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Infrared Thermography 
- A Predictive Maintenance Technology 
Shivaji Choudhury
Predictive Maintenance Technologies 
 Predictive maintenance attempts to detect 
the onset of a degradation mechanism wit...
Predictive maintenance flow chart 
1. Condition Monitoring 
is a part of 
Predictive 
Maintenance.
Common predictive technology 
applications (NASA 2000)
Thermography 
 Thermal measurement technology 
measures temperatures of key 
equipment parts or areas being 
monitored. 
...
Technology 
 There are two types of equipment used in 
this technology. 
 Contact methods of temperature 
measurement, u...
Advantages of Non-Contact 
Thermal Measurement 
 • Target in motion . 
 • Target electrically hot . Current-conducting 
...
Infrared in the Electromagnetic 
Spectrum
Infrared thermography (IRT) – 
 Infrared thermography is based on 
measuring the distribution of radiant 
thermal energy ...
Non-Contact Temperature Measurement
Infrared Applications 
1. Electrical 
2. Mechanical 
3. Commercial buildings 
4. Miscellaneous
Infrared Applications -Mechanical 
1. • Refractory 
buildings (insulation, 
air leakage, roofs) 
2. • Reinforcing bar 
loc...
Infrared Applications -Electrical 
1. • Electrical connections 
(loose/corroded) 
2. • Switchyard disconnects 
3. • Transf...
Infrared Applications -Miscellaneous 
1. Thermal plumes . 
2. Commercial buildings. 
3. Heat transfer evaluation of heat 
...
Electrical Applications 
 The primary use for infrared thermography, 
and usually the most straightforward 
application f...
Electrical - High Electrical Resistance 
 High electrical resistance is the most common 
problem that can be identified b...
Electrical Infrared Thermal Imaging 
 The National Fire Protection Association - 
NFPA© 70B 2010 states that infrared ele...
Power lines and Sub-stations
Electrical Applications: 
Motor 
Poor rotor or stator 
winding condition shows 
as heating of motor body.
Electrical Applications 
 Transformer 
Cold cooling fins 
due to low oil level 
in a transformer.
Electronics :Printed circuit board 
 Typical reasons for 
temperature hotspots 
or deviations 
1. Under designed 
compone...
Mechanical Applications 
 Friction 
1. In the case of rotating or moving equipment, the result 
of friction is readily ob...
Mechanical Applications 
Washer Fluid Pump 
It appears the 
coupling has failed 
or is out of 
alignment.
Mechanical Applications 
Conveyer Belt 
 Seized conveyer belt roller as indicated by 
elevated temperatures in belt/rolle...
Thermal imaging :Heating, self-combustion 
monitoring coal stock
Mechanical Applications 
 Steam Traps 
Leakage from a 
steam trap.
Infrared Applications -Mechanical 
Insulation 
 Insulation on piping and equipment can 
be tested for integrity using an ...
Commercial Buildings 
1. Buildings can be 
inspected for energy 
conservation with 
an infrared imager. 
2. Typical proble...
Thermal Plume Detection 
 The use of an infrared imager in a 
helicopter or airplane can assist the plant in 
verifying t...
Correlation of thermal analysis with 
other technologies 
Technology Correlation 
method 
indication 
vibration Time coinc...
THANKING YOU
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Infrared thermography

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Infrared thermography

  1. 1. Infrared Thermography - A Predictive Maintenance Technology Shivaji Choudhury
  2. 2. Predictive Maintenance Technologies  Predictive maintenance attempts to detect the onset of a degradation mechanism with the goal of correcting that degradation prior to significant deterioration in the component or equipment.  The diagnostic capabilities of predictive maintenance technologies have increased in recent years with advances made in sensor technologies.
  3. 3. Predictive maintenance flow chart 1. Condition Monitoring is a part of Predictive Maintenance.
  4. 4. Common predictive technology applications (NASA 2000)
  5. 5. Thermography  Thermal measurement technology measures temperatures of key equipment parts or areas being monitored.  Abnormal temperatures indicate developing problems.
  6. 6. Technology  There are two types of equipment used in this technology.  Contact methods of temperature measurement, using thermometers and thermocouples, are still commonly used for many applications.  non-contact measurement using infrared sensors has become an increasingly desirable alternative to conventional methods.
  7. 7. Advantages of Non-Contact Thermal Measurement  • Target in motion .  • Target electrically hot . Current-conducting equipment and components present a hazard to personnel and instruments alike.  • Target fragile .  • Target very small .  • Target remote .  • Target temperature changing .
  8. 8. Infrared in the Electromagnetic Spectrum
  9. 9. Infrared thermography (IRT) –  Infrared thermography is based on measuring the distribution of radiant thermal energy (heat) emitted from a target surface and converting this to a surface temperature map or thermogram.  Infrared thermography is the technique of producing an image of invisible infrared light emitted by objects due to their thermal condition.
  10. 10. Non-Contact Temperature Measurement
  11. 11. Infrared Applications 1. Electrical 2. Mechanical 3. Commercial buildings 4. Miscellaneous
  12. 12. Infrared Applications -Mechanical 1. • Refractory buildings (insulation, air leakage, roofs) 2. • Reinforcing bar location 3. • Underground leaks 4. • Steam traps 5. • Boiler tubes 6• Valves (leakage, blockage) 7• Bearings 8• Couplings 9• Insulation (wet, damaged, coverage) 10• Pipes (thin areas, blockage, missing lining)
  13. 13. Infrared Applications -Electrical 1. • Electrical connections (loose/corroded) 2. • Switchyard disconnects 3. • Transformers (connections, arrestors, cooling) 4. • Transformers (internals) 5. • Misaligned contacts, brushes, fuses, fuse clips, holders 6. • Splices, crimps 7. • Motor Control Center (MCC) 8• Conductors (stranded, undersized, damaged) 9• Inductive heating (structure, bus ducts) 10• Batteries (connections, cells) 11• Open circuits (capacitors) 12• Load imbalance 13• Printed circuit boards 14• Motors (frames, bearings, connections) 15. detecting electrical deficiencies
  14. 14. Infrared Applications -Miscellaneous 1. Thermal plumes . 2. Commercial buildings. 3. Heat transfer evaluation of heat exchangers . 4. Condenser tube leaks, condenser vacuum leaks. 5. Boiler casing flue gas leaks.
  15. 15. Electrical Applications  The primary use for infrared thermography, and usually the most straightforward application for it, is in the area of electrical predictive maintenance. Within this area, there are three main categories of problems: 1. high electrical resistance. 2. Hot spots caused by inductive currents 3. open circuits.
  16. 16. Electrical - High Electrical Resistance  High electrical resistance is the most common problem that can be identified by using an infrared imager. Based on Ohm’s law, power (watts) is calculated as the square of the current multiplied by the resistance (P = I2R). When the resistance is high, the power that is dissipated will be high.  A higher power translates into a higher temperature at the same location. This creates the hot spots that are detected by the infrared thermal imager.
  17. 17. Electrical Infrared Thermal Imaging  The National Fire Protection Association - NFPA© 70B 2010 states that infrared electrical surveys should be performed on an annual basis.
  18. 18. Power lines and Sub-stations
  19. 19. Electrical Applications: Motor Poor rotor or stator winding condition shows as heating of motor body.
  20. 20. Electrical Applications  Transformer Cold cooling fins due to low oil level in a transformer.
  21. 21. Electronics :Printed circuit board  Typical reasons for temperature hotspots or deviations 1. Under designed components 2. Component failure 3. Improper soldering 4. Broken traces 5. Reversed polarity
  22. 22. Mechanical Applications  Friction 1. In the case of rotating or moving equipment, the result of friction is readily observable as an increase in temperature. Typical situations evolve in the area of bearings on pumps and motors. 2. If a bearing or coupling is inadequately lubricated, internal friction can cause heating, which can usually be observed during operation.  Valve Leakage /Blockage 1. The leakage of fluid past a normally closed valve might be easy to observe with an infrared imager.
  23. 23. Mechanical Applications Washer Fluid Pump It appears the coupling has failed or is out of alignment.
  24. 24. Mechanical Applications Conveyer Belt  Seized conveyer belt roller as indicated by elevated temperatures in belt/roller contact area.
  25. 25. Thermal imaging :Heating, self-combustion monitoring coal stock
  26. 26. Mechanical Applications  Steam Traps Leakage from a steam trap.
  27. 27. Infrared Applications -Mechanical Insulation  Insulation on piping and equipment can be tested for integrity using an infrared imager.  IR applications include the assurance of complete coverage of the area, thinning/degradation of the insulation, and wet insulation.
  28. 28. Commercial Buildings 1. Buildings can be inspected for energy conservation with an infrared imager. 2. Typical problems that can be found include HVAC ,air infiltration or exfiltration, poor insulation, and wet roofs.  Roof inspection
  29. 29. Thermal Plume Detection  The use of an infrared imager in a helicopter or airplane can assist the plant in verifying thermal discharge patterns in cooling ponds or other bodies of water. The thermal plume, or outfall, is easily observed from the air.  The hottest spots on the surface of the water are easily located. This facilitates routine environmental monitoring for thermal discharge.
  30. 30. Correlation of thermal analysis with other technologies Technology Correlation method indication vibration Time coincident Increasing or already high vibration at the same time as increasing temperature lubrication Time sequence High and or increasing large wear particles Debris analysis Time sequence Damage has occurred or is occurring Leak detection Time coincident Abnormal temperature coincident with acoustic signals indicating internal leak of gas or fluid Electric circuit testing Time coincident High resistance in energized circuit radiating abnormal heat
  31. 31. THANKING YOU

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