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Research Methods William G. Zikmund, Ch10


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Research Methods
William G. Zikmund

Published in: Business

Research Methods William G. Zikmund, Ch10

  1. 1. BusinessResearch Methods William G. Zikmund Chapter 10: Survey Research: BasicCommunication Methods
  2. 2. SurveysSurveys as a respondent for informationusing verbal or written questioning
  3. 3. Communicating with Respondents• Personal interviews • Door-to-door • Shopping mall intercepts• Telephone interviews• Self-administered questionnaires
  4. 4. Personal Interviews
  5. 5. Good Afternoon, my name is _________. I am with _________survey research company. We areconducting a survey on_________
  6. 6. Door-to-Door Personal Interview• Speed of data collection – Moderate to fast• Geographical flexibility – Limited to moderate• Respondent cooperation – Excellent• Versatility of questioning – Quite versatile
  7. 7. Door-to-Door Personal Interview• Questionnaire length – Long• Item nonresponse – Low• Possibility of respondent misunderstanding – Lowest
  8. 8. Door-to-Door Personal Interview• Degree of interviewer influence of answer – High• Supervision of interviewers – Moderate• Anonymity of respondent – Low
  9. 9. Door-to-Door Personal Interview• Ease of call back or follow-up – Difficult• Cost – Highest• Special features – Visual materials may be shown or demonstrated; extended probing possible
  10. 10. Mall Intercept Personal Interview• Speed of data collection – Fast• Geographical flexibility – Confined, urban bias• Respondent cooperation – Moderate to low – Versatility of questioning • Extremely versatile
  11. 11. Mall Intercept Personal Interview• Speed of Data Collection – Fast• Geographical Flexibility – Confined, urban bias• Respondent Cooperation – Moderate to low – Versatility of Questioning – Extremely versatile
  12. 12. Mall Intercept Personal Interview• Questionnaire length – Moderate to long• Item nonresponse – Medium• Possibility of respondent misunderstanding – Lowest
  13. 13. Mall Intercept Personal Interview• Degree of interviewer influence of answers – Highest• Supervision of interviewers – Moderate to high• Anonymity of respondent – Low
  14. 14. Mall Intercept Personal Interview• Ease of call back or follow-up – Difficult• Cost – Moderate to high• Special features – Taste test, viewing of TV commercials possible
  15. 15. Telephone Surveys
  16. 16. Telephone Surveys• Speed of Data Collection – Very fast• Geographical Flexibility – High• Respondent Cooperation – Good• Versatility of Questioning – Moderate
  17. 17. Telephone Surveys• Questionnaire Length – Moderate• Item Nonresponse – Medium• Possibility of Respondent Misunderstanding – Average• Degree of Interviewer Influence of Answer – Moderate
  18. 18. Telephone Surveys• Supervision of interviewers – High, especially with central location WATS interviewing• Anonymity of respondent – Moderate• Ease of call back or follow-up – Easy
  19. 19. Telephone Surveys• Cost – Low to moderate• Special features – Fieldwork and supervision of data collection are simplified; quite adaptable to computer technology
  20. 20. Telephone Surveys• Central location interviewing• Computer-assisted telephone interviewing• Computerized voice-activated interviews
  21. 21. Most Unlisted Markets• Sacramento, CA• Oakland, CA• Fresno, CA• Los Angles/Long Beach, CA
  22. 22. The Frame, November 2001 Published by Survey Sampling, Inc.
  23. 23. Self-Administered Questionnaires S E L F -A D M IN IS T E R E D Q U E S T IO N N A IR E S PAPER E L E C T R O N IC Q U E S T IO N N A IR E S Q U E S T IO N N A IR E SM A IL IN -P E R S O N IN S E R T S FAX E -M A IL IN T E R N E T K IO S K D R O P -O F F W E B S IT E
  24. 24. Mail Surveys
  25. 25. Mail Surveys• Speed of data collection – Researcher has no control over return of questionnaire; slow• Geographical flexibility – High• Respondent cooperation – Moderate--poorly designed questionnaire will have low response rate
  26. 26. Mail Surveys• Versatility of questioning – Highly standardized format• Questionnaire length – Varies depending on incentive• Item nonresponse – High
  27. 27. Mail Surveys• Possibility of respondent misunderstanding – Highest--no interviewer present for clarification• Degree of interviewer influence of answer – None--interviewer absent• Supervision of interviewers – Not applicable
  28. 28. Mail Surveys• Anonymity of respondent – High• Ease of call back or follow-up – Easy, but takes time• Cost – Lowest
  29. 29. How to Increase Response Rates for Mail Surveys• Write a “sales oriented” cover letter• Money helps - As a token of appreciation - For a charity• Stimulate respondents’ interest with interesting questions• Follow Up - Keying questionnaires with codes• Advanced notification• Sponsorship by a well-known and prestigious institution
  30. 30. Increasing Response Rates• Effective cover letter• Money helps• Interesting questions• Follow-ups• Advanced notification• Survey sponsorship• Keying questionnaires
  31. 31. E-Mail Questionnaire Surveys• Speed of data collection – Instantaneous• Geographic flexibility – worldwide• Cheaper distribution and processing costs
  32. 32. E-Mail Questionnaire Surveys• Flexible, but – Extensive differences in the capabilities of respondents’ computers and e-mail software limit the types of questions and the layout• E-mails are not secure and “eavesdropping” can possibly occur• Respondent cooperation – Varies depending if e-mail is seen as “spam”
  33. 33. Internet Surveys• A self-administered questionnaire posted on a Web site.• Respondents provide answers to questions displayed online by highlighting a phrase, clicking an icon, or keying in an answer.
  34. 34. Internet Surveys• Speed of data collection – Instantaneous• Cost effective• Geographic flexibility – worldwide• Visual and interactive
  35. 35. Internet Surveys• Respondent cooperation – Varies depending on web site – Varies depending on type of sample – When user does not opt-in or expect a voluntary survey cooperation is low. – Self-selection problems in web site visitation surveys - participants tend to be more deeply involved than the average person.
  36. 36. Internet Surveys• Versatility of questioning – Extremely versatile• Questionnaire length – Individualized base on respondent answers – Longer questionnaires with panel samples• Item nonresponse – Software can assure none
  37. 37. Internet Surveys• Representative samples• The quality of internet samples may vary substantially.• A sample of those who visit a web page and voluntarily fill out a questionnaires can have self-selection error.
  38. 38. Internet Surveys• 1) not all individuals in the general public have internet access• 2) many respondents lack powerful computers with high-speed connections to the internet• 3) many respondents computer skills will be relatively unsophisticated.
  39. 39. Internet Surveys• Possibility for respondent misunderstanding – High• Interviewer influence of answers – None• Supervision of interviewers not required
  40. 40. Internet Surveys• Anonymity of Respondent – Respondent can be anonymous or known• Ease of Callback or Follow-up – difficult unless e-mail address is known• Special Features – allows graphics and streaming media
  41. 41. Welcome Screen• Welcome Screen like a cover letter• It contains the name of the research company and how to contact the organization if there is a problem or concern.• "If you have any concerns or questions about this survey, or if you experience any technical difficulties, please contact (NAME OF RESEARCH ORGANIZATION).
  42. 42. Welcome Screen should ask for password and give instructions• Please enter your personal password from your invitation.Then, press the "enter" key to begin the survey or simply click on the right arrow at the bottom of the page to begin the survey (after you have read the remaining instructions):• During the survey, please do not use your browsers FORWARD and BACK buttons.• Use the arrows on the lower right to move backward and forward through the survey.
  43. 43. There is no best form ofsurvey; each has advantages and disadvantages.
  44. 44. Selected Questions to Determine the Appropriate Technique• Is the assistance of an interviewer necessary?• Are respondents interested in the issues being investigated?• Will cooperation be easily attained?
  45. 45. Selected Questions to Determine the Appropriate Technique• How quickly is the information needed?• Will the study require a long and complex questionnaire?• How large is the budget?
  46. 46. Pretesting• A trial run with a group of respondents to iron out fundamental problems in the instructions of survey design
  47. 47. “Practice is the best of all instructors.” Publius Syrus