Disadvantages of Secondary Data• Uncertain Accuracy• Data Not Consistent with Needs• Inappropriate Units of Measurement• Time Period Inappropriate (Dated)
Secondary Data may be Dated The Economic Census profiles the U.S. economy every 5 years, from the national to the local level.
Evaluating Secondary Data Does the data help to answer questions set out in the problem definition?Applicabilityto projectobjectives Does the data apply to the time period of interest? Does the data apply to the population of interest?
Evaluating Secondary Data (continued) Do the other terms and variable classificationsApplicability presented apply?to projectobjectives Are the units of measurement comparable? If possible, go to the original source of the Accuracy data? of the data
Is the cost of data acquisition worth it?Accuracy Is there a possibilityof the data of bias? Can the accuracy of data collection be verified?
Objectives for Secondary Data Studies• Fact Finding• Model Building• Data Based Marketing
Common Research Objectives for Secondary Data StudiesFact Finding - Identifying consumption patterns - Tracking trendsModel building - Estimating market potential - Forecasting sales - Selecting trade areas and sitesData Base Marketing - Development of Prospect Lists - Enhancement of Customer Lists
Traditional DistributionIndirect Channel Using Intermediary Information Producer (Federal Government) Library (Storage of government documents and books) Company User
Traditional Distribution Direct ChannelInformation Producer(Federal Government) Company User
Direct, Computerized Distribution Using Intermediary Information producer’s (Just-in-time inventory partner) computerized database Company user
Modern Distribution of Secondary DataInformation producer A Information producer B Information producer C (Federal government- (Grocery store-retail (Audience research company- census data) scanner data) television viewing data) Vendor/external distributor (Computerized database integrating all three data sources for any geographic area) Information producer A (Federal government- census data)
External Data• Created, recorded, or generated by an entity other than the researcher’s organization• Government• Trade associations• Newspapers and journals
External Data• Libraries• The Internet• Vendors• Producers• Books and periodicals
External Data• Government sources• Media sources• Commercial sources
U.S. Population by Race and Hispanic Origin, July 1, 1997 (in thousands) White Black American Indian Asian & Pacific & Alaska Native Islandernon-Hispanic 194,571 32,324 1,977 9,532Hispanic 26,746 1,649 347 598
Race and Ethnicity• The race and Hispanic origin categories used by the Census Bureau are mandated by Office of Management and Budget• All federal record keeping and data presentation to use four race categories (White, Black, American Indian and Alaska Native, Asian and Pacific Islander) and two ethnicity categories (Hispanic, non-Hispanic).• These classifications are not intended to be scientific in nature, but are designed to promote consistency in federal record keeping and data presentation.
Commercial Sources• Market share data companies like A.C. Nielsen provide information about sales volume and brand share over time• Demographic and census updates—many organizations supply census updates, in easy-to-use or custom formats
Commercial Sources• Attitude and public opinion research— syndicated services report the findings of opinion polls• Consumption and purchase behavior data• Advertising research—readership and audience data
Single Source Data• Diverse types of data offered from a single source - e.g., television viewing and scanner purchase data - e.g., Prizim and ClusterPlus
Global Secondary Data• Typical limitations• Additional pitfalls• Unavailable• Questionable accuracy• Lack of standardized terminology