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1
A PROJECT REPORT
ON
“PEDAL POWERED HACKSAW
&WASHING MACHINE”
SUBMITTED FOR THE PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF REQUREMENT FOR
THE...
2
CERTIFICATE
This is certified that the project entitled “PEDAL POWERED HACKSAW &
WASHING MACHINE” in the partial fulfill...
3
DECLARATION
We hereby declare that we are Student of Mechanical, BBDNITM, Lucknow. We are working on
project under the g...
4
ABSTRACT
Pedal power is the transfer of energy from a human source through the use of a foot pedal and
crank system. Thi...
5
The main aim is to reduce the human effort for machining various materials such as wooden
blocks, steel, PVC and washing...
6
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
We express our deep sense of gratitude and indebtedness to HOD Mr. SATYA
PARKASH ASTHANA, MECHANICAL DEP...
7
TABLE OF CONTENT
CERTIFICATE I
DECLARATION II
ABSTRACT III
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT IV
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 11-14
 THEORY 11
...
8
15. CYCLE FRAME ARRANGEMENT 36
16. BATTERY 36
17. MULTI-METER 38
18. SCREW JACK 39
19. BENCH VICE 39
 MANUFACTURING PRO...
9
LIST OF FIGURES
 Fig 1 Pedal Powered Hacksaw & Washing Machine
 Fig 2 Women Washing Laundry in Guatemala. Currently, W...
10
 Fig 27 Cycle Frame
 Fig 28 Battery
 Fig 29 Multimeter
 Fig 30 Vice
 Fig 31 Screw Jack
 Fig 32 Welding
 Fig 33 W...
11
CHAPTER :1
INTRODUCTION
12
PEDAL POWERED HACKSAW & WASHING MACHINE
Fig 1 Pedal Powered Hacksaw & Washing Machine
13
PEDAL POWERED HACKSAW & WASHING MACHINE
1. A.: THEORY
Pedal power hacksaw is the transfer of energy from a human source...
14
Several local organizations across Central America and Africa have already expressed an interest in
pedal-powered techn...
15
1. C: Ease ofUse
It will be easy to use by younger and older person. After loading the machine, washing
requires three ...
16
1. D: NEED
In rural areas, due to the lack of time, money and better transportation, cutting and
machining is a very he...
17
CHAPTER :2
LITERATURE SURVEY
18
LITERATURE SURVEY OF THE PEDAL POWERED
HACKSAW & WASHING MACHINE
The Pedal Powered Hacksaw and washing machine is worki...
19
Linxu, Weinan bai, Jingyu rue, and Qiang li designed and developed an pedal driven washing machine,
The main objective ...
20
CHAPTER :3
FABRICATION
OF THE
PEDAL POWERED HACKSAW
&
WASHING MACHINE
21
FABRICATION OF THE PEDAL POWERED HACKSAW &
WASHING MACHINE
(A) COMPONENTS USED IN THE PROJECTS
3.A.1: DC GENERATOR
A DC...
22
The commutator causes the current in the coils to be switched as the rotor turns, keeping the magnetic
poles of the rot...
23
Large brushes are desired for a larger brush contact area to maximize motor output, but small brushes
are desired for l...
24
3.A.4: SEAT
A seat is place to sit, often referring to the area one sits upon as opposed to other elements like armrest...
25
Pedals were initially attached to cranks connecting directly to the driven (usually front) wheel. The
safety bicycle, a...
26
3. A.6: Gear
Bicycle gearing is the aspect of bicycle drive train that determines the relation between the cadence, the...
27
3.A.7: HACKSAW
The sawing machine is a machine tool designed to cut material to a desired length or
contour. It functio...
28
3.A.8:HACKSAW BLADE
The selections of the blade depend upon the materials which have to cut by the hacksaw.
These blade...
29
3.A.9: BEARING
A bearing is a machine element that constrains relative motion between moving parts to
only the desired ...
30
3.A.10: CHAIN AND SPROCKET
When creating your own human powered vehicles, a chain drive will likely be your chosen
powe...
31
Fig 14 Single speed (top) and multi-speed (bottom)
Figure 2 gives you a much clearer view of the difference between a 1...
32
Fig 16 Separated Chain
After breaking a chain with the link tool, it will look like the one shown in Figure 5, with the...
33
After pressing a link back into a chain, the pin will have forced the plates together, causing a stiff link as
shown in...
34
Figure 9 shows a common 6 speed freewheel and the 3/32" chain that fits into it. Although the larger single
speed (1/8"...
35
Multi-speed chain will not fit into the teeth of a single speed freehub or coaster hub as shown in Figure 11,
so you do...
36
3.A.11: CATCHER
Catcher is a part of rickshaw on which sprocket could be mount. on it threaded design is
made .by using...
37
3.A.14: DRUM AS A WASHING CHAMBER
It is just a chamber in which water is filled with detergent further cloth is put ins...
38
3.A.15: CYCLE FRAME ARRANGEMENT
A bicycle frame is the main component of a bicycle, on to which wheels and other compon...
39
electrical energy. The only exceptions are isolated sunshine load such as irrigation pumps or drinking
water supplies f...
40
3.A.17: MULTI-METER
A multimeter or a multitester, also known as a VOM (Volt-Ohm meter), is an electronic measuring
ins...
41
3.A.18: SCREW JACK
In the hacksaw cutting, hacksaw is stationary, for the power cutting we will have to, move the mater...
42
(B) MANUFACTURING PROCESS USED IN THE PROJECT
3.B.1 WELDING
Cast iron can be welded perfectly well using a stick welder...
43
The welding process is used to weld the base frame of the project, which is made up by the cast iron
1inches square tub...
44
CHAPTER :4
WORKING
45
WORKING
A cutting machine is a machine to cut the light material as wood, pipes, aluminium tubes,
square tubes, iron ro...
46
Sometimes the power is output by simply rotating the chain, which can be used to lift or drag objects. In
other situati...
47
Front loaders need to use low-sudsing detergents because the tumbling action of the drum folds air into the
clothes loa...
48
CHAPTER :5
CHALLENGES
&
PROBLEM STATEMENTS
49
CHALLENGES
 An alternative to manual washing
• Harsh detergent and straining scrubbing motions
• Awkward posture cause...
50
CHAPTER :6
APPLICATIONS
OF THE
PEDAL POWERED HACKSAW
&
WASHING MACHINE
51
APPLICATIONS OF THE PEDAL POWERED HACKSAW &
WASHING MACHINE
 Light material cutting in small scale.
 Light material a...
52
CHAPTER :7
PURPOSES,
ADVANTAGES
&
DISADVANTAGES
53
PURPOSES
• Full-scale proof of concept
• Maximize use of bike parts
• Power matching
• Determine manufacturing challeng...
54
CHAPTER :8
UNIQUENESS
55
UNIQUENESS
 Simplicity of using a hacksaw for precise cutting.
 Simplicity of using a single drum instead of inner an...
56
CHAPTER :9
CONCLUSIONS
57
CONCLUSIONS
PDH can be used for light duty cutting operations of plywood. PDH can be used in remote places where
electr...
58
CHAPTER :10
FUTURE DEVELOPEMENTS
59
FUTURE DEVELOPMENTS
10.A. USE OF CHAIR IN PLACE OF CYCLE FRAME
For making perfect cutting & washing of clothes more com...
60
Fig 36 Water pumping from a shallow well
Fig 37 Corn shelling
Fig 38 Peanut shelling
61
Fig 39 Winnowing
Fig 40 Rice threshing
10. D. POSITION OF HACKSAW
If we change the position of the hacksaw (45 to 60 de...
62
CHAPTER :11
REFERENCES
63
REFERENCE
 R.S.Khurmi “Design of Machine Elements”, Eurasnia publishing house 3 Pvt Ltd, 14th revised
edition.
 Mater...
64
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MECHANICAL PROJECT REPORT

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project report on pedel powered hacksaw and washing machine

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MECHANICAL PROJECT REPORT

  1. 1. 1 A PROJECT REPORT ON “PEDAL POWERED HACKSAW &WASHING MACHINE” SUBMITTED FOR THE PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF REQUREMENT FOR THE AWARDED OF DEGREE OF BACHELOR OF TECHONOLOGY IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING SUBMITTED BY AJAY KUMAR MAURYA AKASH YADAV AMAAN HUSSAIN ABDULLAH DEVBRAT SINGH SHIVAM PRAJAPATI UNDER THE SUPERVISION OF Mr. TANVEER ALAM Assistant Professor (MECHANICAL DEPARTMENT) BABU BANARSI DAS NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT, LUCKNOW GAUTAM BUDDH TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY, LUCKNOW
  2. 2. 2 CERTIFICATE This is certified that the project entitled “PEDAL POWERED HACKSAW & WASHING MACHINE” in the partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the degree of Bachelor of Technology of G.B. Technical University, is a record of student ‘own work carried under our supervision and guidance. The project report embodies result of original work and studies carried out by student and the content do not forms the basis for the award of any other degree to the candidate or to anybody else. SUBMITTED BY- SUBMITTED TO- Mr. AJAY MAURYA (1105440007), Mr. SATYA PRAKASH ASTHANA Mr. AKASH YADAV (1105440009), (HOD of Mechanical) Mr. AMAAN ABDULLAH (1105440012), Mr. DEVBRAT SINGH 1105440035), Mr. TANVEER ALAM Mr. SHIVAM PRAJAPATI (1105413091) (Assistant Professor)
  3. 3. 3 DECLARATION We hereby declare that we are Student of Mechanical, BBDNITM, Lucknow. We are working on project under the guidance of Mr. TANVEER ALAM. Further, this work has been submitted in full to obtained degree of the Bachelor of Technology that the studies described in this report entitled “PEDAL POWERED HACKSAW AND WASHING MACHINE” in subject Mechanical engineering is carried out by us. Mr. AJAY MAURYA (1105440007), Mr. AKASH YADAV (1105440009), Mr. AMAAN HUSSAIN ABDULLAH (1105440012), Mr. DEVBRAT SINGH 1105440035), Mr. SHIVAM PRAJAPATI (1105413091)
  4. 4. 4 ABSTRACT Pedal power is the transfer of energy from a human source through the use of a foot pedal and crank system. This technology is most commonly used for transportation and has been used to propel bicycles for over a hundred years. Less commonly pedal power is used to power agricultural and hand tools and even to generate electricity. Some applications include pedal powered laptops, pedal powered grinders and pedal powered water wells. Some third world development projects currently transform used bicycles into pedal powered tools for sustainable development. This project concentrates on pedal powered hacksaw and washing machine. The Pedal Powered Hacksaw Machine is a device which is used for cutting wood, plastic and metals. The basic Principle of this machine is slider crank mechanism, which is an inversion of four bar mechanism. The concept of this Mechanism is that the rotary motion is converted into reciprocating motion. The mechanism has four links connected to form sliding pair. Thus when one link is moved along the circumference of the circle, the final link will generate the sliding movement for cutting process. Cloth washing is one of the essential parts of the life but it is considered undesirable because of the involvement of efforts, time, energy and cost. Nowadays a wide variety of washing machines are available in the market and there is a tough competence among the manufacturers. The cost of washing machine varying from Rs.10,000 to 1,50,000 depending upon features and capabilities. Very costly washing machines are equipped with facility of dry cleaning too. All of the washing machines available in the market are electric power driven and basic principle of their operation depends upon creation of the turbulent flow of detergent around the dirty clothes. In our country where approximately 70% population is living with very poor economic status, those people cannot have a washing machine because of cost constraints and unavailability of electricity due to any reason. The present work is an attempt to develop a concept to make a cloth washing mechanism which can meet out the requirements of above mentioned 70% population of the nation. Working principle of this concept is no more different from available similar type of machine with a difference driving mechanism of the machine. The objective of bringing down the initial cost and operating cost of washing machine is almost achieved in present work within the limitation of work as mentioned.
  5. 5. 5 The main aim is to reduce the human effort for machining various materials such as wooden blocks, steel, PVC and washing the clothes and to generate the electricity to charge the 6 volts battery which provides the light for machining and washing in the rural and dark areas which are very far from the electricity and development.
  6. 6. 6 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT We express our deep sense of gratitude and indebtedness to HOD Mr. SATYA PARKASH ASTHANA, MECHANICAL DEPARTMENT, BBDNITM, Lucknow for giving us opportunity to carry out this project. With immense pleasure we express our deep sense of gratitude and respectful to Mr. TANVEER ALAM (Assistant Professor) who was guiding us by giving his valuable suggestions, constructive criticism and encouragement, which helped us to keep our spirits high and to deal with problems. His meticulous methodology, critical assessment and warm encouragement made it possible for me to bring the work in its present shape. We are sincerely thankful to all other members of FACULTY OF MECHANICAL, BBDNITM for giving us time to time support in doing this project. We express a word of thanks to our friends for their constant support, suggestions and encouragement during preparation of this project. Finally, we thank God for giving us the loving siblings and affectionate parents, who blessed us with everything all throughout our life. Our gratitude to them cannot be expressed in words. To them we owe our wonderful today and a dream filled tomorrow.
  7. 7. 7 TABLE OF CONTENT CERTIFICATE I DECLARATION II ABSTRACT III ACKNOWLEDGEMENT IV CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 11-14  THEORY 11  INNOVATION 12  EASE OF USE 13  NEED 14 CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE SURVEY 15-17 CHAPTER 3: FABRICATION OF THE PEDAL POWERED HACKSAW & WASHING MACHINE 18-41  COMPONENTS USED IN THE PROJECTS 1. DC GENERATOR 19 2. BRUSHED DC MOTOR 19 3. DETAIL OF MOTOR 20 4. SEAT 22 5. PEDAL ARRANGEMENT 22 6. GEAR 24 7. HACKSAW 25 8. HACKSAW BLADE 26 9. BEARING 27 10. CHAIN AND SPROCKET 28 11. CATCHER 34 12. SHAFT 34 13. SHAFT COLLAR 34 14. DRUM AS A WASHING CHAMBER 35
  8. 8. 8 15. CYCLE FRAME ARRANGEMENT 36 16. BATTERY 36 17. MULTI-METER 38 18. SCREW JACK 39 19. BENCH VICE 39  MANUFACTURING PROCESS USED IN THE PROJECT 1. WELDING 40 CHAPTER 4: WORKING 42-45  WASH CYCLE 44  WASHING 44  RISING 45  SPINNING 45 CHAPTER 5: CHALLENGES AND PROBLEM STATEMENTS 46-47 CHAPTER 6: APPLICATIONS OF THE PEADL POWERED HACKSAW & WASHING MACHINE 48-49 CHAPTER 7: PURPOSES, ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES 50-51 CHAPTER 8: UNIQUENESS 52-53 CHAPTER 9: CONCLUSIONS 54-55 CHAPTER 10: FUTURE DEVELOPMENTS 56-59  USE OF CHAIR IN PLACE OF CYCLE FRAME 57  WELDED STEEL STRUCTURE 57  TECHNOLOGY FOR THE POOR 57 CHAPTER 11: REFERENCES 60
  9. 9. 9 LIST OF FIGURES  Fig 1 Pedal Powered Hacksaw & Washing Machine  Fig 2 Women Washing Laundry in Guatemala. Currently, Women Wash and Wring Out Each Clothing Item Individually By Hand. They Must Bend Over The Tanks And Submerge Their Hands In Washing Solution For 8 Hours Each Week.  Fig 3 Pedal Operated Washing Machine  Fig 4 Multipurpose Machine  Fig 5 Brushed Dc Motor  Fig 6 Armature Of A Motor  Fig 7 Geared Dc Motor  Fig 8 Seat  Fig 9 Pedal Arrangement  Fig 10 Pedal & Sprocket  Fig 11 Hacksaw  Fig 12 Single Speed (Top) And Multi-Speed (Bottom)  Fig 13 Two Different Sizes Of Bicycle Chain  Fig 14 Square Coupling  Fig 15 Removing The Link Pin  Fig 16 Separated Chain  Fig 17 Parts Of A Chain Link  Fig 18 A Stiff Link Causes Problems  Fig 19 Relaxing A Stiff Link  Fig 20 Multi-Speed Freewheel And Chain  Fig 21 Chain And A Rear Derailleur  Fig 22 This Chain Is Too Thin For The Teeth  Fig 23 Single Speed Freewheel And Chain  Fig 24 Garage Door Opener Chain  Fig 25 Catcher & Sprocket  Fig 26 Drum As A Washing Chamber
  10. 10. 10  Fig 27 Cycle Frame  Fig 28 Battery  Fig 29 Multimeter  Fig 30 Vice  Fig 31 Screw Jack  Fig 32 Welding  Fig 33 Welded Parts Of The Project  Fig 34 Operating A Wood Working Lathe  Fig 35 Operating A Circular Saw  Fig 36 Water Pumping From A Shallow Well  Fig 37 Corn Shelling  Fig 38 Peanut Shelling  Fig 39 Winnowing  Fig 40 Rice Threshing
  11. 11. 11 CHAPTER :1 INTRODUCTION
  12. 12. 12 PEDAL POWERED HACKSAW & WASHING MACHINE Fig 1 Pedal Powered Hacksaw & Washing Machine
  13. 13. 13 PEDAL POWERED HACKSAW & WASHING MACHINE 1. A.: THEORY Pedal power hacksaw is the transfer of energy from a human source through the use of a foot pedal and crank system. This technology is most commonly used for transportation and has been used to propel bicycles for over a hundred years .pedal power is used to power agricultural and hand tool and even to generate electricity . Some applications include pedal powered laptops, pedal powered grinders and pedal powered water wells. Some third world development projects currently transform used bicycles into pedal powered tools for sustainable development. This project concentrates on pedal powered hacksaw machining. An individual can generate four times more power (1/4 HP) by pedaling than by hand-cranking. At the rate of ¼ HP, continuous pedaling can be served for only short periods, approximately 10 minutes. However, pedaling at half this power (1/8 HP) can be sustained for close to 60 minutes but power capability can depend upon age. As a consequence of the brainstorming exercise, it was apparent that the primary function of pedal power one specific product was particularly useful: the bicycle. Many devices can be run right away with mechanical energy. A saw is a tool that uses a hard blade or wire with an abrasive edge to cut through softer materials. The cutting edge of a saw is either a serrated blade or an abrasive. A saw may be worked by hand, or powered by steam, water, electric or other power. An abrasive saw uses an abrasive disc or band for cutting, rather than a serrated blade. A pedal-powered washing machine would allow women to wash clothes faster and with less strain. When asked what they would do with their free time, women said that they would try to generate income by making crafts or food to sell. Young daughters who help their mothers with domestic chores may also have the opportunity to concentrate more on their studies. Laundromat micro-enterprises may even arise if our washing machines are successful. Conditions vary in developing countries, but women in many regions are washing clothes manually while they could be doing more profitable or rewarding work elsewhere.
  14. 14. 14 Several local organizations across Central America and Africa have already expressed an interest in pedal-powered technology. It is an affordable, environmentally-friendly alternative to devices powered by electricity or fossil fuels. Since it is based on bicycle components, the machines can be manufactured locally and repair parts are affordable and readily available. We are hoping that designed to be produced and maintained in any culture where bicycle technology exists, will help to bring appropriate technology and opportunities to women in developing nations across the world and pave the way for other pedal- powered or appropriate technologies that would help women. But we are doing to next level by using dc generator we can produced electricity. This dc generator is directly attached to the rotating shaft through clamp. 1. B: Innovation Pedal powered hacksaw is a machine which does not require electricity for several operations like cutting, grinding etc. This is a human powered machine runs on chain drives mainly with human efforts. But if you wanted to operate this machine by electric power this machine can also does that. It has some special attachment so use both human power as well as electric power. The design is ideal for use in the developing world because it doesn’t require electricity and can be built using metal base, chain, pulley ,rubber belt, grinding wheel, saw, bearing, foot pedal (for operated by human) ,electric motor, chain socket Cutting & Clothes washing is very specific to particular cultures, but most cultures perform the task in the same way. In almost all underdeveloped rural areas, due to the lack of money proper marching or cutting of the material is a very difficult task, women wash clothes by hand, using cold or lukewarm water that they carry from a river or pull up from a well. Existing technologies for washing clothes do not work well in underdeveloped rural areas. Lack of electricity make powered machines unusable. Difficult transportation due to poor road conditions or just geographical distances create problems with imported devices that might need replacement parts or maintenance repairs .it solves the precision cutting and machining of the material, clothes washing problem in an efficient, affordable and practical way. To our knowledge, no one has successfully built a pedal powered hacksaw & washing machine (multi utility drum) with these goals in mind.
  15. 15. 15 1. C: Ease ofUse It will be easy to use by younger and older person. After loading the machine, washing requires three cycles. Between each cycle, the drum spins quickly to draw the water out of the clothing, as it drains out of the drum. In the first cycle, water and detergent are added to the drum. The operator pedals the machine for roughly 25 minutes, spins, and drains the water. The next two cycles are rinse cycles. In each rinse cycle, the operator pours clean water into the machine, pedals for 10 minutes, spins, and drains the drum. After the last rinse cycle, the operator spins the clothes dry and saves the slightly soapy water for the next wash cycle. Our research into existing washers and our earlier prototypes indicate that the power required for washing and spinning is relatively low. We demonstrated that it is not difficult to spin a perforated plastic drum up to extraction speeds with clothes inside. For these experiments, we used a geared transmission from a bicycle. Both younger and older women can generate enough power for the wash and spin cycles. We estimate this power to be 50-75 watts. While familiarity with pedaling in general and the machine in particular will reduce the effort expended by the user, no prior experience will be necessary for its operation. The ability to change gearing ratios will allow some level of tuning to individual users and also allow for shorter wash times with more power input or conversely less strenuous operation if the user can pedal for a longer amount of time.
  16. 16. 16 1. D: NEED In rural areas, due to the lack of time, money and better transportation, cutting and machining is a very heavy duty operations. This machine can be used in remote places where electricity is not available. It is designed as a portable one which can be used for cutting in various places. The light material as wood, pipes, aluminium tubes, square tubes, iron rods and thick iron rods can be cut without any external energy like fuel or current. PPHWM uses no electric power and fuel; this is very cheap and best In developing countries, rural women are among the least privileged. Women are both essential to the family unit and integral to the economy,. One factor behind the inequality is the long list of responsibilities that traditionally fall to women. Not only do women perform agricultural duties and care for livestock alongside men, but women are also responsible for many domestic chores. Usually, new technology improves people’s efficiency, but women benefit less from new technology for several reasons. First, women’s duties are neglected by technological improvement efforts because domestic chores are often seen as cultural obligations for women so little effort is expended to diminish them. Second, foreign aid in the form of appropriate technologies is unevenly distributed because women are often considered less technically competent than men. Factors like these tend to prevent the development of improved technology for women’s uncompensated, time-consuming, and laborious tasks. Fig 2 Women washing laundry in Guatemala. Currently, women wash and wring out each clothing item individually by hand. They must bend over the tanks and submerge their hands in washing solution for 8 hours each week.
  17. 17. 17 CHAPTER :2 LITERATURE SURVEY
  18. 18. 18 LITERATURE SURVEY OF THE PEDAL POWERED HACKSAW & WASHING MACHINE The Pedal Powered Hacksaw and washing machine is working on Slider Crank Mechanism. The PPH is used to cut material in small scales. PPHWM helps to obtain a less effort uniform Cutting and washing. It can be used in places where Electricity is not available. It is designed as portable one which can be used for cutting and washing in various Places. The main parts of are hack saw, reciprocating rod welded to the pedal of a bicycle, flywheel, sprocket and chain drive, wheel and multi utility drum. The hack saw is connected with the reciprocating rod. By pedaling the bicycle the reciprocating rod moves to and fro, the hack saw will be moving with the rod. The light material to be cut is placed under the hack saw on a work piece holder and by pedaling the bicycle the wheel rotates and it will rotate the dc generator for generating the electricity and it will also rotate the multi utility drum for the washing. Thus the light material can be cut and also wash the clothes without any external energy like fuel or current. Since this uses no electric power and fuel, this is very cheap and best. The surveys of the literature regarding the PPHWM are listed: Dharwa chaitanya kirtikumar designed and developed a multipurpose machine which does not require electricity for several operations like cutting, grinding etc. This is a human powered machine runs on chain drives mainly with human efforts. But if you wanted to operate this machine by electric power this machine can also does that. It has some special attachment so use both human power as well as electric power. The design is ideal for use in the developing world because it doesn’t require electricity and can be built using metal base, chain, pulley ,rubber belt, grinding wheel, saw, bearing, foot pedal (for operated by human) ,electric motor, chain socket. S.G.bahaley, Dr. Ague, Awate, S.V. saharkar designed and fabricated a pedal powered multipurpose machine. It is a human powered machine which is developed for lifting the water to a height 10 meter and generates 14 Volt, 4 ampere of electricity in most effective way. Power required for pedaling is well below the capacity of an average healthy human being. The system is also useful for the work out purpose because pedaling will act as a health exercise and also doing a useful work.
  19. 19. 19 Linxu, Weinan bai, Jingyu rue, and Qiang li designed and developed an pedal driven washing machine, The main objective is to provide a product with an alternative way to wash clothes when there is no electricity. It has to be understood that in rural areas, it is a very stressful and laborious task. So the machine which is a pedal driven machine, it satisfies the need of rural people by giving them an alternative way of washing clothes which is quick, cost-effective and eco-friendly. The product designed has zero operating cost, cost-effective, and it can be used with minimal This study aims to design and fabricate a pedal driven hacksaw to obtain a less effort uniform cutting and to have a comparison between hand driven and pedal driven hacksaw. Fig 3 Pedal Operated Washing Machine Fig 4 Multipurpose Machine
  20. 20. 20 CHAPTER :3 FABRICATION OF THE PEDAL POWERED HACKSAW & WASHING MACHINE
  21. 21. 21 FABRICATION OF THE PEDAL POWERED HACKSAW & WASHING MACHINE (A) COMPONENTS USED IN THE PROJECTS 3.A.1: DC GENERATOR A DC motor is designed to run on DC electric power. Two examples of pure DC designs are Michael Faraday's homopolar motor (which is uncommon), and the ball bearing motor, which is (so far) a novelty. By far the most common DC motor types are the brushed and brushless types, which use internal and external commutation respectively to create an oscillating AC current from the DC source— so they are not purely DC machines in a strict sense. 3.A.2: BRUSHED DC MOTOR The classic DC motor design generates an oscillating current in a wound rotor, or armature, with a split ring commutator, and either a wound or permanent magnet stator. A rotor consists of one or more coils of wire wound around a core on a shaft; an electrical power source is connected to the rotor coil through the commutator and its brushes, causing current to flow in it, producing electromagnetism. Fig 5 Brushed Dc Motor
  22. 22. 22 The commutator causes the current in the coils to be switched as the rotor turns, keeping the magnetic poles of the rotor from ever fully aligning with the magnetic poles of the stator field, so that the rotor never stops (like a compass needle does) but rather keeps rotating indefinitely (as long as power is applied and is sufficient for the motor to overcome the shaft torque load and internal losses due to friction, etc.) Fig 6 Armature Of A Motor Many of the limitations of the classic commutator DC motor are due to the need for brushes to press against the commutator. This creates friction. At higher speeds, brushes have increasing difficulty in maintaining contact. Brushes may bounce off the irregularities in the commutator surface, creating sparks. (Sparks are also created inevitably by the brushes making and breaking circuits through the rotor coils as the brushes cross the insulating gaps between commutator sections. Depending on the commutator design, this may include the brushes shorting together adjacent sections—and hence coil ends—momentarily while crossing the gaps. Furthermore, the inductance of the rotor coils causes the voltage across each to rise when its circuit is opened, increasing the sparking of the brushes.) This sparking limits the maximum speed of the machine, as too-rapid sparking will overheat, erode, or even melt the commutator. The current density per unit area of the brushes, in combination with their resistivity, limits the output of the motor. The making and breaking of electric contact also causes electrical noise, and the sparks additionally cause RFI. Brushes eventually wear out and require replacement, and the commutator itself is subject to wear and maintenance (on larger motors) or replacement (on small motors). The commutator assembly on a large machine is a costly element, requiring precision assembly of many parts. On small motors, the commutator is usually permanently integrated into the rotor, so replacing it usually requires replacing the whole rotor.
  23. 23. 23 Large brushes are desired for a larger brush contact area to maximize motor output, but small brushes are desired for low mass to maximize the speed at which the motor can run without the brushes excessively bouncing and sparking (comparable to the problem of "valve float" in internal combustion engines). (Small brushes are also desirable for lower cost.) Stiffer brush springs can also be used to make brushes of a given mass work at a higher speed, but at the cost of greater friction losses (lower efficiency) and accelerated brush and commutator wear. Therefore, DC motor brush design entails a trade-off between output 3.A.3 : DETAIL OF MOTOR  Brand Name: VEGA ROBO KIT  Type: GEARED DC GENERATOR  Speed (RPM): 500  Voltage(V): 12VOLT  Maximum efficiency speed: 400RPM  Size: 42.2 X 67.0mm, 67mm length dc motor Fig 7 Geared Dc Motor
  24. 24. 24 3.A.4: SEAT A seat is place to sit, often referring to the area one sits upon as opposed to other elements like armrests. seat is a arrangement in any bicycle on which a person can sit comfortably. in seating arrangement the design factor is always consider according to there use in any vehicle. Seat may be made of plastic, rubber, metal etc material. in some seating arrangement suspension is also consider suspension could be spring or it may be cuisine. Fig 8 Seat 3. A.5: PEDAL ARRANGEMENT A bicycle pedal is the part of a bicycle that the rider pushes with their foot to propel the bicycle. It provides the connection between the cyclist's foot or shoe and the crank allowing the leg to turn the bottom bracket spindle and propel the bicycle's wheels. Pedals usually consist of a spindle that threads into the end of the crank and a body, on which the foot rests or is attached, that is free to rotate on bearings with respect to the spindle.
  25. 25. 25 Pedals were initially attached to cranks connecting directly to the driven (usually front) wheel. The safety bicycle, as it is known today, came into being when the pedals were attached to a crank driving a sprocket that transmitted power to the driven wheel by means of a roller chain. Fig 9 Pedal Arrangement
  26. 26. 26 3. A.6: Gear Bicycle gearing is the aspect of bicycle drive train that determines the relation between the cadence, the rate at which the rider pedals, and the rate at which the drive wheel turns. On some bicycles, there is only one gear and the gear ratio is fixed. Many contemporary bicycles have multiple gears and thus multiple gear ratios. A shifting mechanism allows selection of the appropriate gear ratio for efficiency or comfort under the prevailing circumstances: for example, it may be comfortable to use a high gear when cycling downhill, a medium gear when cycling on a flat road, and a low gear when cycling uphill. Different gear ratios and gear ranges are appropriate for different people and styles of cycling. A cyclist's legs produce power optimally within a narrow pedaling speed range, or cadence. Gearing is optimized to use this narrow range as best as possible. As in other types of transmissions, the gear ratio is closely related to the mechanical advantage of the drive train of the bicycle. On single-speed bicycles and multi-speed bicycles using derailleur gears, the gear ratio depends on the ratio of the number of teeth on the chain ring to the number of teeth on the rear sprocket (cog). For bicycles equipped with hub gears, the gear ratio also depends on the internal planetary gears within the hub. For a shaft-driven bicycle the gear ratio depends on the bevel gears used at each end of the shaft. For a bicycle to travel at the same speed, using a lower gear (larger mechanical advantage) requires the rider to pedal at a faster cadence, but with less force. Conversely, a higher gear (smaller mechanical advantage) provides a higher speed for a given cadence, but requires the rider to exert greater force. Different cyclists may have different preferences for cadence and pedaling force. Prolonged exertion of too much force in too high a gear at too low a cadence can increase the chance of knee damage; cadence above 100 rpm becomes less effective after short bursts, as during a sprint. Fig 10 Pedal & Sprocket
  27. 27. 27 3.A.7: HACKSAW The sawing machine is a machine tool designed to cut material to a desired length or contour. It functions by drawing a blade containing cutting teeth through the work piece. The sawing machine is faster and easier than hand sawing and is used principally to produce an accurate square or mitered cut on the work piece. The power hacksaw and the handsaw are two common types of sawing machines used to cut metal in the machine shop .The power hacksaw uses a reciprocating (back and forth) cutting action similar to the one used in a hand hacksaw. The power hacksaw is used for square or angle cutting of stock, The band saw uses a continuous band blade. A drive wheel and an idler wheel support and drive the blade. Fig 11 Hacksaw
  28. 28. 28 3.A.8:HACKSAW BLADE The selections of the blade depend upon the materials which have to cut by the hacksaw. These blades are ideal to use when the work is held securely and the blade is not subjected to bending and twisting stresses. They hold the edge when cutting hard to machine Alloys, maintaining straightness of the cut. The blades are uniformly hardened throughout. The most common blade is the 12 inch or 300 mm length. Hacksaw blades have two holes near the ends for mounting them in the saw frame and the 12 inch / 300 mm dimension refers to the center to center distance between these mounting holes. 12 Inch Blade Hole to Hole: 11 7/8 inches / 300 mm Overall blade length: 12 3/8 inches / 315 mm (not tightly controlled) Mounting Hole diameter: 9/64 to 5/32 inch / 3.5 to 4 mm (not tightly controlled) Blade Width: 7/16 to 33/64 inch / 11 to 13 mm (not tightly controlled) Blade Thickness: 0.020 to 0.027 inches / 0.5 to 0.70 mm (varies with tooth pitch and other factors) The hacksaw is used to cut steel and other metals. It can also be used to cut plastics, although it is not normally used to cut Woods. It is sometimes called an adjustable hacksaw because the length of the frame can be altered to hold blades of Different sizes. Blades are supplied in two lengths, 250mm and 300mm. If the adjusting screw is unscrewed, the frame can Be pushed into the handle so that the smaller blades fit the hacksaw. Blades are also described by the number of teeth per inch (TPI). Blades very fine.
  29. 29. 29 3.A.9: BEARING A bearing is a machine element that constrains relative motion between moving parts to only the desired motion. The design of the bearing may, for example, provide for free linear movement of the moving part or for free rotation around a fixed axis; or, it may prevent a motion by controlling the vectors of normal forces that bear on the moving parts. Bearings are classified broadly according to the type of operation, the motions allowed, or to the directions of the loads (forces) applied to the parts. The term "bearing" is derived from the verb "to bear" a bearing being a machine element that allows one part to bear (i.e., to support) another. The simplest bearings are bearing surfaces, cut or formed into a part, with varying degrees of control over the form, size, roughness and location of the surface. Other bearings are separate devices installed into a machine or machine part. The most sophisticated bearings for the most demanding applications are very precise devices; their manufacture requires some of the highest standards of current technology. Fig 12 Square Coupling
  30. 30. 30 3.A.10: CHAIN AND SPROCKET When creating your own human powered vehicles, a chain drive will likely be your chosen power transfer system, as it is an inexpensive, easy-to-install and highly efficient drive mechanism. Bicycle chains are fairly simple, requiring only one inexpensive tool to remove and attach links. Since a recumbent cycle will often require a chain that is one and a half to 3 times the length of a regular upright bicycle chain, some basics should be known, as you will probably need to create the chain for your vehicle. Fig 13 Two different sizes of bicycle chain There are two basic types of bicycle chain: single speed chain and multi-speed chain. Single speed chain is mainly used on kids' bikes, BMX bikes, coaster brake cruisers, and heavy cargo bikes. Multi-speed chain is used on standard speed bikes and mountain bikes that require the use of a front and rear derailleur to change gears. Both types of bicycle chain have a pitch of 1/2 inch (ANSI standard #40). This measurement indicates the length of the links. Although every type of bicycle chain and freewheel have a 1/2 in pitch, the width of chain varies quite a bit, from 3/32" to 1/8". Single speed bicycle chain is wider, having a width of 1/8 inch. This type of chain will not fit a multi-speed freewheel nor will it fit properly through a derailleur cage. Multi-speed chain comes in various widths, with 3/32" being the most common size. Multi-speed chain is designed with a lot more side-to-side flex to allow it to function properly with a derailleur system. Flexibility is very important in a multi-speed system as the alignment of front and rear chain rings could be off by as much as 3 inches, depending on which gears are being used. Figure 1 shows the two common sizes of bicycle chain; 1/8" on the top and 3/32" on the bottom. At this angle, both chain types look very similar since you can only see the pitch, not the width.
  31. 31. 31 Fig 14 Single speed (top) and multi-speed (bottom) Figure 2 gives you a much clearer view of the difference between a 1/8" single speed chain (top) and a 3/32" multi-sped chain (bottom). The multi-speed chain is obviously narrower to fit the narrower chain rings on a multi-speed freewheel, and it also includes a beveled edge on the inner link to allow for better meshing with the teeth when switching gears. When bicycle building becomes your hobby, one of those "must have" tools will be a chain link tool as shown in Figure 3. For under $20, this small tool will give you a lifetime of service, able to break and rejoin any size of bicycle chain in a few seconds. The other method involves using a punch, a hammer, and a finishing nail, but I assure you, the chain link tool is so much easier and makes a worthwhile investment. To open a link, place the chain into the holder as shown in Figure 3, and then turn the vice handle clockwise to press out the link pin. Fig 15 Removing the link pin Figure 4 shows the link pin pushed out by the chain link tool after turning the handle around a few times. This tool makes adjusting a chain pretty much effortless which is a good thing since you may have toadjust a long recumbent chain on a new project several times to get it right.
  32. 32. 32 Fig 16 Separated Chain After breaking a chain with the link tool, it will look like the one shown in Figure 5, with the link pin pressed through the roller to the outer plate. The pin only needs to be pressed far enough out so that the roller can be released. Notice that the pin has been slightly flattened at the end. This helps to ensure that it does not slip out of the plate hole, which is only holding it there by friction. I have broken many chains over the years, but it has always been a plate that has snapped, never a pin that has failed. Fig 17 Parts of a chain link The two outer plates, pins, and rollers with inner plates are shown in Figure 6. Normally, you would not need to pull a chain apart like this, as there are no wear parts that can be replaced. When a chain fails or stretches, the damage is always throughout the entire chain, which needs to be replaced. For this reason, you should never join together chains that are from different manufacturers or may be years apart in wear. Often, the outer plates will have the manufacturers’ code stamped on them. Fig 18 A stiff link causes problems
  33. 33. 33 After pressing a link back into a chain, the pin will have forced the plates together, causing a stiff link as shown in Figure 7. This stiff link will cause a skip or jump every time it passes trough the rear derailleur, and must be fixed before use. A stiff link will always be created when first joining a chain, but it can easily be relaxed. Fig 19 Relaxing a stiff link To fix a stiff link, hold the chain so you can work the links side to side as shown in Figure 8. Press your thumbs against the plates on each side of the stiff link and force it back and forth until it no longer sticks when you bend the chain. Once the link has been relaxed, it will act like every other link without causing the problem shown in Figure 7. Fig 20 Multi-speed freewheel and chain
  34. 34. 34 Figure 9 shows a common 6 speed freewheel and the 3/32" chain that fits into it. Although the larger single speed (1/8") chain will also fit into the teeth, it will be too wide to fit properly through the rear derailleur. You could get away with the larger chain on a multi-sped freewheel if you plan to make your bike single speed (fixed gear). Fig 21 Chain and a rear derailleur The 3/32" multi-speed chain is not only designed to fit properly between the rear derailleur cage as shown in Figure 10, but it is also designed to flex side-to-side, allowing some misalignment between opposing chain rings at the front and rear of a bicycle. Fig 22 This chain is too thin for the teeth
  35. 35. 35 Multi-speed chain will not fit into the teeth of a single speed freehub or coaster hub as shown in Figure 11, so you don't ever have to worry that you may have the wrong chain there. The width of the teeth makes it impossible to seat the rollers properly. Fig 23 Single speed freewheel and chain The 1/8" single speed chain is shown meshing with a BMX freewheel in Figure 12. A coaster hub will have the same width of chain ring, requiring the 1/8" wide chain. Fig 24 Garage door opener chain Sometimes, you may require a very long chain when making a long cargo trike or even a very tall bike. The chain shown in Figure 13 is standard 1/8" single speed chain, but was taken from a discarded garage door opener, a good source for a very long length of single speed chain. When working on recumbent cycles and creative human powered vehicles, you will likely need to join together two or more bicycle chains, so consider purchasing an inexpensive chain link tool, and be mindful of the different widths of bicycle chain. Rusty chain should always be discarded. Oiling a chain is a matter of choice. I have never oiled a bicycle chain, and the current school of thought is that an oiled chain is less efficient and will wear out sooner due to trapping dirt between the links. Maybe if your bike lives outdoors and is exposed to alot of moisture, then a light brushing of light oil may be a good thing,
  36. 36. 36 3.A.11: CATCHER Catcher is a part of rickshaw on which sprocket could be mount. on it threaded design is made .by using it sprocket could be tighten. Fig 25 Catcher & sprocket 3.A.12 SHAFT Shaft is a mechanical component for transmitting torque and rotation, usually used to connect other components of a drive train that cannot be connected directly because of distance or the need to allow for relative movement between them. Drive shafts are carriers of torque: they are subject to torsion and shear stress, equivalent to the difference between the input torque and the load. They must therefore be strong enough to bear the stress, whilst avoiding too much additional weight as that would in turn increase their inertia. To allow for variations in the alignment and distance between the driving and driven components, drive shafts frequently incorporate one or more universal joints, jaw couplings, or rag joints, and sometimes a splined joint or prismatic joint. 3.A.13: SHAFT COLLAR The shaft collar is a simple, yet important, machine component found in many power transmission applications, most notably motors and gearboxes. The collars are used as mechanical stops, locating components, and bearing faces. The simple design lends itself to easy installation. Many people will be familiar with shaft collars through using Meccano.
  37. 37. 37 3.A.14: DRUM AS A WASHING CHAMBER It is just a chamber in which water is filled with detergent further cloth is put inside it for rinses Cleaning: Machine-washed clothes must be as clean as those hand-washed for 5 minutes Gentleness: Must wear clothes at slower rate than hand-washing [hole/tear growth] Capacity: Minimum 5lb of clothes/load – should be easy to re-size. Water: Effective washing must occur in soft and hard water at temperatures from 70-120_F Water usage: Maximum 15L water / 1kg clothes Active pedaling time for effective washing: Maximum 20 minutes each for wash and rinse cycles Total operation time: Maximum 1 hours, including fetching water, filling, washing, draining, and cleaning machine Power: Maximum 100W (comfortable level of human-power output) Cost: Maximum $150 (comparable to cost of other MP machine) Lifetime of structure: 5 years, assuming daily use Manufacturing location: local market Weight: Maximum 30kg, or 45kg if it has wheels (1 woman can move it indoors so it can’t be stolen or damaged). Culturally acceptable: Suitable appearance, user position and motion such that most women are willing to use the machine. Fig 26 Drum as a washing chamber
  38. 38. 38 3.A.15: CYCLE FRAME ARRANGEMENT A bicycle frame is the main component of a bicycle, on to which wheels and other components are fitted. The modern and most common frame design for an upright bicycle is based on the safety bicycle, and consists of two triangles, a main triangle and a paired rear triangle. This is known as the diamond frame. Frames are required to be strong, stiff and light, which they do by combining different materials and shapes. Fig 27 Cycle frame 3.A.16: BATTERY A battery is a device that converts chemical energy into electrical energy and vice versa. This summary provides an introduction to the terminology used to describe, classify, and compare batteries for hybrid, plug-in hybrid, and electric vehicles. It provides a basic background, defines the variables used to characterize battery operating conditions, and describes the manufacturer specifications used to characterize battery nominal and maximum characteristics. In isolated systems away from the grid, batteries are used for storage of excess solar energy converted into
  39. 39. 39 electrical energy. The only exceptions are isolated sunshine load such as irrigation pumps or drinking water supplies for storage. In fact for small units with output less than one kilowatt. Batteries seem to be the only technically and economically available storage means. Since both the photo-voltaic system and batteries are high in capital costs. It is necessary that the overall system be optimized with respect to available energy and local demand pattern. To be economically attractive the storage of solar electricity requires a battery with a particular combination of properties: a-Low cost (1) Long life (2) High reliability (3) High overall efficiency (4) Low discharge (5) Minimum maintenance A-Ampere hour efficiency B-Watt hour efficiency We use lead acid battery for storing the electrical energy from the solar panel for lighting the street and so about the lead acid cells are explained below. Fig 28 Battery
  40. 40. 40 3.A.17: MULTI-METER A multimeter or a multitester, also known as a VOM (Volt-Ohm meter), is an electronic measuring instrument that combines several measurement functions in one unit. A typical multimeter would include basic features such as the ability to measure voltage, current, and resistance. Analog multimeters use a micro ammeter whose pointer moves over a scale calibrated for all the different measurements that can be made. Digital multimeters (DMM, DVOM) display the measured value in numerals, and may also display a bar of a length proportional to the quantity being measured. Digital multimeters have all but replaced analog moving coil multimeters in most situations. Analog multimeters are still manufactured but by few manufacturers. A multimeter can be a hand-held device useful for basic fault finding and field service work, or a bench instrument which can measure to a very high degree of accuracy. They can be used to troubleshoot electrical problems in a wide array of industrial and household devices such as electronic equipment, motor controls, domestic appliances, power supplies, and wiring systems. Multimeters are available in a wide range of features and prices. Cheap multimeters can cost less than US$10, while the top of the line multimeters can cost more than US$5,000. Fig 29 Multimeter
  41. 41. 41 3.A.18: SCREW JACK In the hacksaw cutting, hacksaw is stationary, for the power cutting we will have to, move the material in upward direction so we are using screw jack to lift the material upward. Fig 30 Screw jack 3.A.19: BENCH VISE In the power cutting to hold the material is too necessary. to hold the material we are using bench vice . it is welded on the screw jack which hold the material and screw jack will lift it up. ghbhgf gf g Fig 31 Vise
  42. 42. 42 (B) MANUFACTURING PROCESS USED IN THE PROJECT 3.B.1 WELDING Cast iron can be welded perfectly well using a stick welder and nickel rods, or with preheating by a gas welder using cast iron rod. Welding cast iron is a precision task that requires high heat, and often expensive equipment. You should not attempt it on the strength of reading a brief Internet article, no matter how informative. However, understanding the basics can help you prepare for a qualification course, or to make better decisions for welding projects run by qualified personnel under your supervision. TIPS  Always preheat or precool cast iron using the same method throughout. Changing methods can cause stress and fractures in the cast iron. These may ruin your project, or be small enough to go unnoticed until the iron fails catastrophically during normal operation.  Cast iron is typically higher in carbon than steel. This makes the iron brittle, and more difficult to weld than other industrial metals. Fig 32 Welding
  43. 43. 43 The welding process is used to weld the base frame of the project, which is made up by the cast iron 1inches square tubes Fig 33 Welded parts of the project  DIMENSION OF THE BASE FRAME  Length:- 5 feet  Width:- 1feet 6 inches  Height:- 1 feet 6 inches  Material used:- square tubes of cast iron
  44. 44. 44 CHAPTER :4 WORKING
  45. 45. 45 WORKING A cutting machine is a machine to cut the light material as wood, pipes, aluminium tubes, square tubes, iron rods and thick iron rods, so in this machine power is acquiring in the rotary motion by the pedal arrangement we are converting the rotary motion in the reciprocating motion, by which hacksaw starts its reciprocating motion and provide power cutting., screw jack and vice will provide the upward motion to the material for the precise cutting. A washing machine (laundry machine, clothes washer, or washer) is a machine to wash laundry, such as clothing and sheets. The term is mostly applied only to machines that use water as opposed to dry cleaning (which uses alternative cleaning fluids, and is performed by specialist businesses) or ultrasonic cleaners. Washing entails immersing, dipping, rubbing, or scrubbing in water usually accompanied by detergent, or bleach. The simplest machines may simply agitate clothes in water while switched on; automatic machines may fill, empty, wash, spin, and heat in a cycle. Most washing machines remove substantial amounts of water from the laundry at the end of a wash cycle, but do not completely dry it. In our project the rotation of drum is possible through wheel rotation .Wheel is rotated by chain drive. When a person start peddling, the gear connected through sprocket by chain start to transmit power, the rotation of drum is dependent on man power. Further we attach the DC generator into rotating wheel .the DC generator is work in both direction, when we supply power the it rotate shaft but if we rotate shaft it produce electricity. In our project the complete process is depend on chain drive. Chain drive is a way of transmitting mechanical power from one place to another. It is often used to convey power to the wheels of a vehicle, particularly bicycles and motorcycles. It is also used in a wide variety of machines besides vehicles. Most often, the power is conveyed by a roller chain, known as the drive chain or transmission chain, passing over a sprocket gear, with the teeth of the gear meshing with the holes in the links of the chain. The gear is turned, and this pulls the chain putting mechanical force into the system. Another type of drive chain is the Morse chain, invented by the Morse Chain Company of Ithaca, New York, USA. This has inverted teeth.
  46. 46. 46 Sometimes the power is output by simply rotating the chain, which can be used to lift or drag objects. In other situations, a second gear is placed and the power is recovered by attaching shafts or hubs to this gear. Though drive chains are often simple oval loops, they can also go around corners by placing more than two gears along the chain; gears that do not put power into the system or transmit it out are generally known as idler-wheels. By varying the diameter of the input and output gears with respect to each other, the gear ratio can be altered, so that, for example, the pedals of a bicycle can spin all the way around more than once for every rotation of the gear that drives the wheels. 4.A: WASH CYCLES A stand-alone spin dryer used for extracting water from laundry The earliest washing machines simply carried out a washing action when loaded with clothes and soap, filled with hot water, and started. Over time machines became more and more automated, first with very complex electromechanical controllers, then fully electronic controllers; users put clothes into the machine, select a suitable program via a switch, start the machine, and come back to remove clean and slightly damp clothes at the end of the cycle. The controller starts and stops many different processes including pumps and valves to fill and empty the drum with water, heating, and rotating at different speeds, with different combinations of settings for different fabrics. 4.B: WASHING Many front loading machines have internal electrical heating elements to heat the wash water, to near boiling if desired. Chemical cleaning action of the detergent and other laundry chemicals increases greatly with temperature. Washing machine with internal heaters can use special detergents formulated to release different chemical ingredients at different temperatures, allowing different type of stains and soils to be cleaned from the clothes as the wash water is heated up by the electrical heater. Higher-temperature washing uses more energy, and many fabrics are damaged at higher temperatures. Temperatures exceeding 40 °C have the undesirable effect of inactivating the enzymes when using biological detergent. Many machines are cold-fill, connected to cold water only, which they heat to operating temperature. Where water can be heated more cheaply or with less carbon dioxide emission than by electricity, cold-fill operation is inefficient.
  47. 47. 47 Front loaders need to use low-sudsing detergents because the tumbling action of the drum folds air into the clothes load that can cause over-sudsing and overflows. However, due to efficient use of water and detergent, the sudsing issue with front-loaders can be controlled by simply using less detergent, without lessening cleaning action. 4.C: RINSING Washing machines perform several rinses after the main wash to remove most of the detergent. Modern washing machines use less water due to environmental concerns; however, this has led to the problem of poor rinsing on many washing machines on the market, which can be a problem to people who are sensitive to detergents. The Allergy UK website suggests re-running the rinse cycle, or rerunning the entire wash cycle without detergent. In response to complaints, many washing machines allow the user to select additional rinse cycles, at the expense of higher water usage and longer cycle time. 4.D: SPINNING Higher spin speeds remove more water, leading to faster drying. If a heated clothes-drier is used after the wash and spin, energy use is reduced if more water has been removed from clothes. However, faster spinning can crease clothes more. Also, mechanical wear on bearings increases rapidly with rotational speed, reducing life. Early machines would spin at only 300 RPM and, because of lack of any mechanical suspension, would often shake and vibrate. Many modern machines are equipped with an automatic clothes load balancer, using a sealed ring of viscous liquid, that helps to counteract any out-of-balance distribution. Better machines may include internal suspension and shock systems to reduce noise, and sensors and software to detect and correct an out-of-balance load. Separate spin-driers, without washing functionality, are available for specialised applications. For example, a small high-speed centrifuge machine may be provided in locker rooms of communal swimming pools to allow wet bathing costumes to be substantially dried to a slightly damp condition after daily use.
  48. 48. 48 CHAPTER :5 CHALLENGES & PROBLEM STATEMENTS
  49. 49. 49 CHALLENGES  An alternative to manual washing • Harsh detergent and straining scrubbing motions • Awkward posture causes back pains • Time-consuming, uncompensated labor limits economic and educational opportunities • Lack of technological improvements for women PROBLEM STATEMENTS Women in society wash clothes manually, but the detergents are chemically harmful to their hands, and the motion of scrubbing is straining to the muscles. Our goal is to design an inexpensive and durable pedal- powered washing machine for use in rural areas to gently wash clothes. Due to cost constraints, the washing machine is to be shared among several families or can be used by a local entrepreneur to run a laundering service. The washing machine must be easy to build and maintain locally with local materials, easy to operate (minimal required steps), and easy to power by women or children. It must also be more comfortable to use than manual methods and culturally acceptable in society.
  50. 50. 50 CHAPTER :6 APPLICATIONS OF THE PEDAL POWERED HACKSAW & WASHING MACHINE
  51. 51. 51 APPLICATIONS OF THE PEDAL POWERED HACKSAW & WASHING MACHINE  Light material cutting in small scale.  Light material as wood, pipes, aluminium tubes, square tubes, iron rods and thick iron rods to be cut.  It is very useful into the local rural areas and normal workshop.  To cut metal for window panes.  Can also be used in college workshops and auto garages to save electricity.  PPHWM can be used to wash the clothes.  This whole arrangement will be used as a exercise equipment.  By using the geared dc motor with a single rotation we can acquire max rotation of the armature of the motor.  For the precise cutting, PPHWM is a very helpful machine.  Use it as multipurpose machine.  Use it at the dark areas where there is no any electricity.  To charge the 6volt battery and to light the LED bulb.  Saving in detergent the water.  Better wash quality, scale free tub  Easy to operate and less effect of chemical on the women hand.
  52. 52. 52 CHAPTER :7 PURPOSES, ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES
  53. 53. 53 PURPOSES • Full-scale proof of concept • Maximize use of bike parts • Power matching • Determine manufacturing challenge  To produce electricity also. ADVANTAGES • To save the electricity. • To save the money. • To help the urban people. • It could be assemble easily. • It could be place anywhere. • It could be assemble and dissemble. DISADVANTAGES  Need much human effort.  It is heavy in weight.  Structure is complex.  Children can’t use it.
  54. 54. 54 CHAPTER :8 UNIQUENESS
  55. 55. 55 UNIQUENESS  Simplicity of using a hacksaw for precise cutting.  Simplicity of using a single drum instead of inner and outer drums.  Ease of transportability.  By using such a pedal operated machine less water and no energy usage.  Cost will be less as compared to washing machine.  In rural areas electricity is scare so great advantage of such machine.  By attaching bicycle to such device it can use for exercise purpose.  Importance of mobility structure
  56. 56. 56 CHAPTER :9 CONCLUSIONS
  57. 57. 57 CONCLUSIONS PDH can be used for light duty cutting operations of plywood. PDH can be used in remote places where electricity is not available. It is designed as a portable one which can be used for cutting in various places. The ply wood can be cut without any external energy like fuel or current. Since PDH uses no electric power and fuel, this is very cheap and best. Experimental result shows cutting depth of about 17 mm can be obtained can be obtained in one cycle of strokes for around 100rpm. Pedal driven hack saw helps to obtain less effort uniform cutting. The results indicate that the PDH had given better, accurate and faster cuts when compared with hand hacksaw at different rpm. A pedal-powered hacksaw &washing machine would allow women to wash clothes faster and with less strain. When asked what they would do with their free time, women said that they would try to generate income by making crafts or food to sell. Young daughters who help their mothers with domestic chores may also have the opportunity to concentrate more on their studies. Laundromat microenterprises may even arise if pedal powered washing machines are successful. Conditions vary in developing countries, but women in many regions are washing clothes manually while they could be doing more profitable or rewarding work elsewhere. We hope through our research and analysis we have designed or at least help clarify the design - concept of a pedal-powered hacksaw & washing machine. Hopefully in the near future, such helpful tools become a common addition to Cambodia villages and Third world countries.
  58. 58. 58 CHAPTER :10 FUTURE DEVELOPEMENTS
  59. 59. 59 FUTURE DEVELOPMENTS 10.A. USE OF CHAIR IN PLACE OF CYCLE FRAME For making perfect cutting & washing of clothes more comfortable, the cycle frame can be replaced with a chair. Use of chair will be more convenient for women 10.B. COMPOSITE STRUCTURE To reduce the assembly time and prevent others from tampering with it in public areas, the structure will be made out of welded angle iron. Welding fixtures may be designed to make it easier to weld several structures with proper alignment of components. The welded structure will add to the weight of the machine, making it inherently less likely to vibrate. The steel structure may also be cemented into the ground to ensure stability and security of the machine from theft. 10.C. TECHNOLOGY FOR THE POOR Fig 34 Operating a wood working working lathe Fig 35 Operating a circular saw
  60. 60. 60 Fig 36 Water pumping from a shallow well Fig 37 Corn shelling Fig 38 Peanut shelling
  61. 61. 61 Fig 39 Winnowing Fig 40 Rice threshing 10. D. POSITION OF HACKSAW If we change the position of the hacksaw (45 to 60 degree) in the assembly, we can cut a flat oblects like plywood , and large diameter objects and cutting action will take less time and the cutting will be precise and perfect.
  62. 62. 62 CHAPTER :11 REFERENCES
  63. 63. 63 REFERENCE  R.S.Khurmi “Design of Machine Elements”, Eurasnia publishing house 3 Pvt Ltd, 14th revised edition.  Material selection and testing of hacksaw blade based on mechanical properties prof. Nitinchandra r. Patel Mohammed a. Vasanwala2 balkrushna b. Jani3, miteshkumar d. Rathwa4ravi a. Thakkar5- international journal of innovative research in science, engineering and technologyvol. 2, issue 6, June 2013  S.M.Moghe & K.S.Zakiuddin (2013) “Design and Development of Turmeric Polishing Machine Energized  by Human Power Flywheel Motor.”-A past review, Proceedings of the 1st International and 16th National  Conference on Machines and Mechanisms IIT Roorkee, India, Dec 18-20 2013  2. Bicilavadora: The Pedal-Powered Washing Machine - IDEAS 2005 Proposal.  3. Bruzzone, M. & Wieler, A. (2010) “Reflecting on an Intercultural Design-Build Project in the Kathmandu  Valley” Final Draft, February 5, 2010.  4. http://en.wikipedia.org/washing mc/pedal-powered-washing-machine.htm  5. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Washing machine.  6. http://www.ideafinder.com/history/inventions/washmachine.htm  7. http://home.howstuffworks.com/washer1.htm  8. http://www.apparelsearch.com/definitions/miscellaneous/washing_machine.htm |
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