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Brain drain. shailesh.


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Brain drain. shailesh.

  2. 2. CONTENTS: Introduction. Definition. Reasons. Brain drain from the world. How brain drain affects the society and health sector. Brain gain. Conclusion. References. 2
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION:- Indian education system is counted amongst the best in the world. The land of Aryabhatta has given many intelligent minds to the world. The Indian system of education follows a smooth hierarchy from basics to perfection. The school drop outs in India are very less as compared to other parts of the world 3
  4. 4. • Nalanda university was established in Takshashila in700BC.• More than 10,500 students from all over the worldhad studied more than 60 subjects. 4
  5. 5. Interesting Facts about India and Indians! : 38% of Doctors in America are Indians. 12% of Scientists in America are Indians. 36% of NASA employees are Indians. 34% of MICROSOFT employees are Indians 28% of IBM employees are Indians. These facts were recently published in a German Magazine which deals with WORLD HISTORY… 5
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  7. 7.  In search of better working environment and pay package on account of unemployment. This concept of taking education in a country but earning for another is known as brain drain. Foreign countries get cheap and hardworking labour in this manner. 7
  8. 8. UNESCO has defined brain drain as,"An abnormal form of scientific exchange betweencountries, characterised by a one- way flow in favour of the most highly developed countries” 8
  9. 9.  It can be simply defined as the mass emigration of individuals with technical skills and knowledge from one country to another country. The term was coined by the Royal society of London. More than 25 per cent of the medical staff in US and the UK consists of doctors, who attended medical school elsewhere. 9
  10. 10.  Brain drain is usually regarded as an economic cost. Almost 47 per cent of the student population of Ghana, and 89 per cent of the student population of Guyana go abroad. Well, this just can’t be called brain drain, this is brain haemorrhage. 10
  11. 11. Reasons for Brain Drain: Political instability of a nation Lack of opportunities Health risks Personal conflicts Dictatorship Terrorism Population explosion Corrupt population system 11
  12. 12.  Usually all developing countries including India are suffering from brain drain and developed countries like USA are having brain gain from this phenomenon. This migration may broadens the gap between the rich and poor countries. 12
  13. 13.  Brain drain from Europe In Europe brain drain was occurring in two stages. First was the migration of workers from the south-eastern Europe and Eastern Europe to the Western Europe. And other stage of brain-drain was the migration from Western Europe to the USA. 13
  14. 14.  Anti-Semitic feelings and laws in Europe through the 1930s and 1940s, culminating in the holocaust,[mass murder of jews by Nazis in 1939-45] caused the emigration of many scientists to the United States. 14
  15. 15.  Albert Einstein ( 1933). Enrico Fermi (1938). Niels Bohr (1943). 15
  16. 16.  To stop the brain-drain Europe community also launched a provision called “Blue-card”. But at the same time EU is worried about the effects of foreign population on culture and environment of Europe, so these days EU is implying some strict rules . 16
  17. 17.  Under Blue card scheme Foreign workers wishing to receive a blue card will likely have to have a valid job-offer. In addition, they will be required to have earned a degree from a bona fide educational institution that took at least three years to achieve or to have at least five years of experience in the relevant work sector. 17
  18. 18. Such skilled workers would be given a renewable two orthree-year work and residence permit for the particularmember country.On expiry of this initial term, the applicant would be able toapply for an extension or to live in another EU member statewhere a new job offer had been made. 18
  19. 19.  In return, blue card holders will have access to social programs such as pensions and health care. Blue Card holders would be entitled to bring their immediate family members with them, with spouses having the ability to work as well. After a combined total of five resident years, Blue Card holder and his family could apply for permanent residence. 19
  20. 20. Africa :This continent has suffered maximum because of brain-drain.According to a survey Ethiopia lost its 75 % of skilled workersin the years 1980-1991.In the similar manner Kenya and Nigeria are great sufferers ofbrain-drain. 20
  21. 21. Middle EastCountries of Middle East like Iraq, Iran etc are also greatsufferers of the phenomena of brain-drain.Dictatorship, terrorism, are basic reasons.Since the US invasion of Iraq in 2003, fully 40% of Iraqiprofessionals have permanently left their home country. 21
  22. 22.  Asia:- China, Pakistan, Russia and India are also facing problems of brain-drain. Reasons for migration are : Unemployment Population explosion Corrupt political systems Not getting enough opportunities 22
  23. 23.  Canada: In Canada today, the brain drain to the United States is occasionally a domestic political issue. Justification for income tax cuts. especially in the financial, software, aerospace, health care and entertainment industries. 23
  24. 24.  Due to higher wages and lower income taxes in the U.S, Greater diversity of jobs and a perceived lack of research funding in Canada. Simultaneously many qualified immigrants were coming to Canada from a number of different nations. This is sometimes referred to as a brain transplant. 24
  25. 25.  Australia: The Minister for Immigration and Citizenship release shows Australia experienced its biggest annual exodus on record with 76 923 people leaving the country permanently in 2008. 25
  26. 26.  United states: Though the U.S. has often been called the "land of opportunity," the country is losing some of its top minds to companies overseas. In a phenomenon known as reverse brain drain, highly skilled immigrants and foreign students in the U.S. are returning to their home countries. 26
  27. 27.  How Brain Drain Harms the People Left Behind:- Brain drain tends to pull the best and the brightest from their home countries. Health Care Many developing countries are sending health care workers abroad at the same time that they are suffering serious shortages of health care professionals: 27
  28. 28.  Serious doctor and nurse shortages in Zimbabwe have left clinics staffed by inexperienced nurse-aids. 18,000 nurses from Zimbabwe work abroad. 30 percent of Mexicans with PhDs live in the United States. Mexico reports that 79 percent of the science students it funds to study abroad never return to work in Mexico. 28
  29. 29.  India produces an estimated 178,000 qualified software engineers every year. If they practiced their trade at home, India’s programmer shortage—estimated at 145,000 and growing—would be wiped out in a few months. Four of out every ten Indian software developers are now working in the U.S. 29
  30. 30.  Several of India’s small software companies have been forced to shut down—not for lack of business but because they couldn’t find enough employees. In 1998, the renowned Indian Institute of Technology sent 30 percent of all of its graduates to the United States, including 80 percent of its computer science graduates. 30
  31. 31.  The only benefit of brain drain is that all those individual brains will get the opportunity to nurture in another atmosphere where they get more support as well as have more freedom to boom. From a universal point of view, it will help talents develop and not be shattered. 31
  32. 32.  Furthermore, the knowledge that those young brilliant people gain overseas will be very helpful if they choose in a later phase to go back as well as settle down or engage in their country. Going to foreign countries to earn can be beneficial for your native land only in case you are sending back money in foreign currency and adding to the countries funds and also going with an intention of returning. 32
  33. 33.  Brain Gain: Brain-gain is just an opposite situation to brain-drain. Countries in which skilled workers are migrating are said to brain-gaining countries. Examples include- USA, Canada and UK. These countries are having brain-gain because these nations are :- Rich. Have enough work opportunities. Provide better life styles and facilities. 33
  34. 34. Conclusion: For the balance of power and staggered development of the world, it is very important to stop the phenomena of brain- drain. This will help a particular country to use all local skilled citizens for development. But to hold these skilled workers at their native places, it is also important to provide them enough work opportunities and living facilities. 34
  35. 35.  For this purpose, developed nations should help developing countries with necessary money and resources. So that each and every human of this planet can have good standard of living and each and every nation can introduce itself as a developed nation. Indians, specially the youth has to understand that today India is no less than any other country in the world...India has made drastic advancement in all spheres be it . 35
  36. 36.  Science and Technology (astronauts like Kalpana Chawla). Education,( IIT`s, IIM`s, BIT`s, NMIMS etc) Entertainment (Bollywood is world famous), Employment ( why not there are so many MNCs and BPOs which employ thousands of youth) And yes not to forget the recent organising of the IPL(the Indian Premiere League...first ever in the world). 36
  37. 37.  Then why do we need to go out of this wonderful nation and work under and employer of another nation when our own country provides us such wonderful job opportunities We dont have to go and eat at our neighbours house when our own mom cooks such delicious food. 37
  38. 38.  We just need to search a little more and do a little more hard work and then one day all Indians would be employed according to their capabilities, and INDIA WILL BE THE GOLDEN BIRD OF OUR DREAMS ONCE AGAIN….. 38
  39. 39.  india/146741.shtmlcited on 22/11/09 cited on 22/11/09. cited on 25/11/09. cited on 25/11/09. 39
  40. 40.  drain cited on 30/11/09. favorable-or-unfavorable/258 cited on 30/11/09. 40
  41. 41. ANY QUESTIONS??? 41
  42. 42. THANK YOU… 42