Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Drug Administration


Published on

  • Be the first to comment

Drug Administration

  1. 1. Drug Administration B. Eric E. Desquitado, M.D. Olivarez College Health-Related Sciences
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>Drug administration is a basic activity in nursing practice. </li></ul><ul><li>Nurses must know all the components of a drug order. </li></ul><ul><li>They must question orders that are incomplete, unclear, or if the prescription is outside the known recommended range. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Introduction <ul><li>Nurses are accountable for the safe administration of medications. </li></ul><ul><li>They are legally liable if they give a prescribed drug with an incorrect dosage or if the drug is contraindicated for the patient’s health status. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Introduction <ul><li>If you are not sure about the expected therapeutic effect, contraindications, dosage, potential side effects, or adverse reactions and interactions of a medication, do not administer it. </li></ul><ul><li>Familiarize yourself with it first. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Medication Errors <ul><li>Potentially serious to life-threatening. </li></ul><ul><li>Each of the traditional five rights of drug administration increases client safety and helps to minimize the risk of litigation. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Traditional Five Rights <ul><li>Right client </li></ul><ul><li>Right drug </li></ul><ul><li>Right dose </li></ul><ul><li>Right time </li></ul><ul><li>Right route </li></ul>
  7. 7. Right Client <ul><li>Can be assured by checking the client’s identification bracelet and by having the client state his or her name. </li></ul><ul><li>Client identification should be verified each time a medication is administered. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Right Client <ul><li>Clients with similar last names should have warnings on identification tools. </li></ul><ul><li>Identification bracelets may have codes for allergy status. </li></ul><ul><li>Some clients may not have identification bracelets. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Right Drug <ul><li>Medications may only be prescribed by a physician, dentist, podiatrist, or a licensed health care provider with authority from the state to order medications ( e.g. , an advanced practice registered nurse). </li></ul>
  10. 10. Right Drug <ul><li>Prescriptions may be written on a prescription pad or an order sheet (institutionalized client) and signed by the duly authorized person. </li></ul><ul><li>A telephone order (TO) or a verbal order (VO) for medication must be cosigned by the health care provider within 24 h. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Right Drug <ul><li>An incomplete drug order should never be administered or followed. </li></ul><ul><li>To avoid drug error, the drug label should be read: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>At the time of contact with the drug bottle or container </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Before pouring the drug </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After pouring the drug </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Right Drug <ul><li>Drugs may be given as standing orders, one-time or single dose, PRN, or STAT. </li></ul><ul><li>First dose, one-time, or PRN medication should always be checked against the original orders. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Components of a Drug Order <ul><li>Date and time the order is written </li></ul><ul><li>Drug name (generic preferred) </li></ul><ul><li>Drug dosage </li></ul><ul><li>Route administration </li></ul><ul><li>Frequency and duration of administration </li></ul>
  14. 14. Components of a Drug Order <ul><li>Any special instructions for withholding or adjusting dosage based on nursing assessment, drug effectiveness, or laboratory results </li></ul><ul><li>Physician or other health care provider’s signature (or name if TO or VO) </li></ul><ul><li>Signatures of licensed practitioners taking TO or VO </li></ul>
  15. 15. Right Dose <ul><li>The dose prescribed for a particular client. </li></ul><ul><li>Normally within the recommended range for the particular drug. </li></ul><ul><li>Must consider drug availability, the prescribed drug dose, and the client’s weight range. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Right Dose <ul><li>Drug administration has been automated with links to the pharmacy information system and current clinical client data. </li></ul><ul><li>Two methods of drug distribution: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stock Method </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unit Dose Method </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Drug Distribution Methods <ul><li>Stock Method </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Drugs are stored on unit and dispersed to all clients from the same container. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Always available, cost-efficiency of large quantities. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drug errors are more prevalent with multiple ‘pourers.’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More risk of abuse by health care workers. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Drug Distribution Methods <ul><li>Stock Method </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Less accountability for amount used; unable to track usage. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased opportunity for contamination. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Drug Distribution Methods <ul><li>Unit Dose Method </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Drugs are individually wrapped and labeled for single doses for 24 h use. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eliminated many drug dosage errors. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Saves time (no dose calculation necessary). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Client is billed for specific doses. </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Drug Distribution Methods <ul><li>Unit Dose Method </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More accountability. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less chance for contamination and error. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Potential delay in receiving drug. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not immediately replaceable if contaminated. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More expensive. </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Right Time <ul><li>Time at which the prescribed dose should be administered. </li></ul><ul><li>Doses are given to maintain the plasma level of the drug. </li></ul><ul><li>Military time has the advantages of reducing administration errors and decreasing documentation. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Right Time <ul><li>Drugs may be given 30 mins before or after the prescribed time if the administration time is > 2 h. </li></ul><ul><li>Drugs that are affected by food intake should be given on an empty stomach. </li></ul><ul><li>Drugs that irritate the gastric mucosa should be given with food. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Right Time <ul><li>Drug administration may be adjusted to fit the client’s lifestyle, activities, tolerances, or preferences. </li></ul><ul><li>Check if the client is scheduled for any diagnostic or therapeutic procedures that contraindicate the administration of medications. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Right Time <ul><li>Check drug expiration dates. </li></ul><ul><li>Administer antibiotics at even intervals to maintain therapeutic blood levels. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Right Route <ul><li>Necessary for adequate or appropriate absorption. </li></ul><ul><li>Common routes are as follows: oral, sublingual, per feeding tube, topical, inhalation, instillation, suppository, intradermal, subcutaneous, intramuscular, and intravenous. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Right Route <ul><li>The client should be able to swallow adequately before oral medications are given. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not mix medications with other substances before consultation with a pharmacist. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Right Route <ul><li>Use aseptic technique when administering drugs. </li></ul><ul><li>Stay with the client until oral drugs are swallowed. </li></ul><ul><li>If it is necessary to combine a medication with another substance, this should be explained to the patient. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Five + Five Rights <ul><li>Five additional rights essential to professional nursing practice: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Right assessment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Right documentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Patient’s right to education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Right evaluation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Patient’s right to refuse </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Right Assessment <ul><li>Some drugs require monitoring or examination prior to administration. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Right Documentation <ul><li>Appropriate information regarding the administered drug should be immediately recorded. </li></ul><ul><li>This includes the name, dose, route, date/time, and the nurse’s initials or signature </li></ul>
  31. 31. Right Documentation <ul><li>Client response should be documented after the administration of narcotics, nonnarcotic analgesics, sedatives, antiemetics, and adverse reactions to the medications. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not commit items to memory! </li></ul>
  32. 32. Right to Education <ul><li>The client should receive accurate and thorough information about the medication and how it relates to his or her particular situation. </li></ul><ul><li>Client teaching also includes therapeutic purpose, possible side effects, diet restrictions or requirements, skill of administration, and laboratory monitoring. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Right Evaluation <ul><li>The effectiveness of the medication is determined by the client’s response to the medication. </li></ul><ul><li>Determine the extent of any side effects or adverse reactions as well. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Right to Refuse <ul><li>If a patient refuses a treatment, the nurse should determine the reason for the refusal, when possible and take reasonable measures to facilitate carrying out the treatment plan. </li></ul><ul><li>In order to decide whether to accept or refuse a treatment, the patient should be given necessary knowledge. </li></ul>
  35. 35. Informed Consent <ul><li>Involves full disclosure. </li></ul><ul><li>The participant must comprehend the information (written in common language). </li></ul><ul><li>Literacy level of the participant should be determined and recorded. </li></ul><ul><li>Must be mentally competent to make the decision. </li></ul>
  36. 36. Right to Refuse <ul><li>The client must know the risks of refusing the medication and reinforce the reason for the medication. </li></ul><ul><li>If refusal is resolute, it must be documented immediately and the superior or other health care providers should be informed. </li></ul>
  37. 37. Assignment <ul><li>Read, understand, and rehearse pages 29 to 39 of your main textbook. </li></ul><ul><li>It is possible that it will be included in the exam. </li></ul>