacity solar plants can be installed in India on its 1% land (32,000 square km) Land acquisition is a challenge to solar farm projects in India. Some state governments are exploring means to address land availability through innovation; for example, by exploring means to deploy solar capacity above their extensive irrigation canal projects, thereby harvesting solar energy while reducing the loss of irrigation water by solar evaporation. The state of Gujarat was first to implement the Canal Solar Power Project, to use 19,000 km (12,000 mi) long network of Narmada canals across the state for setting up solar panels to generate electricity. It was the first ever such project in India.
  12. 12. 12 BHIRA GENERATING STATION 2.1) GeographicalLocation Bhira Hydel Power Generating Station is situated in Raigad District about 160 kms from Mumbai. A branch road of 28 Kms from Varasgaon on Mumbai-Goa highway leads to the Power Station. 2.2) Introduction Bhira Power House was commissioned in the year 1927. This is the largest Hydro-Electric Generating Station of The Tata Power Company Limited. Originally, there were 5 Units of 18 MW each, supplied by M/s English Electric of UK. The sixth Unit (presently numbered as Unit No. 1) of 22 MW capacity was added during the year 1951-52. This was supplied by M/s Westinghouse of USA with Morgan Smith Turbines. Later on, the capacity of the other 5 units was raised to 22 MW each bychanging the windings, thus raising the Station capacity to 132 MW. A rehabilitation programme of Set Nos. 2 to 6 was taken up during 1974-77 to raise the Unit capacity to 25 MW each and Station capacity to 147 MW. Later on Unit No. 1 was also rehabilitated to a capacity of 25 MW in year 1984. 150 MW Bhira Pumped Storage Unit No. 1 commissioned in 1997, raising Station capacity to 300 MW. 2.3) Hydro Pump Storage Scheme Another type of hydropower technology is called pumped storage. In a pumped storage plant, water is pumped from a lower reservoir to a higher reservoir during off-peak times when electricity is relatively cheap, using electricity generated from other types of energy sources. Pumping the water uphill creates the potential to generate hydropower later on. When the hydropower power is needed, it is released back into the lower reservoir through turbines. Inevitably, some power is lost, but pumped storage systems can be up to 80 percent efficient. There is currently more than 90 GW of pumped storage capacity worldwide. The need to create storage resources to captureand storefor later use the generation from high penetrations of variable renewable energy (e.g. wind and solar) could increase interest in building new pumped storage projects. 150 MW pumped storage unit at Bhira hydro station has been commissioned in 1997. The available surplus energy at night can thus be utilised by running the unit on pump mode to provide economical peaking capacity to the grid during
  13. 13. 13 morning and evening peak hours. This is economical and convenient as compared to installation of the same size of conventional thermal unit. 2.4) Vision: To be the most admired and responsible Integrated Power Company with international footprint, delivering sustainable value to all stakeholders.
  14. 14. 14 HYDRAULIC LAYOUT Here is full hydraulic layout of Bhira generating station from Davdi approach channel to Bhira power house.
  15. 15. 15 The specification and description of main sections of this layout are described as follows: 3.1) Dams, Lakes, Intake and Tunnels 1. The water for Power generation is taken from the Mulshi lake in Pune district. A masonry dam in surkhi lime mortar was constructed across the Mula river at the junction of Mula and Neela rivers, in the year 1926. The catchment area of the lake is around 250 sq. kms. The length of the dam is 1097 meters. 2. Water from the lake is brought through two Tunnels before entering the valve house. Screens and intake gates are provided at the mouth of the Tunnels. During low lake level period, two approachchannels lead the water from lake to intake. Stop log arrangements are made in the approachchannels to isolate the intake from the lake. 3. Tunnel No. 1 is partially lined, 4395.545 M long, with a discharge capacity of 49.07 m 3 /Sec (1733.37 cusecs). Tunnel No. 2 is 4555 m long, concrete lined throughout the length, with a discharge capacity of 56.07 m 3 /Sec. (1980 Cusecs). The important feature of Tunnel No. 2 is that it runs through two hills. A conduit pipe of 3.96 m diameter connects these two parts. Tunnel No. 2 was commissioned in 1965. Tunnel No. 2 is used to feed PSU-1. Tunnel No. 2 is connected to valve house No. 3 through diversion tunnel. On diversion Tunnel, orifice type surge shaft has been constructed. 3.2) Valve House and Penstocks 1. Tunnels 1 and 2 terminate at valve houses 1 and 2 at Dongerwadi. Each valve house has six butterfly valves. Tunnel No. 2 is connected to BFV of PSU-1 at valve house No. 3 thorough diversion Tunnel. 2. Six Penstocks lead the water to the six Units in the Power House. These Penstocks are connected to both the valve houses (Y-connection). This arrangement helps in transferring the feed of any Penstocks to either of the tunnels. All Penstocks have automatic air valves. A stone trap is provided in each Penstocks between valve house and anchor block No. 17. 3.3) Auxiliary Reservoir 1. Tunnel No. 1 capacity was found inadequate to meet the increased demand due to addition of set No. 1. Hence Auxiliary Reservoir was constructed at Dongerwadi in the year. Facility was provided to transfer PenstockNos. 1 and 2 to Auxiliary Reservoir. System off peak periods were utilised to build up the level in Auxiliary Reservoir to be used during peak demand periods. This reservoir has a capacity of 227.5 KCM. out of which around 180 KCM can be
  16. 16. 16 utilised by draining upto RL 1826 feet. The full supply level is RL 1843 feet 6 inches. 2. After the construction of Tunnel No. 2, Auxiliary Reservoir is used only during low lake level operation. 3.4)Turbines and Governors 1. Each Unit has two turbines. Each Penstock is therefore bifurcated into two Penstocks at anchor block No. 7. Individual main inlet valves, operated by water servomotors are provided at powerhouse end. 2. For each Unit (from Nos. 2 to 6), there are two integrally cast runners (Pelton wheels) in 13% chromium steel with 18 buckets. The capacity of each runner is 18000 BHP at 440 M head. Unit No. 1 has two runners of 21 buckets each and has a total capacity of 30,500 BHP. Spear and deflector arrangement acts as regulating mechanism. 3. Electro-hydraulic type ofgovernors has replaced the fly-ball type governors on unit Nos. 2 to 6. These governors sense the rate of change of speed along with change in speed and hence act fast for regulation. (CGL 2005 electronic governing system has replaced the electro-hydraulic type governor on Unit No. 2 in 1999.)
  17. 17. 17 110KV/22KV LAYOUT Since generator 1,3,4,6 are supplying to 110KV bus in similar fashion and generator 2&5 are supplying to 110KV bus in similar fashion. So for the ease of understanding we have divided the layout in two parts. 4.1) STUDY OF GENERATOR 1,3,4,6 These generators are generating 25 MW at 11KV which is supplied to generating transformer in between CT, PT and generator protection is provided. Generating transformers step ups the 11 KV supply to 110KV. The HV sideof this generating transformers is directly feeding 110KV bus. In between proper transformer
  18. 18. 18 protection is provided and a CT is connected for measuring and protection purpose. 4.2) STUDY OF GENERATOR 2&5 These generators are generating 25 MW at 11 KV. They are directly supplying to 11KV bus section-2 & 11KV bus section-5. In between proper generator protection (differential protection, field ground fault protection, overvoltage protection & overheating protection) is provided and in line CT and PT are connected for measuring and protection purpose. The description of 11KV bus section is as follows: 4.2.1) 11KV Bus section 2&5 Bus section 2 Bus section 5 a) station transformer 1 b) generating transformer c) distribution transformer 1 d) BPSU 1 a) station transformer 2 b) generating transformer 5 c) distribution transformer 2 d) BPSU 2 The incomers of these bus sections are generator 2 & 5. Following are the main feeders of these bus section. These feeders are provided with proper overcurrent and overvoltage protection and CT’s and PT are connected for measuring and protection purpose. The description of these feeders is as follows: a) Station transformer 1 & 2 :- These transformer are stepping down 11 KV supply to 440V . And LV side of these transformers is directly feeding to 440V bus. The description of 440V bus is described further. b) Generating transformer 2 & 5 :- These transformer step ups the 11 KV supply to 110KV. The HV side of this generating transformers is directly feeding 110KV bus. In between proper transformer protection (differential protection, buchholz protection) is provided and a CT is connected for measuring and protection purpose. c)Distribution transformer 1 & 2 :- These transformer are stepping up 11 KV supply to 22 KV. And HV side of these transformers is directly feeding to 22KV bus. The description of 22KV bus is as follows: 4.2.2) 22KV bus :-This bus is sectioned in three parts bus-1, bus-2 , bus-3. Bus1 & bus-3are directly fed by HV side ofdistribution transformer 1&3. Proper
  19. 19. 19 bus protection (differential current protection) is provided and CT’s and PT are connected for measuring and protection purpose. The main feeders of this bus are:  Senior camp  HeadWorks-1  HeadWorks-2 4.3) 110 KV Main & Transfer bus system: This bus is sectioned in three parts Bus 1, Bus-2 & Bus-3. Bus 1 is fed by generator 1, 2& 3while bus 2 is fed by generator 4, 5& 6. In normal operation transfer bus is isolated by circuit breaker and not in operation. Bus 1 & 3 are continuous via circuit breaker and bus 2 is isolated by circuit breaker in normal operation. During fault in bus 1, we can isolate it by circuit breaker connected parallel to bus 2 and bus 3 will operate normally. Similar operation takes place during fault in bus 3. During maintenance of circuit breaker connected parallel to bus 2, we can make bus 1 and bus 3 continuous by closing the circuit breaker across bus 2. 4.4) Protection equipments : Following are the protection equipments used in plant- A) Circuit breaker: All the 110KV circuit breaker are outdoor SF6(sulphur hexafluoride) type 3150/300 Amps at 145KV insulation level class. In such circuit breakers, sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) gas is used as the arc quenching medium. The SF6 is an electro-negative gas and has a strong tendency to absorb free electrons. The contacts of the breaker are opened in a high pressure flow of SF6 gas and an arc is struck between them. The conducting free electrons in the arc are rapidly captured by the gas to form relatively immobile negative ions. This loss of conducting electrons in the arc quickly builds up enough insulation strength to extinguish the arc. The SF6 circuit breakers have been found to be very effective for high power and high voltage service. Advantages: Due to the superior arc quenching properties of SF6 gas, the SF6 circuit breakers have many advantages. Some of them are listed below:  Due to the superior arc quenching property of SF6, such circuit breakers have very short arcing time.  Since the dielectric strength of SF6 gas is 2 to 3 times that of air, such breakers can interrupt much larger currents.
  20. 20. 20  The closed gas enclosure keeps the interior dry so that there is no moisture problem.  There is no risk of fire in such breakers because SF6 gas is non- inflammable.  The SF6 breakers have low maintenance cost, light foundation requirements and minimum auxiliary equipment.
  21. 21. 21 ANALYSIS OF 440V BUS The main operation of this 440V bus is to feed the auxiliaries of the plant. This bus is sectioned in three parts namely Bus-1, Bus-2 and Bus-3. The incoming of bus-1 is through ST-1 which is fed by generator 2. The incoming of bus-3 is through ST-2 which is fed by generator 5. An OPH DG set is connected to bus 2 which is for back up purposeand generally not in operation. Two circuit breakers are connected between bus 1-2 and bus 2-3. In normal operation these circuit breakers are open so bus 2&3 works separately. If there is fault in Incomer-1 or incomer-2, then we can operate auxiliaries using DG set by closing circuit breakers. For the purposeof balancing energy across this bus, we have visited the location ofdifferent panels and feeders across 440V bus and pointed out the energy meters present over feeders and marked the faulty energy meters. The modified EPH 440V distribution layout is as follows:
  22. 22. 22 Remarks: 1) During inspection, we have found that energy meters at TOP 1 & TOP 2 need to be calibrated. Reasonoffault: Proper turn ratio of CT is not entered in Satec energy meter 2)Energy Meters at TAP1, TAP2 & secondary side of lightning transformer 1 are not in service(OFF). 3)Feeders where energy meters are required – Bus-1 a) 440V ACDB (auto c/o) b) 110 KV SYRD delta supply c) AC package unit 1 Bus-3 a) C/R chiller b) 110 KV SYRD We have informed authority to provide energy meters at specified feeders.
  23. 23. 23 5.1) Calculationof 440V Bus S.No Main Feeders(Station 1) Data (day 1) In units Data (day 2) In units Energy consumed(24 hrs) in units 1 Incomer 1 8831 12033 3202 2 VT pump 1 207644 207684 40*10=400 3 AUX ACDB 021276 021494 218 4 Lightning xmer1(primary) 729944 730142 198 5 SQ pump feeder 016491 017018 527 6 TOP 1 22766 22766 0 7 220 KV switch 59406 59965 559 8 Gen strip heater 637921 637921 0 Since the energy meters of some feeders need to be caliberated, so we refer theoretical calculation for actual consumption in 24 hours. Formula used for theoretical calculation:- 1. Units consumed= Rating(in KWH)×running time 2. Units consumed= (V×I×Cosø×running time)/1000 S.No. Feeders (Station 1) Loads connected Calculation of energy Energy consumed(24 hrs) in units 1 440V ACDB (Auto C/O) I R Compressor 18×440×.85×24 1000 27 2 TOP-1 GT 1,6 2.6×.75×24×2 93.6 GT 2,3,4,5 3.2×24×4 307.2 3 TAP-1 Set 1 GOP 7.5×24 180 Set 1 AC BOP .75×24 18 Set 2,3 GOP 4×24×2 192 Set 2,3AC BOP 5.5×24×2 270 4 AC Unit Motor 3×440×.85×24 1000 26.9 Fan 1×440×.85×24 1000 8.9 4 AHU’s .5×440×.85×8 1000 1.5 Chiller pump 5.5×24 132 Calculation for station 2 incomer:
  24. 24. 24 S.No Main Feeders(Station 2) Data (day 1) In units Data (day 2) In units Energy consumed(24 hrs) in units 1 Incomer 2 78433 81171 2738 2 VT pump 2,3 192669 192722 53*10=530 3 AUX ACDB 860552 860722 170 4 Lightning xmer2(primary) 964469 964715 246 Lightning xmer2(sec) 73316 73550 235 5 SQ pump feeder 624383 624831 448 6 TOP 2 15673 15678 5 7 AUX ACDB auto c/o 052685 052686 1 8 AC unit 000133 000133 00 S.No. Feeders (Station 2) Loads connected Calculation of energy Energy consumed(24 hrs) in units 1 CR Chiller CR Chiller 58×440×.85×24 1000 520 2 TAP 2 Set 4,5,6 GOP 4×24×3 288 Set 4,5,6 AC BOP 5.5×24×3 396 While Studying the 440V bus, we have notified that there are some feeders which are either not in use or having negligible energy consumption at bus section 1 & 3 which are as follows: at Bus section1 at Bus section3  U#2CLCS  U#3CLCS  U Heat run supply  Generator strip heaters  Kirloskar compressors  Filteration plant  Compressor  Heat run supply  Kirloskar compressors  Crane  Set#6 CLCS  New EOT CRANE  Unit#CLCS  Unit#5CLCS Calculation: From the table mentioned above, the total energy audit of 24hrs is given
  25. 25. 25 Total accountable units in Bus 1 = 3159.1 units Total non-accountable units in Bus 1 = 42.9 units Total accountable units in Bus 2 = 2599 units Total non-accountable units in Bus 2= 139 units Hence incoming energy and outgoing energy across 440V bus is almost same. Remark: From the above calculation we have concluded that there are some feeders which consumes large amount of energy and we are not monitoring their readings. So we recommend to install energy meters at following feeders. Bus-1 a) 440V ACDB (auto c/o) b) 110 KV SYRD delta supply c) AC package unit 1 Bus-3 a) C/R chiller b) 110 KV SYRD Case study: Since AC unit consumes large amount of energy, hence it is necessary to account this energy. As we found that the bus-1 feeds AC unit but there is no energy meter at this feeder. But there is an alternative way to find the energy consumed by AC unit. Since we can feed AC unit also by bus-3 and there is an energy meter at this feeder, so by transferring the AC unit load to bus-3 we can calculate the energy consumed by AC unit. Result of case study: We have transferred the load of AC unit from Bus-1 to Bus-3 and the data is as follows: Reading of day1 =0133 units Reading of day2 =0133 units Since meter is showing zero consumption but actually there is consumption. Hence we suggest to calibrate energy meter at AC unit (Bus-3). 5.2) Suggestions: 1) Generating transformers (1 to 6 in OPH) are designed to have maximum efficiency at full load. Whereas they are in service on an average 20 hours, but loaded on an average 10 hours per day. Hence we propose to design these Generating transformers to have maximum efficiency at half full load while replacing in the next few years.
  26. 26. 26 2) During inspection of 440V bus, we have found that generator strip heater in bus section-1 was in service. Since this strip heater is generally not in use so it is operated manually. But it consumes large amount of energy during operation and manual switching operation results in energy loss. So we suggest its operation should be made automatic. 3)-To reduce the auxiliary consumption in plant we recommend to control the auxiliaries using PLC and communicate them with SCADA, which will provide instantaneous data, and will help us in monitoring every day consumption in plant.
  27. 27. 27 3MW SOLAR PLANT This solar plant was constructed under Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission, which was launched onthe 11th January, 2010 bythe Prime Minister. The Mission has set the ambitious target of deploying 20,000 MW of grid connected solar power by 2022 is aimed at reducing the cost of solar power generation in the country through (i) long term policy; (ii) large scale deployment goals; (iii) aggressive R&D; and (iv) domestic production of critical raw materials, components and products,as aresult to achieve grid tariff parity by2022. Mission
  28. 28. 28 will create an enabling policy framework to achieve this objective and make India a global leader in solar energy. Tata Power Solar commissioned a 3 MW power plant for Tata Power in March 2011 using the cells and modules manufactured inhouse. This is Maharashtra’s largest grid connected solar power plant built on 13 acres of land with the natural landscape ofthe site preserved, which continues to attract locals and visitors. The project was completed in a record time of 9 months and made operational in 2 phases – 1 MW and 2 MW, commissioned in January and March 2011 respectively. Land area : 13 acres No of modules : 16,686 Module technology : Crystalline Si, 230 Wp Inverter : Xantrax 500 kW SCADA : Schneider Homes powered : 2 million homes per year TATA solar power plant, Mulshi consists of total 16,686 modules (55,562 in 1MW & 11,124 in 2MW plant). Each module consists 72 cells (12×6) which generates 230V, 5.5 Amps, 180 Watts. 18 modules form a string. These strings are connected to SCB (String combiner box). There are 40 such SCB’s in 1 MW plant and 110 SCB’s in 2 MW plant. The output of one SCBis 600 V dc, 35-45 Amps. These SCB’s arecombined and feed to MJB (Main junction box). There are 2 MJB’s in 1 MW plant and 4 MJB’s in 2 MW plant. The capacity of 1 MJB is 250 KW which are further connected to inverter each of 500KW capacity. The inverter generates AC supply 315V and fed it to transformer, which step up 315V to 22KV. The HV side of this transformer feeds to 22KV HT switchgear which is directly connected to 22 KV grid headwork. RooftopSolar: Rooftop solar is increasingly cost-effective for home owners, business owners, and their communities. Reductions in technology prices, innovative financing, and growing networks of solar installers and financial partners all helped drive down the prices for household systems. The falling price of rooftop PV systems results from improvements in the technology and economies of scale among manufacturers. Global solar panel production (for rooftop and other markets) increased from 24,000 megawatts (MW) in 2010 to 40,000 MW in 2014.
  29. 29. 29 STUDY OF SENIOR CAMP The layout of senior camp is shown:
  30. 30. 30 The senior camp is fed by 22 KV bus through sub-station transformer which is 22KV/440V step down transformer. The main feeders of sr. camp are: i. GAWDA, CLUB ii. TENNIS COURT SIDE iii. PROJECT GUEST HOUSE iv. TATA INDICOM v. STREET LIGHT vi. VERMA, KALRA vii. MESS OVEN viii. DHARMAN, LONHDE, ANEX ix. RAILKAR SIDE x. SUSHANT, V. KAMBLE Remarks: 1. Tennis court consumes large amount of energy as halogen light are used there but there is no energy meter. 2. All the energy meters used in the camp are analog and outdated which are not very much accurate. They need to be replaced by digital meters. 7.1) Suggestions: 1. Street lighting is the main source of auxiliary consumption. Though it is required till 22.30, streets are hardly used after that. Hence we recommend switching off alternate street lights which could save huge amount of energy. 2. We also recommend to replace street lights with solar street lights. 3. Replace tube lights of the plant with LED’s. 4. Installing rooftop solar for plant, office and households could reduce significant amount of auxiliary consumption. 5. In walkaway connecting the 110KV SYRD and 220KV SYRD, tube lights are used for lighting. But in order to save energy, natural light can be used during day-time. So we suggest to use transparent glasses on walkaway roof at proper distance which may save sufficient amount of energy. 6. SQ pump fulfils the requirement of water in camps and continuously in operation. Continuous operation ofSQ pump is wastage of both water and energy. So we suggest its operation should be made automatic.
  31. 31. 31 8. TAP and TOP consumes significant amount of energy and these are in continuous operation even when generators are not in operation. So we suggest to switch off TAP and TOP auxiliary during this period. 9. For the efficient use of energy, awareness program need to be conducted in Camp-A and Camp-B in a period of 6 months.
  32. 32. 32 REFERENCES 1. www.ucsusa.org/clean-energy/renewable-energy/rooftop-solar-panels- benefits-costs-policies#.V1pf-Lt97IV 2. www.ucsusa.org/clean_energy/our-energy-choices/renewable-energy/how- hydroelectric-energy.html#.V1paIrt97IX 3. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bhira_Hydroelectric_Project 4.https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electricity_sector_in_India 5.http://www.mercindia.org.in/ 6. Bhira Generating Station operation manual 7. Electrical Machines by Dr.P S Bimbhra (Textbook) 8. Power System Protection and Switchgear by Badri Ram & D N Vishwakarma (Textbook)

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