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OXFORD COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
& MANAGEMENT
BHUBANESWAR
SUBMITTED BY:-
MD JONAID
DHIRAJ CAUBEY
ANURADHA RAUTRAY
Under the guidance of
Asst. Prof Jogamaya Swain
Asst. Prof. Nursingha Ch. Pradhan
Introduction LPG
 Introduction LPG, first produced in 1910 by Dr. Walter Snelling is a
mixture of Commercial Propane and Commercial Butane having
saturated as well as unsaturated hydrocarbons. Because of the versatile
nature of LPG it is used for many needs such as domestic fuel, industrial
fuel, automobile fuel, heating, illumination etc and the demand for LPG
is on an exponential raise day by day. The leaked gases when ignited
may lead to explosion. The number of deaths due to the explosion of gas
cylinders has been increasing in recent years. Thus there is a need for a
system to detect and also prevent leakage of LPG. Before the
development of electronic household gas detectors in the 1980s and
90s, gas presence was detected with a chemically infused paper that
changed its colour when exposed to the gas. Since then, many
technologies and devices have been developed to detect, monitor, and
alert the leakage of a wide array of gases. Today, booking an LPG
cylinder is now just a text message away. Petroleum companies have
launched the customer-friendly service called as IVRS (Interactive voice
Response) technique for their customers.
System Overview
 The system block diagram comprises of parts
as shown in figure 1. It consists of
microcontroller (ATMega16A), gas sensor,
weight sensor (Load CellL6D), GSM module
(SIMCOM 300), and display(s). Figure 1.
System block diagram
Microcontroller
 An efficient and fast working controller is needed to continuously sense the LPG
gas and its level (weight) sensor’s output. Also a fast reply is desired when
leakage is found.Along with this a system must

 possess capacity to store some information which can be used for further
processing. Above operations require a very fast, single cycle execution rate
microcontroller like ATMega16A. As shown in above figure 1, the microcontroller
is at the centre of the system. It is having features like 16Kb internal RAM
making easy storage of entire code in microcontroller itself, also the 1 MIPS per
MHz instruction cycle execution rate enhanced overall system performance. The
LCD module connected to port B of ATMega16A in 4-bit mode is used to display
the required messages. GSM module using AT commands connected to Rx and
Tx pins of port D of ATMega16A are used to receive and transmit messages to
desired family members and distributor. The weight sensor module output taken
from relay circuit is connected to pins of port A which is used to monitor gas level
continuously.


Gas sensor
 The LPG gas consists of isobutene, propane, methane, etc.
A sensitive, efficient gas sensor is required that senses only
LPG gas contents and is less sensitive to other gases like
cooking fumes, cigarettes, etc. Sensitive material of MQ-6
gas sensor is SnO2, which has lower conductivity in clean
air and its sensitivity increases with the concentration of
gas, also it avoids gases like cooking fumes. It requires a
voltage of 0-5 volts which is low and safe as per as the
gaseous environment is considered. This sensor
continuously senses the gas, and if concentration level goes
above danger level then it turns relay ON which gives
interrupt to microcontroller and alternately switches on
buzzer and exhaust fan.
Weight Sensor Module
 To book a cylinder from a distributor, we must be
aware in advance of amount of gas in the cylinder,
and for this purpose the level of gas present in the
cylinder has to be monitored continuously. The load
cell having required weighing capacity for domestic
cylinder is used and for calibration purpose the
weight sensor module is used along with the load
cell. L6D weight sensor module is implemented in
the system. The load cell output drives a relay circuit
which gives two logic pulses (for <=10 kg and <= 0.5
kg) as per truth table (figure. 4), which are further
connected to microcontroller port pins to detect the
gas level.
GSM Module
 Gas sensor detects the presence of gas, weight sensor
gives the gas level in cylinder, and microcontroller will take
corrective or necessary actions. The status of all these
happening has to be conveyed to the owner of system or
housemates. The technology making it very easy to send
and receive messages using GSM module works on simple
AT commands which can be implemented by interfacing it
to the microcontroller Rx and Tx pins. The GSM module
used is SIMCOM 300 which uses SIM memory to store the
number of system owner or housemates and distributor or
to whoever the messages have to be forwarded. It requires
very less memory to send and receive text messages and
operates on simple 12Volt adapter.
Displays
 As the system performs controlling and monitoring
operations, it is primary requirement to put a display
in the system which shows various message such as
gas leakage detection, booking number of cylinder
in case of refill of cylinder and also will display
actions taken by microcontroller. Liquid Crystal
Display (LCD) of 16X2 characters operating on +5Volt
supply and operated in 4-bit mode is implemented
for the task of displaying required messages
.Interfacing with ATMega16A and short code of
programming makes it very useful to make system
more user friendly.

System Operation

 There are two flow charts for gas leakage
detection and automatic gas booking which
explain the methodology of the operation as
follows:
Gas Leakage
 Detection In this prototype, gas leakage detection
has been given a highest priority. MQ6 placed in the
vicinity of the gas cylinder. In the advent of leakage,
the resistance of the sensor decreases increasing its
conductivity. Corresponding pulse is fed to
microcontroller and simultaneously switches on the
buzzer and exhaust fan which we can reset by a
manual reset switch. Also a logic high pulse (+5 V) is
given as an interrupt to INT0 pin of ATMega16
Microcontroller. Microcontroller sends a message
“EMERGENCY ALERT: LPG gas leakage found in
your home” to required cell numbers via GSM
module and the same will be displayed on LCD.
Automatic Gas Booking

 In automatic Gas booking system, L6D continuously monitors the
weight of the gas in cylinder and displays it on seven segment
display. When the weight of the gas is <=10 Kg, a logic high pulse
is fed to a port pin of microcontroller. As this pin goes high,
microcontroller will send a booking message to distributor of
format, "REG_AMARGAS_12345”. At the same time, the
message will be displayed on LCD as “Booking Cylinder”. When
the weight of the gas goes below 0.5 kg another logic high pulse
is fed to another port of microcontroller through a relay circuit as
discussed in truth table. As this port pin goes high,
microcontroller will send a message as “Gas remaining only 0.5
Kg. Immediately Refill your Cylinder” through a GSM module to
cell numbers required members and the message “Cylinder
Empty, Please Refill” is displayed on the LCD display.
Experimental Setup
 Experimental Setup ATMega 16 is the base of
the system.The inputs given to the ATMega
16 are the output of gas sensor MQ-6 and
load cell L6D .The output of ATMega 16 are
given to the SIMCOM 300 and LCD 16×2
display.The gas output of MQ6 is given to the
INT0 pin of ATMega 16 as far as the highest
priority is given to the leakage detection.The
output of
The LPG detector circuit
The Exhaust fan used in the
project is a 12v DC permanent
magnet type.
Parts No Parts Material
 1. Gas sensing layer
 2. Electrode Au
 3. Electrode line Pt
 4. Heater coil NI-cr Alloy
 5.Tubular Ceramic Al2O3
 6. Anti explosion network Stainless steel gauze
 7. Clamp ring Copper plating
 8. Resin base Bakelite
 9.Tube pin Copper plating
DC Motor
 The basic principle of DC motor is the creation of rotating
magnet inside the mobile part of the motor, rotar. Motor
indicates fixed magnet and rotar indicates rotating magnet. The
power for the stator electromagnet is supplied by separate DC
source. The relative angle between these magnets is maintained
near 90 degrees. When gas leak occurs this monitoring system
senses the leak by means of sensor and the value is given to the
microcontroller. When gas leak occurs this monitoring system
senses the leak by means of sensor and the value is given to the
microcontroller. Figure 8: DC motor with electromagnet as stator
The value of lower and higher level of leakage is given in terms of
binary format. Then the instruction is given to the motor to close
the knob. Then after this controlling measure the leakage
message is sent to the user and fire station. At the same time
electric current is shutdown by the relay IV. Operation of
Monitoring and Detection System
Detection system:
 In the detection system the MQ6 gas sensor is used
which is sensible to LPG, isobutene and propane
gases.This sensor sends a signal (digital pulse) to the
microcontroller when gas is being leaked.An alert
message is sent through the GSM[8][9] to the user
and a buzzer alarm is activated in the room.This
alarm produces huge sound which drops down the
attention of user and neighbors in current leak/fire
accidents.These alert messages will be displayed on
LCD Simultaneously, LPG regulator fitted to the
cylinder is automatically turned off using a relayed
DC motor to avoid more leakage from cylinder.
Refilling of cylinder:
 The LPG cylinder refilling unit comprises
mainly the weight sensor, which is coupled
with to the ATmega328p microcontroller.
When the weight of the cylinder reaches the
below the predetermined value the GSM
modem interfaced to the microcontroller
sends booking request to the distributor.
Conclusion
 power of sensitivity Ps=Vc2×Rs/(Rs+RL)2
Resistance of sensor (Rs): Rs=(Vc/VRL-1)×RL
3.3Weight sensor:There must be aware in
advance of amount of gas in the cylinder,
before rebooking the cylinder to the
distributor. For this purpose the weight
sensor is used, thus it monitors the level of
gas present in the cylinder .for calibration
purpose the weight sensor is used along with
load cell.

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Presentation1

  • 1. OXFORD COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & MANAGEMENT BHUBANESWAR SUBMITTED BY:- MD JONAID DHIRAJ CAUBEY ANURADHA RAUTRAY Under the guidance of Asst. Prof Jogamaya Swain Asst. Prof. Nursingha Ch. Pradhan
  • 2.
  • 3. Introduction LPG  Introduction LPG, first produced in 1910 by Dr. Walter Snelling is a mixture of Commercial Propane and Commercial Butane having saturated as well as unsaturated hydrocarbons. Because of the versatile nature of LPG it is used for many needs such as domestic fuel, industrial fuel, automobile fuel, heating, illumination etc and the demand for LPG is on an exponential raise day by day. The leaked gases when ignited may lead to explosion. The number of deaths due to the explosion of gas cylinders has been increasing in recent years. Thus there is a need for a system to detect and also prevent leakage of LPG. Before the development of electronic household gas detectors in the 1980s and 90s, gas presence was detected with a chemically infused paper that changed its colour when exposed to the gas. Since then, many technologies and devices have been developed to detect, monitor, and alert the leakage of a wide array of gases. Today, booking an LPG cylinder is now just a text message away. Petroleum companies have launched the customer-friendly service called as IVRS (Interactive voice Response) technique for their customers.
  • 4. System Overview  The system block diagram comprises of parts as shown in figure 1. It consists of microcontroller (ATMega16A), gas sensor, weight sensor (Load CellL6D), GSM module (SIMCOM 300), and display(s). Figure 1. System block diagram
  • 5.
  • 6. Microcontroller  An efficient and fast working controller is needed to continuously sense the LPG gas and its level (weight) sensor’s output. Also a fast reply is desired when leakage is found.Along with this a system must   possess capacity to store some information which can be used for further processing. Above operations require a very fast, single cycle execution rate microcontroller like ATMega16A. As shown in above figure 1, the microcontroller is at the centre of the system. It is having features like 16Kb internal RAM making easy storage of entire code in microcontroller itself, also the 1 MIPS per MHz instruction cycle execution rate enhanced overall system performance. The LCD module connected to port B of ATMega16A in 4-bit mode is used to display the required messages. GSM module using AT commands connected to Rx and Tx pins of port D of ATMega16A are used to receive and transmit messages to desired family members and distributor. The weight sensor module output taken from relay circuit is connected to pins of port A which is used to monitor gas level continuously.  
  • 7. Gas sensor  The LPG gas consists of isobutene, propane, methane, etc. A sensitive, efficient gas sensor is required that senses only LPG gas contents and is less sensitive to other gases like cooking fumes, cigarettes, etc. Sensitive material of MQ-6 gas sensor is SnO2, which has lower conductivity in clean air and its sensitivity increases with the concentration of gas, also it avoids gases like cooking fumes. It requires a voltage of 0-5 volts which is low and safe as per as the gaseous environment is considered. This sensor continuously senses the gas, and if concentration level goes above danger level then it turns relay ON which gives interrupt to microcontroller and alternately switches on buzzer and exhaust fan.
  • 8.
  • 9. Weight Sensor Module  To book a cylinder from a distributor, we must be aware in advance of amount of gas in the cylinder, and for this purpose the level of gas present in the cylinder has to be monitored continuously. The load cell having required weighing capacity for domestic cylinder is used and for calibration purpose the weight sensor module is used along with the load cell. L6D weight sensor module is implemented in the system. The load cell output drives a relay circuit which gives two logic pulses (for <=10 kg and <= 0.5 kg) as per truth table (figure. 4), which are further connected to microcontroller port pins to detect the gas level.
  • 10.
  • 11. GSM Module  Gas sensor detects the presence of gas, weight sensor gives the gas level in cylinder, and microcontroller will take corrective or necessary actions. The status of all these happening has to be conveyed to the owner of system or housemates. The technology making it very easy to send and receive messages using GSM module works on simple AT commands which can be implemented by interfacing it to the microcontroller Rx and Tx pins. The GSM module used is SIMCOM 300 which uses SIM memory to store the number of system owner or housemates and distributor or to whoever the messages have to be forwarded. It requires very less memory to send and receive text messages and operates on simple 12Volt adapter.
  • 12. Displays  As the system performs controlling and monitoring operations, it is primary requirement to put a display in the system which shows various message such as gas leakage detection, booking number of cylinder in case of refill of cylinder and also will display actions taken by microcontroller. Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) of 16X2 characters operating on +5Volt supply and operated in 4-bit mode is implemented for the task of displaying required messages .Interfacing with ATMega16A and short code of programming makes it very useful to make system more user friendly. 
  • 13. System Operation   There are two flow charts for gas leakage detection and automatic gas booking which explain the methodology of the operation as follows:
  • 14. Gas Leakage  Detection In this prototype, gas leakage detection has been given a highest priority. MQ6 placed in the vicinity of the gas cylinder. In the advent of leakage, the resistance of the sensor decreases increasing its conductivity. Corresponding pulse is fed to microcontroller and simultaneously switches on the buzzer and exhaust fan which we can reset by a manual reset switch. Also a logic high pulse (+5 V) is given as an interrupt to INT0 pin of ATMega16 Microcontroller. Microcontroller sends a message “EMERGENCY ALERT: LPG gas leakage found in your home” to required cell numbers via GSM module and the same will be displayed on LCD.
  • 15. Automatic Gas Booking   In automatic Gas booking system, L6D continuously monitors the weight of the gas in cylinder and displays it on seven segment display. When the weight of the gas is <=10 Kg, a logic high pulse is fed to a port pin of microcontroller. As this pin goes high, microcontroller will send a booking message to distributor of format, "REG_AMARGAS_12345”. At the same time, the message will be displayed on LCD as “Booking Cylinder”. When the weight of the gas goes below 0.5 kg another logic high pulse is fed to another port of microcontroller through a relay circuit as discussed in truth table. As this port pin goes high, microcontroller will send a message as “Gas remaining only 0.5 Kg. Immediately Refill your Cylinder” through a GSM module to cell numbers required members and the message “Cylinder Empty, Please Refill” is displayed on the LCD display.
  • 16.
  • 17. Experimental Setup  Experimental Setup ATMega 16 is the base of the system.The inputs given to the ATMega 16 are the output of gas sensor MQ-6 and load cell L6D .The output of ATMega 16 are given to the SIMCOM 300 and LCD 16×2 display.The gas output of MQ6 is given to the INT0 pin of ATMega 16 as far as the highest priority is given to the leakage detection.The output of
  • 18.
  • 19. The LPG detector circuit
  • 20. The Exhaust fan used in the project is a 12v DC permanent magnet type.
  • 21. Parts No Parts Material  1. Gas sensing layer  2. Electrode Au  3. Electrode line Pt  4. Heater coil NI-cr Alloy  5.Tubular Ceramic Al2O3  6. Anti explosion network Stainless steel gauze  7. Clamp ring Copper plating  8. Resin base Bakelite  9.Tube pin Copper plating
  • 22. DC Motor  The basic principle of DC motor is the creation of rotating magnet inside the mobile part of the motor, rotar. Motor indicates fixed magnet and rotar indicates rotating magnet. The power for the stator electromagnet is supplied by separate DC source. The relative angle between these magnets is maintained near 90 degrees. When gas leak occurs this monitoring system senses the leak by means of sensor and the value is given to the microcontroller. When gas leak occurs this monitoring system senses the leak by means of sensor and the value is given to the microcontroller. Figure 8: DC motor with electromagnet as stator The value of lower and higher level of leakage is given in terms of binary format. Then the instruction is given to the motor to close the knob. Then after this controlling measure the leakage message is sent to the user and fire station. At the same time electric current is shutdown by the relay IV. Operation of Monitoring and Detection System
  • 23. Detection system:  In the detection system the MQ6 gas sensor is used which is sensible to LPG, isobutene and propane gases.This sensor sends a signal (digital pulse) to the microcontroller when gas is being leaked.An alert message is sent through the GSM[8][9] to the user and a buzzer alarm is activated in the room.This alarm produces huge sound which drops down the attention of user and neighbors in current leak/fire accidents.These alert messages will be displayed on LCD Simultaneously, LPG regulator fitted to the cylinder is automatically turned off using a relayed DC motor to avoid more leakage from cylinder.
  • 24. Refilling of cylinder:  The LPG cylinder refilling unit comprises mainly the weight sensor, which is coupled with to the ATmega328p microcontroller. When the weight of the cylinder reaches the below the predetermined value the GSM modem interfaced to the microcontroller sends booking request to the distributor.
  • 25. Conclusion  power of sensitivity Ps=Vc2×Rs/(Rs+RL)2 Resistance of sensor (Rs): Rs=(Vc/VRL-1)×RL 3.3Weight sensor:There must be aware in advance of amount of gas in the cylinder, before rebooking the cylinder to the distributor. For this purpose the weight sensor is used, thus it monitors the level of gas present in the cylinder .for calibration purpose the weight sensor is used along with load cell.