Research Methods William G. Zikmund, Ch08


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Research Methods
William G. Zikmund

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Research Methods William G. Zikmund, Ch08

  1. 1. BusinessResearch Methods William G. Zikmund Chapter 8: Secondary DataResearch in a Digital Age
  2. 2. Secondary DataData gathered and recorded by someone else prior to and for a purpose other than the current projectIs often:• Historical• Already assembled• Needs no access to subjects
  3. 3. Advantages of Secondary Data• Inexpensive• Obtained Rapidly• Information is not Otherwise Accessible
  4. 4. Government Data Is Often Free Copyright © 2000 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.
  5. 5. Disadvantages of Secondary Data• Uncertain Accuracy• Data Not Consistent with Needs• Inappropriate Units of Measurement• Time Period Inappropriate (Dated)
  6. 6. Secondary Data may be Dated The Economic Census profiles the U.S. economy every 5 years, from the national to the local level.
  7. 7. Evaluating Secondary Data Does the data help to answer questions set out in the problem definition?Applicabilityto projectobjectives Does the data apply to the time period of interest? Does the data apply to the population of interest?
  8. 8. Evaluating Secondary Data (continued) Do the other terms and variable classificationsApplicability presented apply?to projectobjectives Are the units of measurement comparable? If possible, go to the original source of the Accuracy data? of the data
  9. 9. Is the cost of data acquisition worth it?Accuracy Is there a possibilityof the data of bias? Can the accuracy of data collection be verified?
  10. 10. Objectives for Secondary Data Studies• Fact Finding• Model Building• Data Based Marketing
  11. 11. Common Research Objectives for Secondary Data StudiesFact Finding - Identifying consumption patterns - Tracking trendsModel building - Estimating market potential - Forecasting sales - Selecting trade areas and sitesData Base Marketing - Development of Prospect Lists - Enhancement of Customer Lists
  12. 12. Fact Finding• Identify consumer behavior• Trend analysis• Environmental scanning
  13. 13. Model Building• Market potential• Forecasting sales• Analysis of trade areas
  14. 14. Data Based Marketing• Practice of maintaining a customer data base• Names• Addresses• Past purchases• Responses to past efforts• Data from numerous sources
  15. 15. Internal Data Internal and proprietary data is more descriptive• Accounting information• Sales information• Backorders• Customer complaints
  16. 16. Data Mining
  17. 17. Traditional DistributionIndirect Channel Using Intermediary Information Producer (Federal Government) Library (Storage of government documents and books) Company User
  18. 18. Traditional Distribution Direct ChannelInformation Producer(Federal Government) Company User
  19. 19. Direct, Computerized Distribution Using Intermediary Information producer’s (Just-in-time inventory partner) computerized database Company user
  20. 20. Modern Distribution of Secondary DataInformation producer A Information producer B Information producer C (Federal government- (Grocery store-retail (Audience research company- census data) scanner data) television viewing data) Vendor/external distributor (Computerized database integrating all three data sources for any geographic area) Information producer A (Federal government- census data)
  21. 21. External Data• Created, recorded, or generated by an entity other than the researcher’s organization• Government• Trade associations• Newspapers and journals
  22. 22. External Data• Libraries• The Internet• Vendors• Producers• Books and periodicals
  23. 23. External Data• Government sources• Media sources• Commercial sources
  24. 24. Government Sources
  25. 25. U.S. Population by Race and Hispanic Origin, July 1, 1997 (in thousands) White Black American Indian Asian & Pacific & Alaska Native Islandernon-Hispanic 194,571 32,324 1,977 9,532Hispanic 26,746 1,649 347 598
  26. 26. Race and Ethnicity• The race and Hispanic origin categories used by the Census Bureau are mandated by Office of Management and Budget• All federal record keeping and data presentation to use four race categories (White, Black, American Indian and Alaska Native, Asian and Pacific Islander) and two ethnicity categories (Hispanic, non-Hispanic).• These classifications are not intended to be scientific in nature, but are designed to promote consistency in federal record keeping and data presentation.
  27. 27. Commercial Sources• Market share data companies like A.C. Nielsen provide information about sales volume and brand share over time• Demographic and census updates—many organizations supply census updates, in easy-to-use or custom formats
  28. 28. Commercial Sources• Attitude and public opinion research— syndicated services report the findings of opinion polls• Consumption and purchase behavior data• Advertising research—readership and audience data
  29. 29. Single Source Data• Diverse types of data offered from a single source - e.g., television viewing and scanner purchase data - e.g., Prizim and ClusterPlus
  30. 30. Global Secondary Data• Typical limitations• Additional pitfalls• Unavailable• Questionable accuracy• Lack of standardized terminology