Research Methods William G. Zikmund, Ch13


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Research Methods
William G. Zikmund

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Research Methods William G. Zikmund, Ch13

  1. 1. BusinessResearch Methods William G. Zikmund Chapter 13: Measurement
  2. 2. ConceptA generalized idea about a class ofobjects, attributes, occurrences, or processes
  3. 3. Operational DefinitionSpecifies what the researcher must do to measure the concept under investigation
  4. 4. Media Skepticism conceptual definition• Media skepticism - the degree to which individuals are skeptical toward the reality presented in the mass media. Media skepticism varies across individuals, from those who are mildly skeptical and accept most of what they see and hear in the media to those who completely discount and disbelieve the facts, values, and portrayal of reality in the media.
  5. 5. Media Skepticism Operational Definition Please tell me how true each statement is about the media. Is it very true, not very true, or not at all true?• 1. The program was not very accurate in its portrayal of the problem.• 2. Most of the story was staged for entertainment purposes.• 3. The presentation was slanted and unfair.
  6. 6. Scale• Series of items arranged according to value for the purpose of quantification• A continuous spectrum
  7. 7. Nominal Scale
  8. 8. Ordinal Scale
  9. 9. Interval Scale
  10. 10. Ratio Scale
  11. 11. Scale Properties• Uniquely classifies• Preserves order• Equal intervals• Natural zero
  12. 12. Nominal Scale Properties• Uniquely classifies – Sammy Sosa # 21 – Barry Bonds # 25
  13. 13. Ordinal Scale Properties• Uniquely classifies• Preserves order• Win, place, & show
  14. 14. Interval Scale Properties• Uniquely classifies• Preserves order• Equal intervals – Consumer Price Index (Base 100) – Fahrenheit temperature
  15. 15. Ratio Scale Properties• Uniquely classifies• Preserves order• Equal intervals – Natural zero – Weight and distance
  16. 16. Index Measures• ATTRIBUTES A single characteristic or fundamental feature that pertains to an object, person, or issue• COMPOSITE MEASURE A composite measure of several variables to measure a single concept; a multi-item instrument
  17. 17. The Goalof Measurement Validity
  18. 18. ValidityThe ability of a scale to measure what was intended to be measured
  19. 19. Reliability The degree to which measures arefree from random error and therefore yield consistent results
  20. 20. Reliability and Validity on Target Old Rifle New Rifle New Rifle Sun glareLow Reliability High Reliability Reliable but Not Valid (Target A) (Target B) (Target C)
  21. 21. Validity V a lid it yFACE O R CO N TEN T C R IT E R IO N V A L ID IT Y C O N S T R U C T V A L ID IT Y C O N C URR ENT P R E D IC T IV E
  22. 22. Reliability R E L IA B IL IT Y S T A B IL IT Y IN T E R N A L C O N S IS T E N C YTEST R ETEST E Q U IV A L E N T F O R M S S P L IT T IN G H A L V E S
  23. 23. Sensitivity• A measurement instrument’s ability to accurately measure variability in stimuli or responses.